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MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES - notes

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					            MUSIC THROUGH THE AGES
I.     Antiquity/Ancient Music (prehistoric – 200 AD)
       A.     Music Development Theories
               1.      Match rhythmic sounds with human movement – chanting,
                       clapping, stomping, etc.
               2.      Imitate Nature – birds, ocean, rain, caves, etc.
               3.      Spontaneous vocal expression of emotion – anger, fear,
                       anguish, joy, etc.
               4.      communication – drums, trumpets, horns, bones
       B.     Proof of Music
               1.      Cave drawings
               2.      Instruments have been found – whistles, drums, bones, sticks
               3.      Oral and written stories that have been passed down
       C.     Why music was created
               1.      Accompany rituals or ceremonies – dances, births, deaths,
                       hunting, marriage, religion, etc.
               2.      Tell a story
               3.      Express emotion and communicate
               4.      Magical powers – thought to affect character, life and well-
                       being
       D.     Greeks
               1.      Developed one of the first notation systems
               2.      Created first music festival in 586 BC
               3.      Greek words – music, rhythm, harmony, and cymbal
               4.      Depicted instruments – lyre and kithara (small harp)
                                                Syrinx (panpipes)
                                                Tympanon (timpani)
                                                Hydraulus (water organ)

 Create drumming signals or calls
 Listen to Planet Drum CD and other forms of Egyptian and African style music
II.   Medieval (200 – 1400 AD)
      A.   General Facts and Historical Events
             1.    Civilizations become more distinct
             2.    1203 – Genghis Khan begins conquering and pillaging
             3.    1209 – St. Francis of Assisi forms order of brotherhood
             4.    1271 – Marco Polo begins journey to the Orient
             5.    1337 – Beginning of the 100 yr. war b/w France and England
             6.    1347- Black Death, 75 million people die (1/3 of the world)
             7.    1364 – Aztecs build capital city of Tenochtitlan
      B.   Music Facts
             1.    We begin to divide into different styles of music according to
                   region
             2.    Western music (European) develops around 300 AD
             3.    The music of the Roman church becomes the basis for
                   Western music
      C.   Chant
             1.    600 AD Pope Gregory I collected chants and arranged them
                   in the order they are sung today
             2.    also called plainchant
             3.    notated by Guido d’Arezzo (also created solfege) - staff had
                   4 lines and square notes
             4.    a cappella and unison
             5.    sung in Latin, text from Bible
             6.    no printing press, 1 large song book for everyone
             7.    900 AD Music became more eleaborate and 2 parts develop
      D.   Sacred vs. Secular – religious vs. non-religious
             1.    Common themes in secular music
                a.    emotions – love
                b.    daily life – farming
             2.    How music was used
                a.    to express emotions
                b.    for entertainment
                c.    to praise God
      E.   Composers
                1.    Anonymous
                2.    Perotin
                3.    Leonin
      F.   Instruments
             1.       Use of Instruments
                a.    to imitate voices (sacred)
                b.    used for dances (secular)
             2.       Instruments
                a.    lutes – early guitars
                b.    harps
                 c.     strings (cellos, violin)
                 d.     recorders
                 e.     dulcimer

 Listen to music from different regions: Asian, Middle Eastern, African,
  Gregorian Chant, and Aztec music
 Create notation system:
      o Explain to students that they live in a time when music has never been
          written down.
      o They must create their own notation system. They can not use the staves
          or notes.
      o Their symbols should be based on the theme for their song.
      o They must give the song a title.
      o Must be typed in powerpoint, word, or any draw program.
      o Rubric:
               20 points – long/short values
               20 points – hi/low pitches
               10 points – key that defines the symbols
               10 points – rests
               10 points – originality
               10 points – artistry
               10 points – title
               10 points - legibility
III. Renaissance (1400-1600)
       A.    Historical Events
               1.      1431 – Joan of Arc burned at the stake
               2.      1455 – Printing Press was invented
               3.      1475 – Michaelangelo was born
               4.      1492 – Columbus discovers America
               5.      1500 – First pencil
               6.      1517 – Martin Luther posts 95 theses
               7.      1553 – Violin began to develop
               8.      1564 – Shakespeare was born
      B.     General Facts
               1.      After the dark ages, the period of enlightenment
               2.      The rebirth of humanism
               3.      More artistic freedom
      C.     Instruments
               1.      Violin was developed
               2.      Lute was at the height of popularity
               3.      Bagpipes were created and played on Scottish battlefields
               4.      Clavichord was developed (early piano)
               5.      Instruments were used for dance music
               6.      Instrumentalists began to improvise
      D.     Vocal Music
               1.      Chant is still used in church and by monks
               2.      Mass was created (sung part of the Eucharist)
               3.      Motets – sacred pieces
               4.      Madrigals – Italian secular pieces
               5.      Chansons – French secular songs
               6.      Secular music began to sing about courtly love (new idea)
               7.      Women made music outside of church and were gradually
                       allowed to sing in church
               8.      Men’s voices imitated women
      E.     Composers
               1.      William Byrd
               2.      Giovanni Gabrielli
               3.      Giovanni Palestrina
               4.      John Dowland
      F.     Ars Nova (New Art)
               1.      Creativity
               2.      Improvisation
               3.      Composers emphasized human emotions
               4.      Music became more lively and up beat
               5.      Polyphony was developed (canon-round)
 Listen to madrigals, motets, Spanish guitar and lute music
 Listen and describe music as sacred/secular, unison/harmony, vocal/instrumental
IV. Baroque (1600-1750)
    A.   Historical Events
          1.      1609 – Galileo made the first observations with a telescope
          2.      1620 – Mayflower arrived in America
          3.      1705 – Virginia Act established public education
          4.      Slavery in America is at it’s height
    B.   General Facts
          1.      People were either really wealthy or really poor (no middle
                  class)
          2.      Lifestyles became more elaborate (fancy)
          3.      Rise in drama, theater, painting, architecture, and music
                  (entertainment)
    C.   Music Facts
          1.      Sharp dynamic contrasts
          2.      The livelihood of musicians started to come from the public
          3.      Opera was invented
          4.      Music became ornate
          5.      Music expressed emotion (even in church music)
          6.      Piano is invented, but does not yet become popular
          7.      Opera and other performances become accessible to the
                  general public
          8.      Brass instruments used more often
    D.   Composers
          1.      J. S. Bach
             a.     composed for the church
             b.     played the organ and violin
             c.     wrote for organ and keyboards mainly
             d.     had 20 children, 5 of which became musicians
             e.     wrote Toccata and Fugue in D minor and Jesu, Joy of
                    Man’s Desiring
          2.      Antonio Vivaldi
             a.     ordained priest
             b.     wrote 40 operas and 500 concertos
             c.     played violin
             d.     wrote for strings mainly (violin solos)
             e.     wrote The Four Seasons
          3.      George Frederic Handel
             a.     played clavichord
             b.     composed for the church
             c.     wrote for orchestra and choir
             d.     composed Messiah ( 3 sections depicting 3 sections of
                    Jesus’ life)
             e.     composed Water Music ( written for King George I)
       E.     Instruments
                1.    Harpsichord and strings are the most popular instruments
                2.    Instrument families were combined to form small groups
                3.    Composers wrote solos for instruments
                4.    Dance music was popular
                   a.   gigue – lively tempo
                   b.   waltz – slow, stately tempo
                5.    Types of keyboards
                   a.   organ
                   b.   harpsichord
                   c.   clavichord
       F.     Types of Works
                1.    Fugue – keyboards
                2.    Chamber Music – strings mainly, small orchestra
                3.    Symphony – large orchestra
                4.    Opera – solo singers and orchestra
                5.    Oratorio – choir and orchestra, tells a sacred story


 Listen to Bach (fugues & chorales), Vivaldi (Four Seasons & Gloria), and Handel
  (Water Music & Messiah)
 Listen and describe music as fugue, chamber music, symphony, opera, or oratorio
V.   Classical (1750-1820)
     A.   Historical Events
           1.      1750 – Benjamin Franklin discovers electricity through
                   lightening
           2.      1765 First Steam Engine
           3.      1773 Boston Tea Party
           4.      1781 Revolutionary War ends
           5.      1803 Louisiana Purchase
     B.   General Facts
           1.      Rise of democracy
           2.      History is officially recorded
           3.      First vaccine is developed
           4.      Discovered oxygen, hydrogen, and electricity
     C.   Music Facts
           1.      Melodies are strong and easy to hum or sing along with
           2.      Piano becomes popular
           3.      Opera was very popular
           4.      Trumpet has keys (valves)
           5.      Austria and Italy become important music centers
           6.      Music is light, elegant, and fun
           7.      Ballet begins and becomes popular
     D.   Composers
           1.      Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
              a.     child prodigy
              b.     began playing piano at age 3
              c.     began composing at age 4 and touring by age 7
              d.     composed an opera at age 12
              e.     wrote string quartets, 12 operas, and 41 symphonies
              f.     Magic Flute – comic opera
              g.     A Little Night Music – sonata
           2.      Joseph Hayden
              a.     composed 107 symphonies
              b.     Farewell Symphony – at the end, performers leave stage
                     while others continue to play
              c.     Surprise Symphony – wanted to wake everyone up!
           3.      Ludwig van Beethoven
              a.     bridges the gap between Classical and Romantic
     E.   Types of Works
           1.      Opera – comic and serious (full orchestra, choir, solos)
           2.      Sonata – small ensemble with solo instruments
           3.      concerto – full orchestra alternating with solo or small group
           4.      symphony – full orchestra (larger than Baroque)
           5.      string quartet – 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello
 Listen to Mozart (Abduction of Sereaglio, Queen of the Night, & Eine Kleine
  Nacht Musik) and Hayden (Surprise Symphony)
VI. Romantic (1820-1900)
    A.   Historical Events
           1.     1828 – First passenger and freight railroad
           2.     1835 – Mark Twain is born
           3.     1836 – Texas wins its’ independence from Mexico
           4.     1837 – Music Education begins in Boston
           5.     1844 – YMCA founded
           6.     1848 – Gold discovered in California
           7.     1860 – Abraham Lincoln becomes president
           8.     1861 – Civil War begins
           9.     1864 – Slavery ends
           10.    1874 – First American Zoo in Philadelphia
           11.    1876 – National Baseball League founded
           12.    1895 – Babe Ruth is born
           13.    1900 – Radio waves transmit human voice/speech
    B.   General Facts
           1.     Difficult political times in Europe (b/c of democracy
           2.     Pianos become common in homes
           3.     Slavery ended in America
           4.     Nationalistic music becomes popular
           5.     Impressionistic art becomes popular (less detail, more mood)
    C.   Music Facts
           1.     Greater variety of instruments, especially woodwinds
           2.     Melodies are longer
           3.     Music becomes more dramatic and emotional
           4.     Tempos and dynamics are more extreme
           5.     Program music becomes popular – music portrays events or
                  tells a story
           6.     Opera becomes very popular
           7.     Musicals begin to be written (lighter version of opera)
           8.     France and Russia become strong music centers
    D.   Instruments
           1.     Brass instruments have valves and become more popular
           2.     Piano becomes the dominant instrument
           3.     Orchestra gets larger
           4.     New woodwinds invented (oboe, bassoon and saxophone)
           5.     Virtuosos become popular – exceptional soloists
    E.   Composers
           1.     Ludwig van Beethoven
              a.    German
              b.    Began going deaf in his early 30’s
              c.    Composed for piano and orchestras
              d.    Fur Elise, Moonlight Sonata, 9th Symphony, and 5th
                    Symphony, Ode to Joy
              2.     Chopin – piano
              3.     Shubert – art songs
              4.     Robert and Claire Schumann – piano
              5.     Wagner – opera
              6.     Tchaikovsky – ballets and symphonies (The Nutcracker)
              7.     Brahms – piano
              8.     Verdi – opera
              9.     Faure – art songs
              10.    Sousa – marches (first American composer mentioned)
      F.     Types of Works
              1.     Ballet
              2.     Opera
              3.     Symphony
              4.     Concertos
              5.     Symphonic Poem (Program Music) – Sorcerer’s Apprentice
              6.     Art song – vocal solo, emphasis on text


 Listen to Beethoven (Fur Elise, Moonlight Sonata, 9th Symphony, 5th Symphony,
  and Ode to Joy), Chopin, Tchaikovsky (Nutcracker), Wagner (Ride of the
  Valkeries), Puccini (O Mio Babino), Faure (art song), and Sousa (Stars and
  Stripes Forever)
VII. 20th Century (1900-present)
     A.   Historical Events
            1.     1914 – WWI
            2.     1920 – Women get the right to vote
            3.     1929 – Stock Market crashes, Great Depression begins
            4.     1939 – WWII, Germany invades Poland
            5.     1959 – Alaska and Hawaii become states
            6.     1961 – First astronaut in space (Alan Shephard 1st American)
            7.     1965 – U.S. sends troops to Vietnam
            8.     1969 – Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the moon
            9.     1989 – Berlin wall is torn down
            10.    2001 – September 11th, attack on the World Trade Center and
                   Pentagon
     B.   General Facts
            1.     Technology is created and advances at an amazing rate
               a.    light bulb (electricity)
               b.    radio
               c.    television
               d.    computers
               e.    personal computers
            2.     Global communication and transportation
               a.    telephone
               b.    radio and television
               c.    computers – email and internet
               d.    automobile
               e.    airplane
     C.   Music Facts
            1.     World music is greatly influenced by global communication
                   and transportation
            2.     Sound recording industry is created
            3.     Gap grows between classical and popular music
            4.     Electric instruments are created (main reason for gap)
            5.     All sounds are possible – very experimental (no rules)
            6.     Dissonance is added in great amounts to classical music
            7.     Strong interest in folk music is explored in classical music
            8.     America and Britain become a strong music influence
     D.   Instruments
            1.     Player piano
            2.     Electric guitar
            3.     Electric keyboards (piano and organ)
            4.     Synthesizers (electric keyboards that imitate sounds)
            5.     Electric woodwinds
            6.     Mixers
     E.   Composers
            1.     Scott Joplin – father of ragtime
            2.     George Gershwin – took jazz to the concert hall (symphony)
               3.     Aaron Copeland – classical, orchestral, folk
               4.     Leonard Bernstein – orchestral, jazz influenced
               5.     Duke Ellington – father of swing
               6.     Igor Stravinsky – classical, orchestral
               7.     Rogers & Hammerstein - musicals
               8.     John Rutter - choral
               9.     Andrew Lloyd Weber - musicals
               10.    Elvis – blues, early rock
               11.    Beatles – rock ‘n roll
               12.    Michael Jackson – rock/pop
               13.    Madonna - pop
               14.    U2 – rock
               15.    Rolling Stones - rock
               16.    B.B. King – blues
               17.    Pearl Jam - grunge
      F.     Styles
               1.     Orchestral
               2.     Choral & vocal
               3.     Operas and musicals
               4.     Revolutionary
               5.     Folk – tells a story
               6.     Blues – African American
               7.     Gospel – African American Christian
               8.     Rock ‘N Roll
               9.     Jazz – African American
               10.    Country

 Listen to Copeland (Rodeo & Appalachian Spring), Gershwin (piano rolls),
  Rogers & Hammerstein (Sound of Music), Elvis (Hound Dog), Beatles (I Wanna
  Hold Your Hand), Tokens (Lion Sleeps Tonight), Aretha Franklin (Respect)
 Antiquity/Ancient Music
  (prehistoric – 200 AD)



 Medieval (200 – 1400 AD)



 Renaissance (1400-1600)


   Baroque (1600-1750)



  Classical (1750-1820)



   Romantic (1820-1900)



20th Century (1900-present)

				
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posted:10/25/2011
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