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					Base line survey on the Civil Society Actors in raising the
              voices of Climate Equity in India




              Phase 1- Base Line Survey Report

                            Project

  Making Marginalised Voices Heard in UN Climate Process:
      Pilot Project for Civil Society Participation Fund




                           Report By

                Citizens’ Global Platform, India




                                                              1
                  CONTENTS



Foreword

Acknowledgements

Chapter1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Methodology

Chapter 3: Discussions of CGP Chapters in India

Chapter 4: Conclusion of the Base Line Survey

References

Annexure

List of Civil Actors
District maps of the CGP chapters




                                                  2
                            Foreword

The Earth that sustains our lives along with other species and vegetations
is under grave threat due to rising temperature and changes in climatic
conditions. The threat is universal, real, severe and unprecedented in
human history. It has the potential to uproot entire populations and affect
the socio-political, cultural and economic fabric of our very civilization.

In its Fourth Assessment Report, the International Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) unequivocally mentions that the threat is of human
making. It has fixed the problem on the increase in emission of green
house gases. However when we analyze deep into the crises, we can
easily locate the crises in the economic paradigm developed over the last
five centuries, especially the current in globalization model of Neo-liberal
ideology.

The dominant economic model, with its emphasis on market forces,
growth, high-profit and excessive consumption by the few, has
completely ignored the rhythm of nature, ethical and spiritual values and
even the basic survival needs of vast majority of population; and has
created widening gaps between nations and within nations. As the
location of the present crisis is in the kind of economy that operates today,
a shift is needed in the economy from market and profit centeredness to
pro-nature, people-centric, high ethical and spiritual values.

The impacts of global warming and climate change have already been
visibly seen and experienced in many parts of the world in various ways.
Temperature data clearly indicates that the 20th century was unusually
warm and the decade of the 1990 was the hottest on record. The
temperature is continuously increasing. The melting of ice in high
mountains and Arctic regions, the disappearance of glaciers in mountains,
the rising of sea levels are threatening signals of submerging many small
islands and coastal regions. Erratic weather conditions causing difficulties
for farming communities, reduction in food production, aggravating food
security, frequent occurrence of forest fires and natural calamities as
cyclones, hurricane, floods and droughts are hitherto the gravest

                                                                           3
challenges humankind has faced. According to IPCC, unless adequate
measures are taken on war footing, we are likely to end up in a stage
where we cannot remedy the situation to normal levels.

Today attempts are being made to face the challenges posed by global
warming and climate change. Citizens Global Platform (CGP) believes
that the existing international political process created by international
organizations, developed and developing countries, are inadequate to
address the problem. CGP also believes that no political process can fully
succeed without a significant participation of civil society and it is widely
understood that a sustainable world can be created only if all the citizens
of the globe are to contribute to the decision making process both
politically and in everyday living.

In the present discourse on this problem, participation of the marginalized
majority, who are the victims of the consequences of climate change and
who are in no way responsible for creating the problem, is completely
insignificant. CGP is committed to raise the voices of the marginalized
majorities in the decision making process at different levels, international,
national and local. CGP also believes that the marginalized majority can
contribute much by their traditional skills and wisdom to solve the
problems and create a new future.

The present base line study aims at identifying the civil society
organizations which are involved in empowering the marginalised for
making them a driving force for effective participation in climate change
related issues. The next phase of the study will help us to understand how
the skill and wisdom of the marginalised majorities, who are also the
victims of the climate change process, can contribute into adaptation
strategies.

                                                           Y.David
                                                Convener, CGP India




                                                                           4
                    Acknowledgements


This base line survey is the team work of various groups of people in
different capacities. At the outset, we would like to express our heartfelt
thanks to the Citizens’ Global Platform for being committed to the cause
of civil society participation in Global Governance.

CGP India team from the states of New Delhi, Uttarakand, Chattisgarh,
Karnataka and TamilNadu are worth mentioning for building up the team
spirit to conduct the survey in a coordinated manner.

Our sincere thanks to all the members and volunteers of the research team
who made this work a very meaningful start for future course of action.

We also acknowledge the members of civil society organisations and the
marginalised sections of the population who actively participated in the
discussions during the interview sessions and contributed a lot.

Our due acknowledgements to the team members of PEAL, Madurai,
India Chapter Convener’s office, for contributing their valuable time and
resources to compile the research in its present format.




                                                                         5
                      CGP India Research Team



National Convener - Mr. Y. David

National Co-ordinator – Mr. Mukesh Bahuguna


National Steering Committee members

Mr. Vijay Pratap - New Delhi
Mr. Suresh Nautiyal - New Delhi
Mr. Vijay Singh Roy David - Karnataka
Ms. Indu Netam - Chhatisgarh
Mr. Bhuwan Pathak - Uttarkhand
Mr. Raghu Tewari - Uttarkhand
Mr Kesav Shori - Chhatisgarh



State Co-ordinators

New Delhi - Mr. Sunil Kushal & Mr. Prem Sundriyal
Chhatisgarh - Mr. Devendra Baghal
Uttarkhand - Dr. KK Upreti& Mr Shankar Lal
Karnataka - Mr. Jeiaprakash
Tamilnadu - Ms. Vasanthi


Research Compilation

Ms. Parvatha Varthini
Mr. Mukesh Bahuguna
Dr. KK Upreti




                                                    6
             Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Climate change presents significant threat to the achievement of the
Millennium Development Goals, related national poverty eradication and
sustainable development objectives. It has the potential to drastically
change the living conditions of the majority of the world’s population, and
hence have huge economic, social and political consequences triggered by
the negative impacts of climate change.

Temperature data available since 1000 A.D. suggest that the 20th century
was unusually warm and the decade of the 1990s was the hottest on
record with six of the warmest years occurring in this last decade. Recent
examples of erratic weather patterns such as increased floods, droughts,
heat waves, hurricanes, diseases and the loss of biodiversity experienced
by humans on a regular basis across the world are the standing truths of
the impact of climate change.

The rapid growth in industrialized countries, which has followed a fossil
fuel based economic developmental path over the past few decades, has
resulted in an exponential increase in GHG concentrations emitted into
the atmosphere.


The recently released Fourth Assessment Reports of the Inter
Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says that there are several
evidences to indicate that the Earth has warmed even more since 1750
because of anthropogenic activities. The IPCC report also says that over
the next century, average surface temperatures are expected to rise
between 1- 6.30 C depending on various emission scenarios with impacts
on health, agriculture, forests, water resources, coastal areas, species and
natural areas.




                                                                          7
India and Climate Change:


Climate change is one of the biggest challenges the humankind is facing
in the 21st century and India is no exception to this crisis. In India, the
Himalayan glaciers are fast disappearing, the perennial rivers are under
threat of drying up permanently, forest covers are fast depleting and the
coastal belts are vulnerable to flood. In the Indian context, climate change
may alter the distribution and quality of India’s natural resources and
adversely affect the livelihood of its people. Indian economy is closely
tied to its natural resources and climate sensitive sectors such as
agriculture, water and forestry.


Marginalised Majorities and Indigenous Communities:

The impacts of climate change on the majority of marginalised
communities are significant. The cultures that live traditionally in
harmony with nature all over the world are often living in marginal
ecosystems, such as the Artic, mountains, deserts, costal areas and small
islands. These ecosystems are often the sources of key ecosystem services
(e.g., role of mountain ranges, plains and coastal areas in sustaining water
balance and maintaining hydrological cycle) and are critical for
maintaining the overall resilience and adaptive capacity of the socio-
ecological systems. The people living in these areas will experience the
greatest changes, often for worse, because they mostly depend on natural
resources for their livelihoods. Hence they are the most vulnerable to the
negative effects of climate change.

International and National Policy Processes:

The principle of equity is embedded in the United Nation’s Framework
Convention on Climate Change (Article 3.1): The Parties should protect
the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of
humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. It
is a paradox that climate change points out many of the inequalities that
exist in the global level and also at the national level. The historical
responsibility of greenhouse gas emissions belongs to the industrial
countries and to some extent to the elite in some developing countries.
However, the negative effects of climate change hit hardest on the poorest

                                                                          8
of the poor, who are often highly dependent on weather conditions for
their survival (food security, lack of clean water and sanitation, living
conditions in vulnerable areas etc.) These very same people are the ones
who are most often excluded from national, not to mention international
decision-making.

Indigenous peoples - adivasis, traditional small and marginal farmers -
who historically and traditionally have always correctly responded to
climate pressures -and who know best how to do so - are now the most
marginalized and unheard voice in the climate debate. These peoples
continue to be marginalized from the decision making process culturally,
politically, socially and economically.

 In December 2007, Bali Action Plan was accepted in COP13. It was the
beginning of the two-year process that aims at creating a long-term global
climate regime. In Poznán in COP14, the discussions were taken further
and with the new president in the USA, the changes of getting a global
regime for post-Kyoto period (2012) are brighter than before. However, a
lot of work is needed to push for an equitable and effective regime to
curve the global warming. The COP-15 climate meeting in Copenhagen is
of utmost importance to the future allocations of burden share
(greenhouse gas emission reductions and financial shares for adaptation).

Civil Society Participation:

As far as climate change debate is concerned, the marginalised majorities
are merely mentioned only as helpless victims of changes beyond their
control. In particular, their traditional wisdom, knowledge, customs and
life systems have not been recognized as critical to the development of
measures for adapting to climate change. Their role and participation has
been confined to discussions about how to link their territories to carbon
markets.

While knowledge about the impact of climate change on plants, animal
species and ecosystems has grown substantially, knowledge and
understanding of the finer scale/community-scale level about climate
change's consequences and adaptation/resilience capacity for
interdependent social-ecological systems, including local food systems,
livelihoods and cultures are extremely limited.



                                                                        9
Despite broad recognition that small islands, Arctic, plains, high altitude
and other vulnerable communities are on the frontlines of climate change,
voices of the communities living in those areas have remained on the
margins of global climate change debates. It is these voices, however, that
are most in need to be heard. They provide first hand evidence, experience
and expertise on climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation
strategies. Therefore, climate equity can be a fruitful concept in bringing
together the problems, taking into account, the marginal voices, and
discussing the basis for allocating burden shares. The role of civil society
in collecting the first hand information and experiences from the
marginalised and indigenous communities and making them actively
participate in the national and international debates is more important than
ever before. The participation of civil society in creating sustainable
climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies is indispensable. All
efforts should be made to make the participation of civil society members
at all levels from local to international more meaningful and fruitful.

CGP India and the issue of Climate Change:

The developing countries, like India, have not had climate change issues
on the top of their priority lists so far. Urgent action is needed to adopt
climate strategies that reduce the vulnerability of their populations and
improve adaptive capacity of societies. Climate change mitigation must
not be viewed in isolation from other highly important challenges such as
equitable access to energy, clean water, alleviating poverty and achieving
economic growth in emerging markets.

CGP India feels that the existing international political processes created
to address the climate change issue and to create a new global future are
often highly bureaucratic and far from the hands of common masses.
Marginalised groups do not get their voices heard and especially women
are set aside of the processes that deeply influence their lives.

CGP India believes that no political process can fully succeed without a
significant participation of civil society and it is widely understood that
sustainable world can be created only if all the citizens of the globe are
able to contribute to the decision making process both politically and
through their everyday life. The civil society has a strong role in United
Nation’s decision making in theory. Control and monitoring of the
processes is expected to be done by civil society and civil society

                                                                         10
organisations. There is a need for capacity building in developing
countries about participation in UN processes.


In the present research, as phase 1 of the wider research project, a base
line survey was conducted to collect the information about different
participation methods and roles of different stakeholders in the issue of
climate change and their participation in national preparatory process for
the UN Climate Change conference in Copenhagen in December 2009.




                                                                       11
            Chapter 2: METHODOLOGY

2.1 Title of the Research:

Base line survey on the Civil Society Actors in raising the voices of
Climate Equity in India

2.2 Concept clarifications:

2.2.1 Civil Society:

Civil society refers to the arena of unforced collective action, around
shared interests, purposes and values. By definition,Civil society
commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms,
varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies
are often populated by organizations such as registered charities,
development non-governmental organizations, community groups,
women's organizations, faith-based organizations, professional
associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business
associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.

In this base line survey, CGP India focuses on the individuals working
with the community, development organisations/ non governmental
organisations, Institutions and mass organisations like social movements
and trade unions of unorganised workers as members of civil society or
civil society actors.

2.2.2 Marginalised Majorities:

Marginalisation is the social process of becoming or being made marginal
and confined to a lower social standing. In marginalisation, along with
material deprivation of food and shelter, the marginalised communities
are also excluded from services, programs, policies and in sharing of
power.

In this base line survey, marginalised majorities are women, youth,
farmers, indigenous people, landless agricultural workers, industrial
workers, unorganised labour, subsistence and informal livelihood
populations.


                                                                      12
2.2.3 Climate Equity:

Climate Change is linked to emissions, in turn to economic growth.
Limiting emission is then about limiting growth. Thus, sharing growth
between nations has been the main bugbear. The UN Framework
convention on Climate Change expressed the principle of equity by
enjoining countries to take action based on common but differentiated
responsibilities and respective capabilities.

2.3 Contextual Importance of the study

The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) of India focuses
on India’s development agenda as the central focal point and puts the
issue of climate change in the periphery. The NAPCC quotes the words of
Mrs. Gandhi, “Poverty as worst polluter”. The NAPCC clearly says that
poverty eradication and improved standard of living are essential
preconditions to reduce the climate related vulnerability. The NAPCC
also feels that there is a large scale uncertainty concerning spatial and
temporal magnitude of climate change impacts and it is not desirable to
design strategies exclusively for responding to climate change.

In this context, one of the most urgent actions needed in India is to adopt
climate strategies that reduce the vulnerability of the populations and
improve adaptive capacities of the societies. Climate change mitigation
must not be viewed in isolation from other highly important challenges
such as, equitable access to energy, clean water, alleviating poverty and
achieving economic growth in emerging markets.

Climate change is a global problem, but it needs local solutions for long
term sustainable benefits for our quality of life. Without the active
participation of civil society members this cannot be achieved. Building
the capacities of the marginalised people to register their voices in
national and international planning processes and policy making can be
done only through the active, committed involvement of the civil actors
such as NGOs, Networks, Movements, Trade Unions and Institutions.

The present study focuses on the collection of base line data on the civil
actors who are working with the marginalised majorities in various parts
of India.



                                                                        13
CGP India tries to collect the best practices of the civil actors to enhance
participation of marginalised voices into the UN decision making
processes. This aims to collect information and test new sustainable forms
of participation in United Nations Climate Change processes. This will
then finally feed concrete ideas to promote the establishment of the
Global Civil Society Collective Efforts to tackle challenges of climate
change.


This survey and followed interaction with the civil actors through
educational workshops on climate change will help us to build the
capacity of the marginalised people as well as the civil actors to
strengthen their voices in the planning processes at all levels to combat
climate change.

2.4 Objectives:

i.    The main objective of this base line survey is to list down the key
      actors, documents and events that help to coordinate the work of
      civil society actors in raising the issue of climate equity.

ii.   To coordinate the civil actors to lobby effectively before COP15
      and bring out illustrative examples of the plight of the marginalised
      people with the materials collected from various actors.

2.5Area of the study:

CGP India has five chapters in five states namely New Delhi (National
Capital Region), Uttarakhand, Chattisgarh, Karnataka and TamilNadu. In
all these chapters, this base line survey was conducted as the first phase of
the study. The civil actors met and interviewed are given in annexure with
the map showing the area covered in this study.

2.6 Sample of the Study:

The sample of the study is the civil society actors working with climate
change issue and marginalised people. They are individuals, NGOs,
Networks, movements, mass organisations and trade unions.




                                                                          14
2.7 Process of the study:

The chapters in CGP India selected key researchers in all five regions to
collect the list of civil actors through snow ball sampling method. This
process started in the month of April and the key researchers with the
help of list of other volunteers collected the basic information about the
samples and the related materials.

In July 2009, all the researchers came together to share their experiences
and to plan for the next phase of the study. Details collected were
compiled as one report in the team to give an overall picture of CGP
India.

2.8 Limitations of the study:

The major limitation of this study is to get the details of the key actors
from other sources. In snow ball sampling method, the risk is that it tends
to saturate very quickly since some may not acknowledge the work of
others in the same field. Another limitation is the coordination of all the
researchers to produce the reports on time, which was really challenging.

India, being a vast country with heterogeneous culture, has different
adaptation strategies which vary from state to state, culture to culture and
place to place. CGP India is active in five states alone and the knowledge
of indigenous people in other parts of the country in combating climate
change and its consequences, are yet to be studied and documented. This
is yet another limitation of the study.




                                                                             15
Chapter 3: Discussions of CGP Chapters in India

3.1 Impact of Climate Change in Delhi region and the role of Civil
Society actors:

The National Capital Region (NCR), i.e. Delhi and the surrounding areas
in the neighbouring states, is under the threat of the climate change due to
global warming. Delhi is one of the most populated regions in the world.
The ecology of the NCR has been threatened due to decrease in the
number of water bodies, decrease in the moisture regime due to overuse
of the groundwater and decrease in the water level of the Yamuna river
that flows through the NCR.

The NCR roughly inhabits more than four crore (40 millions) people. And
most of these people, who come to this region from the various parts of
the country, face all kinds of difficulties created by the climate change
situations. They hardly get adequate water and electricity because there is
no adequate rain. The glaciers up in the hills of the Himalaya are already
threatened. Due to decrease in precipitation, the hydro-dams are not able
to generate adequate electricity and the rivers are unable to deliver.

The climate change has really posed a big question before the formidable
40 million people. Further question is: what will happen to this solid
chunk of population in next two to three decades when there is even
further decrease in the availability of water, electricity and other essential
commodities and of course, shelter?

The climate change is going to have a direct impact on health and food
security as well. According to the report of the health ministers of the
Southeastern region member-states of the WHO, the potential adverse
impacts on health could be sudden, unpredictable and irreversible and
thus overwhelm the response capacity of the health sector and jeopardize
progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in general, and
the health-related Millennium Development Goals in particular. This is
going to have serious negative impact on the most vulnerable populations
in the NCR, particularly on the poor, the homeless, the very young, the
elderly, the medically frail, people with physical impairments and



                                                                           16
disabilities. The worst sufferers will be those living in water-stressed
areas including the urban slums.

The answer is to start thinking right away about the problem and
collectively try to find solutions that are acceptable to most of the people
and not harmful to the ecology and environment of the NCR.

Realising this need, the NCR-Delhi Chapter of the CGP India has started
work on this issue at a modest level. The idea is to form an alliance of the
NGOs and VSOs first and then create awareness campaigns. The ultimate
aim is to evolve the movement from the campaigns for the restoration of
the water bodies in the NCR. Encouraging people to make best use of the
rainwater through rain water harvesting techniques is another agenda of
the campaign. Similar other campaigns may be taken up collectively and
built into movements. The process of base line survey had widened the
scope of grass root initiatives to adapt to climate change impacts.

3.1.1 Case Studies from Delhi NCR:

3.1.2 Pasonda village is situated near Mohan Nagar, which is located
between Yamuna and Hindon rivers. The village and its neighbouring
villages have mostly dalit and muslim population. Around one and a half
decade ago, local people used to grow various kind of seasonal vegetables
and fruits. The dairy business was also popular among the villagers as
both rivers were good source of water for irrigation and for cattle rearing.
The vegetables, fruits and dairy products were sold in local markets and
Delhi suburban areas. This provided decent livelihood for villagers.

Mr.Nasir Mohammed Kadri, 45 years, a resident of Pasonda village since
generation says that now the situation has changed drastically as both the
rivers are almost dry and highly polluted too. The land is no more fertile
and the local population is now forced to abandon their traditional
occupations. They are now migrating to suburban regions in search of
petty jobs.

3.1.3 Harchand Pur village lies in NCR region and situated near Hindon
river. There was a vast marshy land around the river till few years ago.
There were lots of bushes like small bamboo,cane etc. Mr.Prabodh Raj
Chandol, a local resident and environment activist says that earlier many
people used to make household goods and light weight furnitures,

                                                                         17
baskets, chairs, tables and decorative items from these wood products.
This was the major livelihood resource for the villagers for many years.
Now, the bushes are almost vanished as the marshy lands are dried up
because of very poor rain and less water flow in Hindon river. The non
availability of raw materials, their livelihood resource has now forced
them to leave their work and traditional handicraft.

[The task of base line survey has been taken over by the NCR-Delhi team
headed by its Convener Narendra Bastar. The work is being coordinated
by the chapter’s two Coordinators cum researchers, Mr. Sunil Kuksal and
Mr. Prem Sundriyal. Besides, the NCR-Delhi Steering Committee
members Dr. Dinesh Ram, Mr. Prabodh Raj Chandol and Mr. Bhupen
Singh also helped in the research and grass root work. Mr. Suresh
Nautiyal ,Member National SC ,also provided guidance and support in
the process.]


3.2 Impact of Climate Change in Uttarakhand region and the role of
Civil Society actors:

The state of Uttarakhand is a region of outstanding natural beauty, with
tremendous potential for sustainable growth and development. The
northern region of the state is part of the Great Himalayan Range, covered
in snow and glaciers. Other parts of Uttarakhand are covered with dense
forests that make up the bulk of its natural resources base. Owing to its
largely mountainous regions, the state is endowed with a unique
ecosystem that is home to a large number of flora and fauna. Two of the
Indian subcontinent’s most important rivers – the Ganga and the Yamuna
– also originate from the glaciers of Uttarakhand. Impacts of the global
warming can be seen `with retreating of glaciers. One of the most
important and visible indicators of climate change is the recession of
glaciers in many parts of the World. Glaciations occurred around 20,000
years ago as part of the earth’s paleoclimatic history. Although the
recession of glaciers is also a natural phenomena as suggested by some
scientists, in the last few decades of 20th century, an alarming rate of
retreat has been observed in most glaciers around the world including the
Himalayas.
The Himalayan Mountain has the largest share of glaciers outside the
polar caps. With glacier coverage of 33,000 sq km, the region is


                                                                       18
appropriately called the “Water Tower of Asia” as it provides around
86,000,000 cubic metres of water per year. These Himalayan glaciers feed
seven of Asia’s largest rivers, namely- the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra,
Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Huang Ho and have ensured a year round
water supply to the millions of people of South Asian civilizations since
hundreds of years.
The changes in climate variability have led to a rapid retreat of mountain
glacier systems which are considered the lifeline of river basins and
ecosystems. Scientific studies have shown that 67 % of glaciers are
retreating at a startling rate in the Himalayas as a result of various factors
and climate change is biggest factor in this. Though there are no true
estimates on the total number of glaciers in the Himalayas, findings by
various institutions including the Geological Survey of India suggest that
there are well over 5,000-6,500 glaciers in the Himalayan Region in the
state of Uttarakhand, the four sub-basins of Ganga, Yamuna, Bhagirathi
and Alaknanda together constitute nearly 900 glaciers. The Uttarakhand
region of the Himalayas in India is a hill state with a rich and diverse
natural resource base ranging from immaculate deciduous and temperate
forests to alpine ecosystems apart from several Himalayan rivers, a
majority of which are glacial fed. The Bhagirathi basin in the State of
Uttarakhand has around 238 glaciers which cover a glaciated area of 755
sq km. ice volume of 67 cubic km. Some of the important glaciers in the
region include the Gangotri, Yamunotri, Dokriani, Pindari and Milam
glaciers which form important components of the watershed.

Past work by glaciologists and climatologists have found that the
accelerated rate of glacial melt in the some of the important glaciers in
Uttarakhand have serious consequences for the freshwater ecosystems of
the Ganga basin. The long term impacts will be on biodiversity, people
and livelihoods as well as regional food security. This will not only mean
repercussions on the region’s agricultural productivity and industrial
activity, but also on the Terrain ecosystems and species like the Ganga
river dolphin.

The State of Uttarakhand is also having vast forest area. The recorded
forest area of the state is 34.662 Sq kms which constitutes 65% of its
geographical area. By legal status, Reserve Forest constitutes 71 %,
Protected Forest 29 % and unclassed forests 0.41 % of the totals forest



                                                                           19
      area. As per satellite data (from Nov 2002 to Dec 2004) there has been an
      alarming decrease of around 18 % of forest cover.


      The drying of rivers and deforestation has compounded the problems of
      hill people who traditionally used to depend of Natural Resources for their
      sustainable livelihoods. The change in climate pattern has resulted in the
      near destruction of the traditional agricultural and animal husbandry
      practice. This has created a situation which is heading for serious socio-
      economic and cultural problems for the people.


3.2.1 Case studies from Uttarakhand
 3.2.2 Dumak is an mountain village situated in remote and tough terrain of
Chamoli district of Uttarakahnd. One has to walk around 15 kms to reach here.
Surrounded by the lush green monoculture forest and springs once, the villagers
used to live quite happily and prosperously. The main source of livlihood is
traditional farming, bee keeping, sheep and goat rearing. But since last few years
the things have changed drastically. With the decrease in forest cover, there is
non availability of grass in the grazing land. Since last three years, due to
climatic change, flowering has advanced, which has adversely effected bee
keeping. People are forced to abandon their traditional practices of livlihood and
have no option but to migrate to plain area for search of petty works, says Mr
Prem Singh Sanwal, age 58, a local villager. And because of advance in
flowering the total yield of crops and fruits have come down drastically ,as the
average rain and snow fall has come down since last few years, adds Mr Singh.
3.2.3 Chaukhutia valley is situated in Almora disctrict of Uttarkhand.
Ramganga river supported by other two small rivers is the prime source of
water for agriculture and livestock in the region. Fishing in these rivers used to
provide a good source of income for locals as well as part of nutrious food
supply for them. The mountains were once covered by Oak forest. The Oak is a
multipurpose tree, which provides fodder for livestock, wood for furniture ,
agriculture tools and fire. The Oak forest has a quality of holding high degree of
moisture in ground, thus providing good source of drinking water.


Since last few years, there is a drastic downfall in rain and the oak trees are
slowly degenerating. This change has increased the burden of women, who
spend long hours now in search of fodder for livestock and fuelwood.



                                                                               20
 Mr Raghu Tewari, a local resident and social worker says his village Gunghli
used to have 5 sources of spring water throughout the year in past, but now only
one of them is alive with little water. Other four have become seasonal (during
the rainy season alone). This has affected the tradtional agricultural practices
and increased the burden on women, says Mr Tewari.


3.2.4 Kosi is a non glacial river, orignating near Kausani in Bageswar District.
The river used to carry a good amount of water throughout the year and was a
life line for more than 500 village in its route. But since last 10 years, the
amount of water has decreased alarming low, particularly in summer season.
Dr JS Rawat, Professor of geography in the local universty has conducted a
comprehensive study on decreasing level of water in Kosi and other rivers.
Presenting a gloomy future, Dr Rawat says that with this rate of decrease, by
2020 the Kosi will become completely dry in summer season , Other rivers in
the area will also cease to flow by 2030 , adds Dr Rawat.


3.2.5 The change in climate has become a cause for many disasters in
Uttarakhand. Incidents of Cloud burst, Sudden flooding, land slides are
unprecedented since last few years. This year, the whole state faced a near
draught situation as the average rain in the month of July and August was much
less than normal. And in the first week of Sep 2009, the state witnessed a heavy
and sudden down pour, which resulted in loss of property and lives at large
scale. More than 100 people have been killed in the state during this short
period, as per government records and media reports. In Pithoragarh disctrict, 4
villages were completely washed away due to cloud burst and land slide. More
than 45 people lost their lives.


This all has created not only a ecological crisis but also a social- cultural
problem also. As people of the mountain areas used live as a closely knitted
society, but now they are forced to migrate to other areas. The families are
facing problem in arranging marriage also. The rich heritage of local traditions,
songs, folk dances, fares are on the verge of extinction. The ever smiling face of
Paharis (Mountain people) is now full of line of sorow, pain and worry.


      [The task of carrying out first phase of research work in Uttarakhand was
      entrusted primarily to a team lead by Dr KK Upreti, Coordinator


                                                                               21
CGP,Uttarakhand (Garhwal Region). Mr.Shankar lal ,Coordinator CGP,
Uttarakhand (Kumaon Region) , Mr Sandeep and Ms Deepti Verma
assisted him in the work and provided useful help in all respect. Mr
Raghu Tewari ,Convener, CGP, Uttarakhand and Mr Mukesh Bahuguna
, National Coordinator, CGP, India also gave their support in the work.
This team contacted/visited various NGOs/organisations/movement
groups/individuals for the purpose. The CGP, Uttarakhand is also
thankful to Dr Neeta Gera ( Forest Research Institute of India,Dehradun,
Dr Gajendra Rawat ( Wild Life Institute of India, Dehradun, Dr GS
Rajwar, Reader Botany Department Govt PG Collage,Rishikesh, Dr JP
Mehata, Botany Department, HNB University, Garhwal for giving useful
information.]


3.3 Impact of Climate Change in Chhattisgarh region and the role of
Civil Society actors:

Chhattisgarh is a state in central India, with Raipur as the state capital.
The state gained statehood on November 1, 2000 after it got divided from
Madhya Pradesh. It is the 10th largest state of India by area. Chhattisgarh
takes its name from 36 (Chattis is thirty-six in Hindi and Garh is Fort)
princely states in this region. Chhattisgarh is bordered by Bihar,
Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh in the north, Andhra Pradesh in the south,
Orissa in the east and Madhya Pradesh in the west. Chattisgarh has a
population density of 154 people per square kilometer, the highest
concentration being in the areas of Raipur and Durg.

The climate of Chhattisgarh is mainly tropical. It is hot and humid
because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer. It is dependent
completely on the monsoons for rains.

Natural resources:

Rivers
The Mahanadi is the main river of the state. Other rivers are Hasdo (a
tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk and Arpa.

Forests
12% of India's forests are in Chhattisgarh, and 44% of the State's land is
under forests. Identified as one of the richest bio-diversity habitats, the

                                                                        22
Green State of Chhattisgarh has the densest forests in India, and rich
wildlife. Over 200 non-timber forest products, with tremendous potential
for value addition are produced in the state.

Minerals
Chhattisgarh accounts for more than 13 per cent of India's total mineral
production, worth around Rs.4, 000 crore a year. Twenty-three per cent of
the country's iron- ore deposits, 14 per cent of the dolomite deposits, and
6.6 per cent of the limestone deposits are found here.
Chhattisgarh has 18 percent of coal reserves of the country, and the state
is ranked third after Jharkhand and Orissa.

Agriculture

Chhattisgarh is known as the "rice bowl" of central India. Chhattisgarh
used to produce over seventy percent of the total paddy production in the
state. Apart from paddy, cereals like maize, kodo-kutki and other small
millets, pulses like tur and kulthi and oilseeds like groundnut, soyabean,
niger and sunflower are also grown. Chhattisgarh produced nearly half of
all food grains, and one third of all major crops were grown in the
undivided Madhya Pradesh during the kharif season. The main rabi crops
of Chhattisgarh are jowar, gram, urad, mong and moth. Chhattisgarh
produces 45 percent of the jower and over eighty percent of the gram
which was produced in undivided Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh
produces very little wheat. A quarter of all produce of pulses in Madhya
Pradesh during the rabi season comes from Chhattisgarh.

Because of fast growth in mining and other industrial activities, the
traditional agriculture practice has suffered badly both by increase in
pollution and climatic changes. A survey report (2002-2003) submitted by
Dr V K Ghambhir, HOD Soil Department, Indira Gandhi Agriculture
University suggests that out of 1 lakh Ha agricultural land 50% of land
(50,000.00 Ha has become unsuitable for agriculture , which has affected
life and livelihood of 1 lakh farmers in 7 districts. Local people say that
they are witnessing some considerable change in the weather conditions
since few years, like more average cold and hot during winter and
summer seasons. The harsh and unprecedented change has resulted in
decrease in agriculture products.




                                                                        23
Also, as the oxygen level in pond and river water has decreased which
have adversely affected practice of fishery jeopardizing livelihood of
fishermen. The women, adivasis and dalits are the marginalised majorities
who thrive on the local fisherpeople to buy fish from the fisherfolk and
sell them in local areas as small vendors are also affected now.

The adivasi population of the state used to live in the forest areas, but
because of deforestation, climate change and unsympathetic government
policies, they have been thrown out of their life into disarray.

[The first phase of work was undertaken by Mr Devendra Baghel,
Coordinator CGP, Chhatisgarh. He received a good help and guidance
from Mr Kesav Sauri, State Convener CGP,Chhattisgarh, Mrs Indu
Netam, SC member CGP, India, Mr Gangaram Pakra, Mr Dev Jeet
Nandi, Ms Rajin Ketwas and Ms Mamta Kour]

3.4 Impact of Climate Change in Karnataka region and the role of
Civil Society actors:

Geographical Description:

Kodagu District, Karnataka, which is focus of this base line study is
located at the southern part of Karnataka State, is famous for its green
belt, hills, water falls, wild life and other natural beauty. Diverse cultures
and different communities like Kodavas (People of Kodagu Origin),
Adivasis, Gowdas, Muslims and Christians live in harmony in this region.

The survey was conducted in 8 Adivasi Hadis of Virajpet Taluk, Kushal
Nagar, Dubare & Ranigate regions. The following are the excerpts from
the testimonials of the respondents.

The place which was famous for different types of trees, herbs and shrubs
including the medicinal plants is now facing the serious threat of
destruction due to both climatic conditions and human interventions. In
the past, the climatic conditions such as timely sun and rain were
favourable for the indigenous people. Their agricultural activities, cattle
rearing, fishing etc have been practiced uninterrupted for many decades.
Recently, the change in climatic conditions, the use of chemical
fertilizers, the industrial effluences etc have been adversely affecting the
life and livelihood of the Kodagu inhabitants.

                                                                           24
The forest and natural resource management is highly essential for the
environmental balance and to protect the bio-sphere. However, the lack
of political will, anti-environmental policies of the government and
fraudulent environmental activities are resulting in destruction of natural
resources and also environmental imbalance.           The cultivation of
Teakwood, Acacia, Eucalyptus and Silver Oak trees dries up the surface
and ground water contents, reduces the fertility of the soil and generate
heat in and around the locality. The ground surface dries up to such an
extent that even one can not witness the grass under the shadow of these
trees. The dried leaves of these trees would take long time to decompose
and the heat so generated reduces the rain fall and the symptoms of
draught has been found in some Adivasi areas.

Economic Impacts:

Due to the forest warming, the reduction of green belt and water resources
results in serious food and water problems for the wild animals. In turn,
these wild animals start moving towards the human settlements in search
of their livelihood. As a result, the agricultural cultivations of the poor and
marginalized people are destroyed by these animals. The people who are
fully dependent on rain and have limited financial resources are hit worse
by the animal attacks. They are neither in a position to re-cultivate the
crops nor are the losses and damages compensated by the government.
Apart from this, the reduction in green belt also results in the death of rare
varieties of herbal plants, flowers, fruits etc on which the Adivasi
community was depending on since centuries. All these disastrous
developments ultimately affect the income and economic status of the
entire community and the poor are becoming destitute.

Social Impact:

The Adivasi community is depending on the forest and forest resources
since time immemorial. Usually the topography consists of dry soil and
they are depending on rain water and natural streams and ponds for
irrigation. Since the impact of climate change is direct and adverse on
these resources, the fertility of soil has been decreased. Apart from this,
during the month of October and November, the unidentified plant
diseases with the symptoms of yellow leaves, falling of flowers and leaves
and also the death of some rare varieties of herbs and shrubs have been

                                                                            25
noticed. The environmental activists are either ignoring these changes or
prefer to work on such issues where they can get fast results instead of
thinking about the long run sustainability of the natural resources and the
balanced climatic conditions. The social awareness is also very weak.
The better half is the forest dwelling Adivasi communities who are at least
able to notice these climatic changes by virtue of their experience and
traditional knowledge. However, intensive preparation and inputs are
necessary to transform this knowledge into action and sustain the natural
resources with the participation of the communities.

Political Conditions:

Since the day of liberalization, globalization and privatization, the
government’s policies towards environmental issues have been changed.
The allotment of agricultural and natural forest lands to the mega
industries without any survey, consent or the concurrence of the local
people is an alarming issue. The green belt is gradually turning out to be
the concrete blocks. The rapid urbanization, aggressive consumerism and
political ill-will are transforming the urban evils like generation of heat,
air, water and soil pollution, un-identified diseases to the rural areas
which are the centres of environmental balance. The environmental
activists, NGOs like Coorg Organisation for Rural Development (CORD),
the mass organization like Budakattu Krishikara Sangha (BKS) have
organized many campaigns, protests and agitations against the attack on
natural environment and against the anti-environmental policies of the
political decision making bodies. Even instances of filing the Public
Interest Litigation before the High Court and Supreme Court are an
evidence for the seriousness of environmental hazards.

Cultural Impacts:

The adivasi rituals, functions and traditional celebrations which have had
their own prominence and uniqueness before the globalization are
gradually shadowed by the western ills. The ignorance of the government
towards the protection of cultural practices of the indigenous communities
along with the absence of participatory environmental development
activities would have negative impact on the climatic conditions even in
the future. The decision making bodies instead of realizing these strategic
issues are blindly pointing out the forest dwelling adivasi communities for
the destruction of the forest.

                                                                         26
3.4.1 Case Study from Karnataka

The particular livelihood pattern in question

About 15-20 years back, there existed an estimated 1000 water resources
in Kakkabbe Grama Panchayath of Madikeri Taluk, Kodagu District.
But, the climate changes during the past two decades have dried up more
than 50% of these water resources and presently there are about 300-400
natural ponds and streams remaining. The people of Banavara Hadis at
Somavarpet taluk painfully say that their traditional sources of natural
food, medicinal plant, shrubs and leaves have been now disappeared due
to climate change. The Ranigate area of Piriyapattan taluk was a place
where the people used to grow multiple crops based on forest resources.
But during the last decade and a half, only one type of crop is possible as
the climatic conditions are not favourable to cultivate mixed crops. The
rain fall is becoming irregular in these regions. The climatic conditions
not only impact on the cultivation and economic conditions but they also
influence the lifestyle and even the life expectancy of the people.

The food habit of the adivasi community is gradually changing. In the
past, the community was mainly depending on the forest produces and
naturally grown food grains. However, due to the changed climatic
conditions, the traditional systems of cultivation is disappearing and even
adivasi communities are coming out of the forest and purchasing the
urban food produces in the open market. The Jenu Kuruba communities
were the traditional natural honey collectors. This was their main source
of income as well as food. With the irregular rain fall, raise in
temperature and the European Faul Buid disease etc have killed the entire
honey been families and the species is in declining condition.

In Hosalli: Yelakanoor village of Somvarpet Taluk, massive Stone
Quarries and Mining activities can be found covering an extent of about
150 acres (60 Hectares) of land. As a result of this, about 300 Adivasi
families and 700 other families belonging to various communities are
directly affected. The use of heavy explosives in mining and stone
quarries terrorize the wild life. The animals like elephants, pigs, dears,
birds like peacock are constrained to be in the forest territories and enter
the villages. The human constructions and cultivations are destroyed by
the wild animals. Unfortunately, the reactive human intervention kills the

                                                                         27
animals. The stone quarries produce tons together dust particles that are
directly submerged with the open air traverses several miles. This kills
the rare species of butterflies, insects and birds which are only found in
Western Ghats and environmentally sensitive area like Kodagu. The dust
gathering on the surface of the earth creates thick layers which destroys
the grass and naturally grown hurbs and shrubs. The agricultural lands
become infertile. The intensity of the explosion results in uneven
underground cracks that diversify the course of ground water channels.
The dust particles directly inhaled by the human beings affects the lungs
and which could cause the diseases like asthma, allergy, damaging the
retina and even destroys the entire respiratory system. Beyond all these,
the industrialists or the governments are not taking any precautionary or
preventive measures. Neither the human folk nor the environment would
be compensated in any way. Even if these hazardous activities are
stopped immediately, it would take several decades to the natural
environment to restore the balance.

The changes that have occurred: what are they, what has been
observed so far? Since when?

The disappearance of the naturally grown forest produces, birds, prays,
eatables and medicinal plants have forced the adivasi communities to
change their lifestyles and to adopt the urban systems and practices.
Since the agriculture and cattle rearing is not viable due to unfavourable
climatic conditions, the people are becoming industrial labourers and even
the cases of migration to the urban places have been reported. The food
habits of the indigenous people now resemble the packaged fast food.
The market vegetables which are grown with the chemical fertilizers are
replacing the organic farming. The study also revealed that about 80% of
the Orange cultivation has been decreased during the past one decade.
The plant diseases like Beriberi affecting the Coffee, Thailand based
Paayishekamoda disease affecting the honey bee families have become
fatal to the adivasi communities who are depending on these forest
resources for the livelihood. The wild animals like Fox, Pigs; birds like
Eagles, pigeons etc have been reduced to the extent of 80-90% since last
20-25 years.




                                                                       28
Has there been any local, immediate discussion on why these changes
have been occurring?

The adivasi communities are not fully exposed to the scientific
phenomenon like global warming, climate change etc. However, the
debates are often held in the hadis and villages and the groups who are
deeply concerned with the natural environment have been found
participating in such discussions. But, the debates and discussions are
held in an informal ways and hence no documentation of the proceedings
is available. The elderly people who especially used to prefer the nati
medicine/herbal products for several health related issues are now really
worried about the non availability of the medicinal plants. The adivasi
traditional belief system also envisages that the destruction of natural
environment and the disappearance of certain animals and birds is an
indication of the future evil happenings to the humankind. The systematic
study, documentation and participatory debates between the communities
and environmental scientists would throw more light on the
environmental issues and coping up strategies.

The Impacts of Global Warming and Climate Change

There are plenty of things to research and discover from the view point of
the environmental scientists. However, the village areas being located in
the remote places and the non availability of resources for the researches
have become hindrances to the locally based organizations like CORD,
BKS etc. At the outset, it may be noticed that the annual rainfall in
Karnataka State has been decreased to the extent of 5% during the recent
years. This has affected the agricultural production and water resources.
The situation if allowed to continue would have a greater impact on the
economy of the state and threaten the livelihoods of the small and
marginal farmers. If the Agricultural Department, Forest Department,
Environmental Agencies and the Research institutes are interested, they
may collaborate with the local institutions like CORD and BKS and
conduct an action research in a systematic way. This would not only
bring out the exact present situation but also the remedies and coping up
strategies for the well being of human and natural resources.




                                                                       29
 The adaptation techniques that have been utilized by the
communities so far- since when, why, what is it? How did these
adaptation techniques come about?

The traditional systems and coping up strategies of the adivasi
communities against the global warming and climate change is not only
interesting but also an important issue for in-depth research. For instance,
about 15-20 years back, the heavy rain fall was resulting in decaying
leaves and after the rain fall within 20-25 days again the new branches
and buds could have be seen. In order to control the uneven distribution
of rain, the people of Dubare Forest region have started growing the
environmental friendly trees like Matti Tree, Wild Cotton, Honne Tree,
Nerale Tree, Basri Tree, Buniyan Tree, Goli Tree, Kadubevu, Kumbli
Fruit, Tare-Water Plant, Kattu, White Muddage and Wild Jasmine (most
of them are the local names and are not the botanical names of the plants)
etc which have helped not only to regulate the rain fall but also to
generate fresh air, oxygen, temperature control etc. Certain species of
plants and trees are capable of storing litres of water in their pith, which
helps the communities to regulate the temperature of the environment.
The communities also use the water retained in the trees for drinking
purposes. The presence of such trees again gives room for the
development of wild life and creatures. However, the government policy
with respect to forestation is quite opposite to these traditional systems
and the non environmental trees have been planted in plenty by the forest
department against the voices of the forest dwelling communities. If the
environmental scientists make a study and justify the traditional
forestation techniques, methods and strategies adopted by the adivasi
communities; protecting and preserving the natural environment would
become more strategic and scientific.

Broad categories of responses - some of which could be beneficial
regardless of how or whether climate changes - include:

 Improved training and general education of populations dependent on
  agriculture.
 Identification of the present vulnerabilities of agricultural systems.
 Agricultural research to develop new crop varieties.
 Food programs and other social security programs to provide insurance
  against supply changes.



                                                                         30
 Transportation, distribution, and market integration to provide the
  infrastructure to supply food during crop shortfalls.
 Removals of subsidies, which can, by limiting changes in prices, mask
  the climate change signal in the marketplace.

Learning for the future in the community

Adivasi communities and the forest are interdependent. The community
uses the forest resources, which makes them self-sufficient for their
livelihood and they would have never thought of exploiting the forest or
the environment. The simple lifestyle with a system of regenerating the
forest resources and wildlife is rooted in every member of the community
as a basic lesson of life. Because, since the time of their forefathers, the
community has realized that fresh air, water, soil and the environment are
the resources of the earth, which is highly essential for the peaceful living
of human beings. Preserving, protecting and defending these resources
along with the regeneration become the firth fundamental duty of every
member of the community. Apart from this, the organic forest produces,
natural food, nutritious fruits etc which are not available in the processed
food market are the part of adivasi life. In fact, the Indian Vedas, the
scripts of our great rishis and sadhus who spent their entire life in the
forest do reveal several secrets of forest resources that would avoid
several diseases, hospitals and also would increase the lifespan of the
people.     This traditional knowledge could be gathered from the
interactions and study of adivasi lifestyle.

Practical tips for the rest of the community

The adivasi community passes an important message to the rest of the
world that, while planting the trees or choosing the crops, one should
consider the topography, environmental conditions of different places.
Then, depending on the local conditions, the decision should be made.
The importing of plant species from different locations may not be
suitable for all localities since they can imbalance not only the
environmental conditions, but also have negative impact on humans and
animals. The protection of environment along with respecting the order
of the nature should be a concern of the entire world and not just for the
environmentalists. Human intervention is the major cause for global
warming and climate change and the community hopes that the message
would reach the rest of the world.

                                                                          31
[Resource Persons:    JP Raju, Mavinahalla Hadi; RK Chandra,
Rangasamudra; JK Ramu, Chottepare Hadi; MC Vasu, Avaregunda
Hadi; JK Dobi, Dubare Hadi; JR Basappa, Chilume Hadi.

Researcher: Jayaprakash A., CGP-Karnataka State Coordinator &
Director of Man Maker CHRD Bangalore, Mr.Vasanth, Coorg
Organisation for Rural Development (CORD), Kushal Nagar, Kodagu].


3.5 Impact of Climate Change in TamilNadu region and the role of
Civil Society actors:

Geography of TamilNadu

Tamil Nadu is located in the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula
bordered by Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the northwest, Andhra
Pradesh to the north and Bay of Bengal to the east. The total area covered
by the state is 130058 sq. kms of which 22933.79 sq. kms is under forests.


The state has been divided into 5 major physiographic divisions - the
Kurinji or mountainous region, the Mullai or forest region, the Palai or
arid region, the Marudham or the fertile plains and the Neidhal or coastal
region. The Eastern and Western Ghats meet in this state and run along its
eastern and western borders.

The hills of the Western Ghats have dense forests as compared to Eastern
Ghats. This region receives maximum rainfall and hence favours
plantations of tea, coffee and spices. However, the upper reaches of the
Eastern Ghats are not without their share of beauty and Yercaud in the
Shevaroy hills is famous for its fruit orchards and banana and coffee
plantations. The most arid and desert like-area is in the Thirunelveli
district and is known as Palai.

Climate

The state of Tamil Nadu is located in the southeastern part of Indian
peninsula between 8° 5' and 13° 35' North latitude and 76° 15' and 80° 20'
East longitude. Hence the climate is tropical with little variation in

                                                                       32
temperatures during winter and summer. Summer season is felt between
April and June when temperature reaches 40°C. November –February are
the months when Tamil Nadu experiences winter but temperature doesn't
drop below 20 °C.

Natural Resources

Forests

Tamil Nadu has a wealth of flora and fauna and some of its major wildlife
sanctuaries like Mudumalai and Anaimalai (Indira Gandhi W.S) are
situated in the hills of the Western Ghats which is the habitat of elephants,
tigers, bisons, variety of monkey and deer.

Of the 3000 and more plant species found in Tamil Nadu, a majority are
found in the mixed deciduous forests of this region. One of the most
noteworthy flowers is the Kurinji of Kodaikanal which blooms once in 12
years. Cinchona from which quinine - a drug for treating malaria - is
extracted and eucalyptus grow abundantly in the Nilgiris.

Forests of medicinal herbs are found in Palani hills and Courtrallam.
Palmyrah trees grow by the thousands in Thirunelveli and its products are
used as raw materials for several cottage industries. Rubber is the main
plantation crop in Kanyakumari and the more exotic sandalwood grows,
though not in very large numbers, in the Javadhuhills of Vellore district.

The forest areas of Tiruvannamalai and Thirunelveli districts of the state
are being regenerated and protected by the state forest Department. These
forests not only provide large economy to the state but also the local
livelihood.

Rivers

Tamil Nadu is blessed with a number of rivers of which Cauveri is the
most important. This perennial river of the state originates in Coorg in the
neighboring Karnataka state. The fertile Coromandel plains are irrigated
by the Cauveri and its delta in Thanjavur - Nagapattinam region is known
as the granary of Tamil Nadu. The other rivers in the state are the Palar,
Pennar, Vaigai and Tamiraparani.



                                                                          33
Mineral Deposits

The state is rich in mineral resources. The major mineral resources
include Lignite, Vermiculite, Garnet, Zircon, Graphite, Ilmenite, Rutile,
Monazite and Magnetite etc.

Agriculture

Tamil Nadu is the second biggest producer of rice in India. The state is
historically known for its agriculture from ancient times.

The major food crops grown in the state include rice, jowar, raggi, bajra,
maize and pulses. Cotton, sugarcane, coconut, tea and coffee are also
grown and considered as cash crops. Some farmer produce horticultural
products like bananas and mangoes.

Paddy is grown in large excess because rice is the main staple food of the
state. There are three crops based on duration. The first one is the
‘Kuruvali’ (the short term crop) with duration of three and a half to four
months from June to July to Oct - Nov. The second crop is called the
‘Thaladi’ that grown in 5 to 6 months Oct - Nov to Feb - March. Third is
'Samba' and has duration of almost 6 months from Aug to January. The
major source of irrigation is the rivers, tanks and wells.

Climate Change is an emerging problem.

Tamilnadu has received more problematic impacts of climate change.
Seasonal changes, sea level increase, excessive floods, drying of rivers
and reduction of agriculture production, frequent depressions and
disasters, and forest fires are some of the changes that are occurring and
will occur in the near future. These changes may cause food insecurity,
migration, and evacuation. They affect negatively the biodiversity and can
bring new unknown diseases to the area.

Water scarcity, which is a threat to many areas in the world, and as
warned by environmentalists, can cause many future conflicts and can
even become the basic cause for the third world war, is a problem.
Tamilnadu cannot be excluded in any way. Within the population, the
lives of marginalised people will be affected in numerous ways. All kind
of impacts have started to be realizing about a decade ago. Drying of the

                                                                       34
rivers is a big question for getting drinking water nowadays and in future.
The minimum availability of water may also emptied by the multinational
companies for bottle water. So the vulnerable people, especially women,
would suffer for drinking water, since they are the main water hunters for
the day today household work and drinking purposes. Additionally, the
water scarcity will force the people to drink unclean water and lead to
water-borne health problems.

Food security is one of the major issues which may badly affect the
marginalised and poor people in the state. Small and marginalised farmers
are now migrated or sold out their land to companies due to uncertainty of
seasonal rain, excessive and up normal floods and unavailability of
underground water. If the situation continues, food production will be
reduced. Due to this the agricultural products rates would be increased.
The raise in the costs of food products may force the marginalised
majorities to eat less nutritional food or reduce their food consumption. It
may affect the health status of the people.

In all aspects the marginalised people are the more vulnerable than others
in the state. There is an emerging need to aware and educate the people to
adapt the situation and to work for immediate mitigation strategies.

Educating the marginalised majorities on the concept of climate
change.

To reduce the global warming, it is essential to be aware of the problems
that cause it. It is as well important to be aware of the impacts that the
global warming can cause to the people at all levels. The three major
threats in the state are reduction in agriculture production, excessive rain
and sea level raise in coastal area, and scarcity of drinking water all over
the state. Among all people, farmers, women, Dalits and fisher
community are the most affected in the context of climate change since
they are voiceless. They are polluting less, but are the most affected by
the negative impacts of the climate change.

To educate the people about the situation and to look for adaptation and
mitigation strategies in a co-ordinate way is essential. There is a vital role
for the civil society actors to work to include the concept of climate equity
into the decision making processes with the priority of the voices of the
marginalised majorities.

                                                                           35
Civil society actors’ role in Tamilnadu

Within the prescribed time frame 31 civil actors have been interviewed
those who are involved in the process of climate change to register the
voices of marginalised people and implementing adaptations and
mitigation and are categorized as NGOS/NGO Networks, Movements/
Mass organisations, Institutions and Individuals. There are civil society
actors who are missed due to non availability of their prior commitments.
Yet, those civil actors will be included in the second phase of the
research. The civil actors are having knowledge and awareness about
global warming and climate change and its impacts. Most of the civil
society organisations are now working on the aspect of Adaptation.
Networking, Advocacy and Lobbying are their main tools to address the
situation. Some of the civil actors are involved in mitigation strategies like
organic farming, tree plantation and recycling the solid wastes.

The publications, FM radio, Documentary films, News letters were
reached large scale of the people in the state. Some civil society actors
are representing civil society in government bodies such as representative
of Coastal Development commission established by the Ministry of
Environment and Forest Department).

Break through the mindset of the people to change the lifestyles, non
cooperation of government officials and government bodies, break
through the mindset of the farmers who are using chemical fertilizers,
bribery, communal conflicts, contradiction in government policies,
poverty, are the challenges faced by the civil actors while they work.

The state government’s strategies

The state has accepted that Climate change has also induced changes in
species diversity loss, increased incidence of diseases, water shortages,
elimination of plant diversity and loss in agriculture outputs. The
educational institutions are involved in researches on biodiversity,
renewable energy strategies, finding the food crops which can bear and
grow in the face of global warming.

The state felt that, in order to control the changes in climate and reduce
the vulnerability due to high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere, trees alone serve as the best choice. Environment and Forest

                                                                           36
department is a separate ministry has a policy on climate change. Some of
the following objectives have been mentioned in the 2008-2009 policy.

            Ensuring environmental and ecological stability of the State.
            Biodiversity, wildlife and genetic resource conservation.
            Rehabilitation and restoration of degraded forests
            Coastal eco-system conservation and management.
            Forest protection for resource management and
             augmentation.
            Enhancing tree cover outside forests for livelihood security.
            Water augmentation through forest conservation and
             catchment’s area management.
            Tribal development to ensure economic prosperity and
             ecological stability.
            Technology support, research and development for scientific
             forest management.
            Forests extension for tree covers enhancement, outreach and
             conservation education for Wildlife management support.
            Forestry f or rural energy security.
            Human resource development for forestry management.
            Climate change mitigation.

Environmental stabilization, forest protection, wildlife, bio-diversity
conservation and protection of genetics resources, increase productivity
from forests, efficient management of natural capital, water resources
management, augmentation and increasing forest cover/tree cover are
some of the significant functional objectives of the State Forest Policy.

3.5.1 Case Study from TamilNadu

The identification of the special references is very limited since the
impacts are not directive to climate change.

3.5.2 Ramnad district is located in the south end of Tamilnadu. Once
upon a time the district was known for its paddy cultivation. The river
Vaigai ended in the Ramnad Lake. For more than three decades, the
paddy cultivation was very low due to the uncertainty of river Vaigai
water and rain. Then it became as dry land. Rain falling was very limited
in this district till a decade ago. Paddy is a rare crop in this district. The



                                                                           37
reason behind is, it needs more water to grow. But now, due to irregular
and excessive rain fall, the paddy cultivation has increased in the district.

3.5.3 Srivilliputhur is located in Virudhunagar district in the foothill of
Western Ghats. The district is very much depending upon the rain. Pulses
and minor millets cultivation and cow rearing are the main agricultural
activities in the district. This situation has changed now. Farmers are
selling their lands for a very meager amount. Because it is very hard to
see enough rain falls in the district. The reason behind the situation is, in
most of the places brick making companies have cut down the trees for
sand mining. A movement is working for protecting the environment in
the district says that there are more than 20,000 palm trees and numbers
of other trees were cut down by the companies for their work. The rain
does not flow its own way and stagnate in the digs made by the brick
companies. It affected the lives and livelihood resources of the people
who are living in this area. This is the main cause for the people’s
migration and reduction in agriculture.

 3.5.4 Vaigai was a perennial river since two decades ago. Now it is
 mostly used as a channel for supplying Periyaru river water. Vaigai
 originates from the hills in Varushanaadu, Theni district. The rain fall in
 various mounts in the hills gathered as a river in a place at the bottom of
 the hills. Theni, Madurai and Ramnad districts are merely depended on
 the water of river Vaigai. Paddy, coconut, banana, sugarcane, minor
 millet and vegetables are the main crops of these districts. Due to
 deforestation in the hills and sand mining in the river banks, agriculture
 and land water are very much affected in these districts. Drinking water
 is also a demanding livelihood need for the people in the districts. The
 people in the foot hills say that, there were small tributaries at the hills
 were maintained the river flow throughout the year. Nowadays trees
 were cut down and the rain falling is very less. These are the major
 reasons for the drying of river. Since there are less trees in the mountains
 if there is a heavy rainfall it leads to floods.
[The Research Team: A Team with the coordination of the Tamilnadu
CGP coordinator, Ms. Vasanthi worked in the research process. Ms.
Varthini, Consultant & CGP Communication Assistant, Mr. Marirajan,
State Co-coordinator, JASuL (Joint Action for Sustainable Livelihoods),
Ms. Jothimani, Administrator, Mr.Dhanraj, Coordinator, CAFAT
(Collective Action of Forest Adivasis in Tamilnadu) have done the
baseline survey as a team.]

                                                                          38
      Chapter 4: Conclusion of the Base Line Survey
Baseline survey was conducted in five states of India- Delhi, Uttarkhand,
Chattisgarh, Karnataka and TamilNadu by CGP India in April – July 2009
to list out the civil actors working on the issue of climate change and
climate equity. Through snow ball sampling method, the individuals,
NGOs, Networks of NGOs, Movements, Mass organizations and Unions
are studied. The details of their documents, events, campaigns and videos
are collected. The researches from all five states together shared their
experiences and compiled the data. In the discussions, following are put
forth as conclusions of the baseline survey.


   1. Every state, through its Ministry of Environment has put forth some
      action plan that reflects the Nation Action Plan on Climate Change.

   2. The civil society actors, in various capacities are aware
      of the process of the Climate Change and global warming but all do
      not share the Rights Perspective with climate equity concepts.

   3. The civil actors, especially NGOs, have programs to
      raise awareness about the issue of Climate Change but their
      programs are designed to find local possible adaptative measures.
      In many programs, tree plantation is given more focus and
      importance.

   4. Consistent and in-depth debates on national and international
      planning processes have not been carried out at the local level. The
      responsibility of the developed nations on burden shares and
      emission cuts are not discussed seriously even at the state level.

   5. The major gap felt is that the participation of women in the climate
      change debates and in planning processes. Women are almost
      invisible though 50% of the marginalised majorities, who are the
      worst affected by climate change process are women.

   6. The felt need among the civil actors is the networking and
      coordinated efforts to bring out viable, sustainable and eco friendly


                                                                        39
     development initiatives at all levels from the villages to the entire
     world.

  7. Civil actors working among indigenous people have meaningful
     alternative strategies to adapt climate change process and to protect
     the biodiversity of the forests with far sighted vision. The best
     practices of the adivasi communities have to be widely replicated
     through the coordinated networking and wider campaign to the rest
     of the world.

  8. Civil actors, especially farmers’ movements and networks on
     sustainable farming practices stand as examples for reduction in
     emission of methane and conserving ground water to a greater
     level.

  9. Civil actors in the coastal belt of India are concerned about the
     threat of sea level rise and looking up for disaster management
     strategies to be translated at the grass root level.


  10. In general, though marginalised majorities and civil society
     members are aware of the threat of climate change process, there is
     a lack in their capacities to address the issue in a war footing. The
     threat is not considered as very immediate and devastating and the
     issue is not discussed at all levels in a similar tone and strength.



       To conclude, the base line survey has been an eye opener for CGP
India to focus on the issue of Climate Change and strengthen the
participation of civil society in the national and international planning
process to make the voices of the marginalised heard.




                                                                       40
References

Publications:

A Road to Copenhagen - India’s Position on Climate Change Issue
Public Diplomacy Division, Ministry of External Affairs, Govt of India

New Delhi Declaration on the impacts of climate change on human health
Health Ministers of Member States of the WHO South-East Asia Region
participating in the 26th Health Ministers Meeting in New Delhi

Global Warming, its Global Impacts and Capitalism
A paper by Nagraj Adve of Delhi Platform, a group active around global
warming and equitable development (see ww.delhiplatform.blogspot.com;
delhiplatform@gmail.com).


Decision _/CP.8
The Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate Change and Sustainable
Development

The Secretary General (Asian Parliamentary Assembly) Report on
Environmental Issues, Global Warming, Climate Change and
Planting Billions of Trees throughout Asia
SG/Rep/2009/07: 3 June

The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
Ministry of Environment & Forests, Dept of Environment, Forest,
Wildlife, Govt of India

A Report on Status of Environmental Related Issues, (Vol 3 of 3 Jan
2008), Dept of Forest, Ecology and Environment, Govt of Karnataka.
http://www.parisaramahiti.kar.nic.in.

Variability of climate change in India
A Paper by S. K. Dash and J. C. R. Hunt (CURRENT SCIENCE, 788
VOL. 93, NO. 6, 25 SEPTEMBER 2007)




                                                                         41
 “Estimation of retreat rate of Gangotri glacier using rapid static
and kinematic GPS survey”.
A paper by Kireet Kumar, Rakesh K. Dumka, M. S. Miral,
G. S. Satyal and M. Pant, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment
and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, India

 “Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Uttarakhand Himalayas”
A paper by Prakash Rao, G.Areendran and Rajneesh Sareen
(gareendran@wwfindia.net) &(prao@wwfindia.net)

Random Thoughts: Mountains and the Climate Change Agenda
A paper by Mr R. S. Tolia
Chief Information Commissioner, Uttarakhand

Briefing Note: Uttarakhand Sustainable Development Submmit
Sustainable development, climate change, and natural resources
management: status, issues, and way forward.

By Government of Uttarakhand & Oil and Natural Gas Commission,
Dehradun

State of Forest Report
By Forest Department of Uttarakhand

Working Paper No. 217
Development Strategy for the Hill
Districts of Uttarakhand
By Surabhi Mittal
Gaurav Tripathi
Deepti Sethi of Indian Council for Research on International Economic
Relations

“ A study of Land Grabbing and Women’s Struggle Against it”.
By Ms Neelima Bhatt, Raghu Tewari & Mukesh Bahuguna

Struggle Against Pollution,
A Book on Case Studies by Nadi Ghati Sangharsh Morcha ( A Front for
River Valley Struggle ) in Chhattisgarh ( nadi_ghati@yahoo.com )




                                                                   42
Climate Change 2001 – The Scientific Basis, Third Assessment Report of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, 2001.

Das, P.K., The Mansoons; National Book Trust of India, New Delhi –
2002.

Website References

www.mapsofindia.com/maps/delhi/delhi.htm
www.delhionline.in/Profile/Geography/
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Delhi_geography_
www.delhicapital.com/about-delhi/fast-facts.html
delhi.galaxy.com/ajq/
edudiary.com/.../indian-institute-of-ecology-and-environment-delhi/
www.globalissues.org/article/.../cop8-delhi-climate-conference
www.delhiclimatechangeexhibition.in/
www.tourisminnorthindia.com/.../weather-climate.
www.uttarakhandforest.org/
en.wikipedia.org/.../Category:Uttarakhand_geography_stubs
www.uttaranchalonline.in/Profile/Geography/
www.mapsofindia.com/uttarakhand/geography/
uttara.in/forest_corp/intro.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chhattisgarh
cg.gov.in/
en.wikipedia.org/.../Category:Chhattisgarh_geography
www.mapsofindia.com/chhattisgarh/geography/
www.geocities.com/forestcase/Issue3.doc
www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/category/.../ecology
karnatakaonline.in/Profile/Geography/
www.mapsofindia.com/karnataka/geography.../geography-of-karnataka.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Geography_of_Karnataka
www.karnatakaforest.gov.in/english/index.html
www.mapsofindia.com/.../karnataka/karnataka-forest-map
www.forests.tn.nic.in/
www.mapsofindia.com/.../tamilnadu/tamilnadu-forest-map.htm
www.tamilnaduonline.in/Profile/Geography/
www.indianetzone.com/.../geographical_features_tamil_nadu.htm
www.tnau.ac.in/spl/climatechange.
www.my-tamil.com/dir/Science_and.../Ecology/

                                                                      43
ANNEXURE – 1

             List of Civil Society Actors in CGP - India Chapters

i) New Delhi – (National Capital Region)


Individual                                     Institutions         Network/movement
                  NGOs                                              group

                 1- Centre for Science and     1.Department of      Delhi Platform
                 Environment                   Civil                CP-Nagraj Adawe
1.Dr Mehar Ali
                       Tughlakabad             Engineering,IIT
Engineer
                       Institutional Area      ,Delhi
                       New Delhi - 11          CP- Prof AK  Delhi Forum
2. Dr B D
                       29956110 / 399          Gosain       CP- Mr Vijayan
Sharma
                       CP- Director : Sunita                          Modi –
                       Narayan            2. Gandhi Peace NTUI
3.   Mr     Anil
                                          Foundation,       CP- Mr Gautam
Chaudhary
                 2-                       Mr
                                 Development       Surendra Modi
                 Alternative              Sharma
4. Dr Harsh
                       New Delhi - 011                      Himalayan
Dobhal
                       2613       4103    &
                                          3.         Energy Mountain Forum
                       26890380           Efficiency    and CP-Mr S Nautiyal
5. Mr Krishn Bir
                                          Renewable
Chaudhary
                 3- TERRI                 Energy            Pankaj      Pushkar
                                          Management        for Bharat Jan
5. Mr Ashok B
                     CP- Direcotor Dr. Centre of the Andolan                 &
Sharma
                     P.K. Pachuri         Delhi             National Campaign
                     11     2462100 / 11 government,        for the Eradication
6. Mr Anupam
                         41504900                           of Inequality
Mishra
               New Delhi
               4.Intercultural Resources,                   CP- Mr Pankaj
7.          Mr
               New Delhi - 11 65665677                      Pushkar
Rajagopalan
                                                                    SADED,DA-
8. Dr Pradeep
                                                                    9A,DDA    Flats
Sharma
                  5. Forum for Biotechnology                        Muniraka
                  and Food Security,
                        New Delhi                                   CP-   Mr   Rakesh

                                                                          44
     Mr. Devender Sharma      Bhatt
     9811 301857

6- Toxic Links
     New Delhi
     Mr. Ravi Agarwal
     11          24321747/
         0711/ 8006

7-    The Earth Savers
Foundation
New Delhi 011 46010453
Mr. Ravi Kalra 98111 21710

8- Natural Heritage,
New Delhi
011 26141453
Prof.    Vikram     Soni
9899821135


9- Ecological Foundation
   New Delhi
   Dr. Sudhirender Sharma
   011 25265212



10- Citizens Front for
Water Democracy
     New Delhi
     Mr. S. A. Naqui 9871
     449968

11- Climate Project India
      New Delhi - 011
      26207599
      Ms.    Nena     Bajaj
      9871664901


                                      45
12. Bharat Jan Andolan,
CP- Mr Jayant Verma

13. PEACE, Katwariya
Sarai,Delhi
CP- Mr Piyush Pant

14. Indian Society for
Sustainable Agriculture &
Rural Development
CP-    Dr    Krishn    Bir
Chaudhary

15.    Himalaya       Seva
Sangh,Rajghat

CP- Mr Manoj Pandey

16.     Gandhi        Peace
Foundation,
Mr Surendra Sharma

17.      Gandhi       Santi
Pratisthan,

CP- Mr Ramchandra Rahi




                              46
ii) Uttarakhand

Sl.No. Disctrict   Individual     NGOs              Institutions         Networks
                                                                         Groups
1.     Dehradun    Prof.          Sri               Wild Life Institue Uttarakh
                   Virendra       Bhuwaneswari of India, CP- Mr Mahila M
                   Panuli         Mahila Ashram Sabuj          &     Dr
                   Dr.         BS (SBMA), CP- Gajendra Rawat
                   Adhikari       Mr        Manoj
                   Dr.GS Rawat    Bhatt             Wadia Institue Of
                   Dr.CM                            Himalayan
                   Lakheda        Society       for Geology, CP – Dr
                   Dr.      Renu  Entirety          Singh
                   Singh (IFS)    Efficacious
                   Dr.VRS         Development & Indian Institue of
                   Rawat          Awareness         Remote      Sensing,
                   Dr Anil Joshi  (SEEDA), CP- CP-           Dr.    CM
                   Mrs Kamala     Mr Narnedra Lakhera
                   Pant           Chauhan
                   Dr.GS Rajwar                     Forest     Research
                   Dr      Pankaj Clean             Institue, CP- Dr.
                   Pant           Himalaya          Neeta Gera
                   Mr      Pawan  Society,     CP-
                   Gupta          Mr      Jitendra
                   Mr.Shailendra  Kumar
                   Mrs      Geeta
                   Gairola        MATRYA        ,
                                  CP- Dr. Geeta

                                  HESCO, CP-
                                  Dr.   Rakesh
                                  Kumar

                                  DHAD,     Mr
                                  Lokesh Nawani

                                  Rural
                                  Development
                                  Institute – CP-
                                  Mr Devendra

                                                                   47
                                    Budakoti

2.   Pauri        Dr.      Rakhi    SAMARTHYA        Department
     Garhwal      Rawat             Society,         Geology,HNB
                  Dr.     Mohan     Kotdwara         Garhwal
                  Panwar            CP- Dr. Savita   University, CP- Dr
                  Dr.J P Mehta      Bisht            Ajay Naithani
                  Dr.     N    P
                  Todriya           Dalyon     KaGB Pant Institute
                  Mr        Man                  of
                                    Dagda,Srinagar       Himalayan
                  Singh Rawat       CP-       MrsEnvionement and
                  Mr Prabhat        Aneeta UniyalDevelopment      (
                  Dhyani                         Srinagar     unit,
                  Dr. S S Rawat     GHUGHUTI,    working         in
                  Mr     Ganesh     Society      Gangotari
                  Kuksal            CP-     Mr D Glaciar), CP- dr
                  Dr      Mohan     Burakoti     rakesh maikhuri
                  Panwar
                  Ms.      PreetiJai    Bharat
                  Thapaliyal     Sewa   Samiti,
                                 CP- Mr Anil
                                 Swami
3.   Hardwar      Prof. BP Joshi AYUSH,              Dept             of
                  Mr. B Charls Jagjeetpur            Environmental
                  Prof. Dinesh CP-          Mr       Science, Gurukul
                  Bhatt          Lakhveer Singh      Kangri University
                                                     CP-     Dr     DR
                                    VDS,             Khanna
                                    Bhagwanpur
                                    CP- Mr RB National Institute
                                    Singh Saini of Hydrology, CP

                                             Dev       Sanskrity
                              Jan     Kalyan Vidylaya,   Shanti
                              Sansthan       Kunj
                              CP-        Mr
                              Satendra       CP-         Swami
                              Verma          Muktanand
4.   Uttarkashi   Mr Surendra Himalayan      Gangotri National Gangorti
                  Bhatt       Paryavaran     Park, CP- Dr IP Abhiyan,

                                                                    48
               Mr Nagendra      Sikshan       Singh        Shanti Th
               Dr Nagendra      Sansthan
               Jagudi           CP- Mrs Himla              Gangotri
               Mr       Prem    Devi                       Sanraksh
               Pancholi                                    Abhiyan,
               Mrs    Prema     Ganga Awahan               Harshwa
               Badhani          Society CP- Ms
               Mr     Suresh    Mallika Bhanot             Raksha
               Bhai                                        Andolan
               Ms       Priya
               Patel
               Mrs Pushpa
               Chauhan



5.   Tehri     Mr.Sunderlal    Lok    Jeevan               Chetna
     Garhwal   Bahuguna        Vikas Bharti,               CP- Mr
                               CP- Mr Bihari               Singh
               Mr       Pratap Lal
               Sikhar                                      Beej
                                                           Andolan,
               Dr     Bharat Thakkar Bapa                  Vijay Jar
               Jhunjhunwala Ashram, CP-
                             Mr           P                Falinda
               Mr.    Dhoom Bahuguna                       Samiti,
               Singh Negi                                  Ramola
               Mr     Yogesh Parvtiya  Jan
               Bahuguna      Kalyan Samiti,
                             CP-       Mrs
                             Hemlata Bhatt


6.   Chamoli   Mr     Chandi Dashauli Gram                 Uttarakh
               Prasad Bhatt Swaraj                         Panchaya
                             Mandal,                       Sarpanch
                             Gopeswar                      Sangatha
               Mr      Prem
               Singh Sanwal HIMAD,
                             Gopeswar

                                                      49
                Dr     Harpal CP-    dr      ds
                Singh Negi    pundir

                Mr               Himalayan
                bakhatawar       Rachanatmak
                singh            Jan     Kalyan
                                 Samiti, CP- Mr
                Chi.             Girish Nautiyal
                Madhawa
                              UYRDC,
                              Narayanbagar,
                              CP-        Mr
                              Siddharth Negi
7.   Nainital   Dr    Shekhar PAHAR, CP- Department           of
                Pathak        Dr      Sekhar Forestry, Kumaon
                Dr (Mrs) Uma Pathak          University,Nainital,
                Bhatt                        CP- Dr Jeetram
                Adv       MC AAS,Bhuwali,
                Kandpal       CP- Mrs Rama
                Dr      Rekha Bisht
                Joshi
                Dr SP Singh   VIMARSH,
                              CP-        Mrs
                              Kanchan
                              Bhandari

8.   Almora     Ms      Radha    Lakshmi           GB Pant Institute   Jan
                Behan            Ashram            of      Himalayan   Manch,
                Mr PC Tewari     Kausani, CP-      Environment    &    Mohan K
                Mr     Mohan     Ms      Neema     Development
                Kandpal          vaishnaw          CP- Dr. Kirit       Mahila
                Mr     Govind                                          Parishad,
                Singh Mehra      Lakshmi           Vivekanand          Hema Ne
                Dr JS rawat      Ashram,           Parvitiya  Krishi
                Dr      Vijaya   Danya, CP- Ms.    Anusandhan
                Dhaundhiyal      Chandra Pant      Sansthan,    CP-
                Mr      Abdul                      Joshi
                Sakur            Jan    Sikshan
                Dr       Siraj   Sansthan, CP- Dir       of    horti
                Anwar            Mrs      Leela culture, ranikhet

                                                                 50
                                Bhatt                Kosi
                                                     Abhiyan,
                                                     Basanti B
                                Uttarakhand
                                Seawa Nidhi,
                                CP- Dr Lalit         Uttarakh
                                Pandey               Bachao
                                                     CP- M
                                AMAN,     CP-        Pandey
                                Ms    Neelima
                                Bhatt

                                Disha Sikshan
                                Sansthan ,CP-        Nadi Gha
                                Mr      Anand        Abhiyan,
                                Kirola               Raju Tew

                                                     Himalaya
                                                     Abhiyan,
                                                     Shankar
                                                     Lal/Mr.V
                                                     Kumar

                                                     Uttarakh
                                                     Parivarta
                                                     CP- Mr G
                                                     Verma


9.   Pithoragarh                BGSM, CP- Mr         Uttarakh
                   Prof Prabhat Ramesh Pant          Mahila M
                   Kumar Upreti
                                SAATHI, CP-
                   Mr           Mr Ram
                   Nandaballabh
                   Awasthi      CHEA, CP- Mr
                                Pankaj Tewari
                   Govind
                   kafliya
                   Shobha behan

                                                51
10.    Rudraprayag Mrs Nirmala SHARD, CP-                       Mandaki
                   Bahuguna,     Mr Mansingh                    Abhiyan,
                                 Rawat                          Lakshma
                   Dr    Kailash
                   Bhatt         SESPA,   CP-
                                 Mr BS Negi
                   Dr    Aneeta
                   Rawat
11.    Udham       Mr     Sashi
       Singh Nagar Rawat


                    Mr    Pratap
                    Singh

                    Mr       Balli
                    Singh Ceema
12.    Bageswar     Mr      Nanda Gramin Utthan
                    Ballabh Bhatt Samiti, CP- Mr
                                   Umesh Joshi
                    Sadan mishra
                    Pooja mehra
13.    Champawat    Mr        AP Sunder trust-
                    Dhyani         ap dhyani

                    Mr Tej Singh
                    Bhandari




iii) Chhattisgarh


Sl.No. Disctrics    Indiavidual NGOs     Institutions Network/movement
                                                      groups
1.     Raipur       Mr Rajim Chattisgarh              CASA
                    Ktwas    Gramin Sewa              CP- Mr Rajat
                             Samiti                   Chaudhary


                                                           52
                Ms Aneeta CP- Mr Padum
                Dhruv     Lal                Nadi       Ghati
                                             Morcha,
                Mr        PRASUN,            Mr            G
                Benipuri  CP-        Mr      Bandopadhyay
                          Gautam
                Dr Lakhan Bandhopadhyay      Mahila Manch,
                Singh                        Ms       Shatabdi
                          Chetana Sangh,     Pandey
                          CP- Mr Munna
                          Narang             Chhatisgarh
                                             Chingari    Mahila
                                             Morcha,
                           Chhatisgarh       CP- Ms Seeta Devi
                           Yuvak Samaj,      Verma
                           CP- Mr Amrit
                           Lal Joshi
2.   Mahasamund Mr         SAJAG,            Dalit     Adivasi
                Ramgopal   CP- Ms Sushma     Manch,
                Kashyap                      CP- Mr Bihari Lal
                           SOLO,
                Mr Patel   CP- Ms Babita     Kisan    Majdoor
                           Dutta             Andolan,
                           Jan     Jagriti   CP- Mr Ramgopal
                           Kendra,           Kashyap
                           CP- Mr SN
                           Gadia             Chhatisgarh Mukti
                                             Morcha,
                           PATH,             CP- Mr Rajendra
                           CP- Mr Ravi       Sayal
                           Netram


3.   Bilaspur   Mr Debjeet Jan    Chetana    Chhatisgarh Mukti
                           Manch,            Morcha,
                           CP- Mr Kanta      CP- Mrs Sudha
                           Marathe           Bhardwaj

                           Mahila Sashakti   Baiga
                           Sikshan Kalyan    Mahapanchayat,

                                                  53
                         and    Prakshin   CP- Ms Rashmi
                         Parishad,
                         CP-         Ms
                         Hemlata Sahu
4.   Kanker    Ms Rashmi PARIVARTAN,
               Devi      CP- Mr Naresh

                          Adivasi Samata
                          Manch,
                          CP- Ms Meena


5.   Sarguja   Mr         Chaupal,         Pahari     Korba
               Menhdi     CP-      Mr      Maha Panchayat,
               Lal        Gangaram         CP- Mr Naren
                          Paikra
                                           Birhar      Maha
                          Margdarshak      Panchayat ,
                          Sewa Sansthan,   CP- Mr Ganga
                          CP- Mr Ishwar    Bhai



6.   Bastar               Vanvasi          Ekta Parishad,
                          Chetana          CP- Ms Anima
                          Ashram,
                          CP-        Mr
                          Himanshu

                          DISHA,
                          CP-    Kesav
                          Sauri

                          Sahbhagi Samaj
                          Sewa Sanstha,
                          CP-         Ms
                          Kalawati
                          Kashyap

7.   Raigarh   Mr Agrwal Jan      Chetna

                                                54
                              Manch,
                              CP- Mr Rajesh
                              Tripathi


8.    Jangir      Mr Babu Mukti     Samaj
      Chanpa      Bhai    Karya      evam
                          Yuva Prakshin
                          Sansthan,
                          CP-Mr        JP
                          Dewangan


9.    Dhamtari    Ms Aneeta
                  Dhruva

                  Mr Jafar
10.   Rajnandgaon Mr    Ravi VARDAN           Chhatisgarh Mukti
                  Manv       Samaj            Morcha
                             Sansthan,
                             CP- Ms Vibha
11.   Jagdalpur              Vanvasi
                             Chetana
                             Ashram,
                             Mr Himanshu
                             Kumar
12.   Bijapur                Adivasi Samta
                             Manch,
                             CP- Ms Jaya
                             Kashyap

                              DISHA,
                              CP- Mr Keshav
13.   Dantewada               Vanvasi
                              Chetana
                              Ashram,
                              Mr Himanshu
                              Kumar
14.   Durg                    Pratibha        Chhatishgarh


                                                  55
                               Mahila   evam    Mukti Morcha
                               Bal     Vikash
                               Samiti,
                               Ms Annpurna
                               Sinha

                               Chhatisgarh
                               Social Forum,
                               CP- Mr Sunil
                               Chaursia



15.   Jaspur        Ms Mamta Jeevan     Vikas   Dalit      Adivasi
                    Kujur     Maitri,           Mahila Morcha,
                              CP- Mr Stena      CP- Mr Narendra
                              Tirki             Das
16.   Kaverdha      Ms        Jan       Astha   Baiga       Maha
                    Sadhana   Samajik           Panchayat,
                    Sinde     Sanstha,          CP- Ms Rashmi
                              CP- Mr Sachin     devi
                              Manikpuri
17.   Korba         Mr Santan Naydita           Chhatisgarh
                    Das       Foundation,       Mahila Manch,
                              CP- Ms Sipra      Ms Sipra Devi
                              Devi
18.   Narayan Pur   Ms        Social
                    Kalawati  Education    &
                    Kashyap   Basic
                              Awareness
                              CP-         Mr
                              Mahanand Bag

                               Parvtiya Samaj
                               Sewa Sanstha,
                               CP-         Mr
                               Ramdas
                               Markam



                                                     56
IV) Karnataka



Mr. Nanjundaiah M.A         Mr. D. Shankrappa           Mr. Yogesh
Nisarga Foundation          PARIVARTHANA                Development      through
1st      Main      Road,    H.K. Road, Near Govt        Education (DEED)
Someshwara        Temple    Hospital,   Shiralakoppa,   H.D.Kote Road, Hunsur –
Street                      Shikaripura        Taluk,   571105, Mysore District
H.D.Kote – 571114           Shimoga – 577428            08222-252002/
Mysore District             9880444749                  9449827253
08228-257873                d_shankrappa@yahoo.com      deedhun@rediffmail.com
9480168124
nanju_nisarga@rediffmail.
com


Mr. Akki. H.F               Mrs. V. Susheela            Ms. K.L Pushpa
NEEDS                       Spandana                    Meera Mahila Foundation
IMA Building                2432, “Devikrupa”, 1st      H.No. 627, S.B.S. Nagar
Behind Sangam Talkies       Floor, Sector 12, MM.       1st Stage, Budal Road
Ranebennur – 581115         Extension,                  Davanagere
Ph: 08373-260111            Belgaum – 590016.           Ph: 9945077921
9972363984                  9480189322
needsrmr@sancharnet.com     spandana_bgm@rediffmai
                            l.com
Mr. Roopa Naik              Mr. Ramakrishnegowda        Mr. R.M. Patil
Spoorthy Samsthe            Prayog                      BIRDS
Near KEB, 2nd Cross         Huladenahalli via Tekal     Naganur, Gokak Taluk
Honnali – 577213            Malur Taluk                 Belgaum – 591319
Davanagere District.        Kolar – 563137.             Ph : 9448110979
08188-291550                9448321996                  birds@naganur.com
9448976910                  gowdark2007@yahoo.co.i
spoorthy.hnl@gmail.com      n

                                                                          57
Mr Doddaiah                 Mr. Rajegowda                Mr. Ramakantha
MMM Society                 Parivarthana                 Shree    Kantha   Vidya
Bangalore(u)                Rajiv Gandhi Nagar, Opp      Samsthe
Karnataka.                  APMC Bypass Road             Prema Nilaya Devaraj Urs
                            Hunsur, Mysore – 571105      Road Vidyanagar
                            Ph : 08222-252827            Hassan – 573201
                            9342220461                   9243593391
                            pari_varthana@yahoo.co.i
                            n
Mr. B. Shivaraje Gowda      Mr. G.L. Janardhan           Mr. Kumar
Samruddi                    KIDS                         SWARADA (SNKS)
Puttadasu Raod              No.70, Rathnakara Nagar      Asagodu Road, Pallagatte
Kanakapura – 562117         Extn. Abbalagere             (at post) Davanagere
Bangalore Rural District    Shimoga – 577222             - 577513
9448733838                  ph: 08182-240688             9880649048
shivarajsamruddi@gmail.c 9480431983                      swardango_india@rediffm
om                                                       ail.com
Mr. Krishna Naik            Mr. Narayanappa              Mr. Shivakumar
VANDANA                     Prakruthi                    PRERANA
Thalak – 577543             Seegenahalli.   P.B.    9,   64, 1st Mail Road, Near
Near       Bus       Stand, Kappalamadagu        Post,   Rayan Circle, Chamrajpet
Challakere           Taluk, Mulbagal Taluk,              Bangalore – 560 018
Chitradurga District        Kolar – 563125               Ph: 41252263/65337823/
Ph : 08193-206759           Ph: 9900567566               9702525338
9448969414                  prakruthi1@rediffmail.co     Email:
                            m                            prerana@gmail.com
Mr. B. N. Joshi             Mr. K.S.Vittala              Mr. Sanjeeva Kudpaje,
Yuwaka Vikas Kendra         BKS Mudegere                 RUDSET,
Bijapur                     Chikkamaglore                Dakshina Kannada
Karnataka                   Karnataka                    Karnataka
                            Ph:
Mr. V.S. Roy David,         Mr. Verghese Cleutus,        Smt. Tara Rao,
Coorg Organisation for VIKASANA,                         “Spandana”,
Rural Development,          Tarikere                     Sawalanger Village     &
        th
4-312, 4 Block,             Chikkamagalur                Post,
Kushalnagar,                District                     Davanagere Taluk,
Kodagu District                                          Davanagere
08276-274091/274937
Mob:9448476091
Email:vsroydavid@gmail.

                                                                           58
com
www.cordkarnataka.org




V) Tamil Nadu

Sl. Disctrict   NGOs/NGOs         Institutions     Movements   Individuals
No.             Networks
1.  Thoothu     Mr.Rajendra       Mr. Murugan
    kudi        Prasad            Gramiya
                SINFPAD,          Munnetra
                2/26, Sebastian   Sangam
                Kovil             7/133-5,
                Street,Vembar,    Puthumanai
                TNThoothukudi     Loba
                04638 262171,     Matrriculation
                Cell:944304180    High School
                4                 Eral,
                padgom@gmail.     Thoothukudi
                com,              District
                www.padgom.or     Cell:
                g                 9443416169
2.   Dindigul
                Mr.Paul
                Baskar
                PEACE Trust
                Trichy    Road,
                Dindigul,
                Tamilnadu,
                India
                91-451-2410
                021, F: 91-451-
                2410 372
                peacetrust@vsnl
                .com ,
                www.peacetrust.
                org.in


                                                                     59
               Mr.Antony
               Samy
               TNCT
               98 A, Kooturavu
               Nagar,     Opp.
               Beschi College,
               Dindigul - 624
               005.
               91-451-
               2431090, F: 91-
               451-2431040
               tnecindia@yah
               oo.com
               www.cedatrust.
               in


               Mr.
               Muthuchamy
               ECHO trust
               Batlagundu,
               Dindigul
               District,
               Tamilnadu
               Cell:     94438
               29989
               Mail:
               echo_trust@redi
               ffmail.com
3.   Virudhu                     Mr.
     nagar                       Thuraipandi
                                 Pasumai
                                 Bharatha
                                 Iyakkam,(Mo
                                 vement    for
                                 Green Nation)
                                 Balaji
                                 Commercial

                                                 60
                                                       Complex,
                                                       Srivilliputhur,
                                                       Tamilnadu
                                                       Ph:093610299
                                                       66

4.   Madurai   Mr.                  Ms.                Mr.
               Balasubramani        Pasumpon,          Nagalingam
               yan                  (NGO
               ADISIL(Agrari        respresentative-   TPTMS
               an Development       Thesia Pasumai     No: 1, 3rd
               Institute     for    Padai)             Street,
               Sustenance and       Government         Maruthu
               Improved             Higher             Pandian
               Livelihood)          Secondary          Nagar,
               15/B,     Pioneer    School,            Narimedu,
               Colony,              Vadakkampatti      Madurai
               Thirumangalam,       Madurai            Cell:
               Madurai         -    district           9486113744
               625706,              Tamilnadu
               Tamilnadu.           Cell:98426885
               09842048317          85
               www.adisil.org

               Mr. Marirajan        Dr.    Samuel
               JASuL(Joint          Paulraj
               Action        for
               Sustainable          Department of
               Livelihoods)         Natural
               No: 1, 3rd street,   Resources and
               Maruthu              Waste
               Pandian Nagar,       Recycling,
               Narimedu,            School     of
               Madurai,             Energy
               Tamilnadu            Sciences,
               Cell:                Madurai
               9442524545           Kamaraj
               Mr.                  University    ,
               Sivashanthaku        Madurai,Tamil
               mar                  nadu

                                                                         61
               CAFAT(Collec       Ph: 0452 -
               tive Action for    2458689
               Forest Adivasis    Mail:
               in Tamilnadu)      spraj1951@yah
               HUMANE             oo.com
               Trust              url:
               “Vijayala”V.G.     www.makuinci
               P.Hill             nerator.com
               Resort,Observat
               ory
               (P.O),Dindigul
               Dist,Kodaikanal
               –            624
               102TamilNadu
               .Phone: 04542 –
               241741.
               humanetrust@re
               diffmail.com

5.   Erode
                                                    Dr.
                                                    Jeevanandha
                                                    m
                                                    Thamilaga
                                                    Pasumai
                                                    Iyakkam,No;
                                                    45, Kalimagal
                                                    Kalvi Salai,
                                                    Nilayam
                                                    Street, Erode.
                                                    Cell       No:
                                                    09442272773
6.   Coimbat
     ore                          Ms.               Mr. Anand
                                  Geethalakshm      Project
                                  i                 Green Hands,
                                  Agro Climate      Velliangiri
                                  Research          Foot      Hills
                                  Centre,TamilN     Semmedu(P.O
                                  adu Agriculture   )

                                                                      62
                University,       Coimbatore
                Coimbatore,       641 114
                Tamilnadu         0422-251548
                Cell:             info@projectg
                9994433479        reenhands.org
                Ph:       0422-   url:
                6611519           www.projectg
                                  reenhands.co
                                  m

7.   Tirunelv   Dr.
     eli        Arunachalam
                Prof & Head
                Sri
                Paramakalyani
                centre      for
                Environmental
                Science
                Alwarkurichi,
                Manonmaniam
                Sundaranar
                University
                Cell:    94431
                84735
                Ph:       0461-
                2391618
8.   Kanyaku
     mari                         Dr.Udhayaku      Mr. LalMohan
                                  mar              Individual
                                  People’s         Conservation of
                                  Movement         Nature Trust
                                  Against          Lagrace – 43-C
                                  AntiNuclear,     Water      Tank
                                  42/27, Esankai   Road
                                  Mani Veethi,     Nagercoil – 1
                                  Parakkai Road
                                  Juncition,
                                  Nagercoil
                                  Kanyakumari
                                  District,

                                                         63
                                     Tamilnadu
                                     Ph:    04652
                                     240657


9.    Trichy     Mr.      Oswald     Mr.
                 Quintal             Nammalvar
                 LEISA Network       Pioneer
                 No:           17,   Organic
                 Highways            Farming
                 Colony              Movement
                 Subramaniyapur      17/9, 5th Cross
                 am                  Srinivas
                 Trichy 620 020      Nagar
                 Ph: 0431 2331       Thiruvanaikoil
                 878                 Trichy – 620
                 2331842             005
                 Mail:               Cell: 94425
                 kudumbamtry@        31699
                 eth.net             Mail:
                 Mr. Rajaram         gnammalvar@
                 Soil Association    yahoo.co.in
                 No:51,
                 Vekkaliamman
                 Mansion
                 No: 1, Allithurai
                 Road
                 Trichy – 600
                 017
                 Mail:
                 soilraja@rediff
                 mail.com

10.   Villupur
      am         Mr. Martin
                 VCDS (Village
                 Community
                 Development
                 Society)
                 Vellakulam

                                                       64
               Kilsivri Post
               Via
               Brahmadesam
               Dindivanam
               Taluk
               Villupuram
               District 604 301
               Ph:        04147
               232234
               Fax: 04147 250
               566
11.   Pudukott Mr.                 Mr.      Maram
      ai       Mariaselvam         Thangasamy
               Nature Trust        Karpaga Solai,
               27,      Ayyanar    Chenthankudi,
               Nagar               Via
               Near                Keeramangalam
               Sathyamoorthy       ,
               Nagar               Alankudi Taluk
               Pudukottai      –   Pudukottai
               622 001.            District      –
               Cell:               614624
                                   Cell:
                                   9786604177

12.   Theni
                Dr. Marimuthu

                CENDECT
                Kamatchipuram
                (p.o) – 20
                Theni District
                Ph: 04546 –
                247245
                Mail:
                cendectkvk@red
                iffmail.com

13.   Cuddalor Mr. Anandaraj
      e        Green trust

                                         65
                10/688,    Raja
                Nivas
                Ooty     Mysore
                Road
                Guddalore taluk
                Nilgris – 643
                212
                Cell:944232843
                1


14.   Nammak Mr. Raju
      kal    CIRD
             1 – 11 – 40,
             Mullai Nagar
             Mohanur road
             Namakkal -1
             Ph:      04286
             228088
             Cell:
             9842429710


15.   Kanchee
      puram     Mr.       Aalai   Dr.             Mr.
                Elango            Santhanam       Jeyachandran
                GATE              Humanist        Ariyanoor
                123/2,   Sidhar   Movement        Village
                Vanam             Jeevan Siddha   Periyavenmani
                Alathur – 603     Clinic          Post
                110               2A/5,           Nadavanthangal
                Kancheepuram      Mampalam        Taluk
                District          High Road       Kancheepuram
                Cell:             T. Nagar        District
                9884395189        Chennai 600     Ph:     044   –
                                  017             2753968
                9361349219        Cell:           Cell:
                                  9444010935      9444894181
                                  Mail:
                                  sandansusai@

                                                        66
                                 yahoo.com

16.   Karur   Ms.       Ursula
              Nathan
              Trust for Rural
              Development
              Opp. E.B.Office
              Kavalkaranpatti
              – 621 313
              Kulithalai Taluk
              Karur District
              Cell:
              9486190008
              Email:
              trd_ursula@yah
              oo.com




                                             67
ANNEXURE – 2

   List of maps showing the working areas of Civil Society Actors




                                                                    68
69
70
71
72

				
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