Gender diversity

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					 Gender
diversity
Part A
14 differences between men and women.

Part B
High masculinity cultures.

Part C
Low masculinity cultures.
  Part A
14 differences
between men
 and women
      #1
 Companies with
more women in top
 management are
 more successful
       Fortune 500 companies with the highest
       percentages of women board directors
       outperformed those with the least by 66%
       measured by return on invested capital.




Source:
http://www.catalyst.org/press-release/73/companies-with-more-women-board-directors-experience-
higher-financial-performance-according-to-latest-catalyst-bottom-line-report
https://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Changing_companies_minds_about_women_2858
     Firms with women in top positions perform better -
     especially if the firms pursue an innovation intensive
     strategy, in which creativity and collaboration are
     especially important.




Source:
2008 study on the top 1,500 U.S. companies from 1992 to 2006.
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-end-of-men/8135/?single_page=true
     #2
There are more
male CEOs than
 female CEOs
      12 Fortune 500 companies have
             a woman as CEO




Source: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2011/womenceos/
Source: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2011/womenceos/
                                         #3
    The greater the
 power of women, the
  greater a country’s
  economic success
Source:
OECD research.
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-end-of-men/8135/?single_page=true
       #4
   Women rate
meaning higher than
  pay and status.
   Men do not.
                  Men                                        Women
Most men rate pay and       Most women rate meaning
status higher than meaning. higher than pay and status.




Source:
Ms. Joanna Barsch, McKinsey & Company. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsWWbxLmIS8
      #5
Women have more
social competence
    than men
             Women experience more emotions
                     than men do




Source:
Ms. Joanna Barsch, McKinsey & Company. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsWWbxLmIS8
http://www.pixelio.de/details.php?image_id=476364&mode=search
       Women tend to be a little better than men
       on average at sensing in the moment what
       the other person is feeling.




Source:
Daniel Goleman.
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6368484
                 Girl babies pay attention to
                      facial expressions.

             Boy babies pay attention to toys.




Source
Frans de Waal. http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/200910236
             Empathy derives, originally,
                from maternal care.




Source:
Frans de Waal. http://youtu.be/UONxT4Tb3C0
            Women score significantly higher
           than men on measure of empathy.




Sources
http://youtu.be/Aq_nCTGSfWE, minute 6.
Frans de Waal. http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/200910236
                 Women have, on average, more
                 emotional intelligence than men.

                 Groups with more women therefore
                 tend to be smarter.




Source:
Thomas Malone.
http://www.niemanlab.org/2011/05/mit-management-professor-tom-malone-on-collective-intelligence-and-the-genetic-structure-of-groups/
       Women cooperate more than men in
       mixed-sex interactions.

       However, male-male interactions are
       more cooperative than female-female
       interactions.


Source:
Sex differences in cooperation: A meta-analytic review of social dilemmas.
Balliet, Daniel; Li, Norman P.; Macfarlan, Shane J.; Van Vugt, Mark.
Psychological Bulletin, Sep 12, 2011.
http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2011-20484-001/
            Females are rated on average
             as having greater levels of
           social competence than males.




Source:
http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/7216/1/umi-umd-4612.pdf, p. 4.
     #6
Women dominate
 men in social
  networking
     34% of women and 22% of men use social
     media to stay in touch with their coworkers




Source:
U.S. online adult population. http://mashable.com/2011/09/22/women-social-network/
          Women have 8% more Facebook
           friends on average than men.




Source:
Sheryl Sandberg, COO Facebook.
http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/20/why-women-rule-the-internet/
                  Men                                         Women
Men build wide networks but Women build deep
not deep relationships.     relationships but don’t have
                            wide networks.




Source:
Ms. Joanna Barsch, McKinsey & Company. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsWWbxLmIS8
http://www.pixelio.de/details.php?image_id=240660&mode=search
       #7
Men are more likely
  than women to
disregard guidance
    from others
    Studies show that men are more likely than
    women to disregard guidance from others.




Source:
Kelly E. See, Elizabeth Wolfe Morrison, Naomi B. Rothman, and Jack B. Soll:
“The decision-making flaw in powerful people.”
http://www.strategy-business.com/article/re00162?pg=all
    Men do not feel well when being interrupted.




Source
”Typisch Mann – typisch Frau.” Einstein, June 17th, 2010.
http://videoportal.sf.tv/video?id=3702ed16-d306-4aa8-a0f0-11716f6561bf
      #8
 Women’s voices
are more pleasing
   than men’s
     Scientific studies have shown that people
       generally find women's voices more
                 pleasing than men's.




Source:
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/tech/innovation/female-computer-voices/
      People listen to caring women
           and intelligent men




Source:
http://www.alive.dk/Nyheder/Samfund/2011-18-kvinder-irriterende-stemme.aspx
    #9
Men take more
  risks than
 women do
                                            Women live longer than
                                            men mostly because they
                                            avoid a risky lifestyle.

                                            Women avoid risk
                                            because they are primary
                                            care-givers.




Source:
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-human-beast/201008/why-women-live-longer-men
http://www.pixelio.de/details.php?image_id=480789&mode=search
                                     # 10
  The higher women climb up
   the corporate ladder, the
   fewer children they have.
  The reverse is true for men.
Source: http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/news_publications/pdf/women_matter_english.pdf, p. 16.
                                    # 11
            Women live
          longer than men

Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-end-of-men/8135/?single_page=true
                                    # 12
              Men are bigger
               than women

Source: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-end-of-men/8135/?single_page=true
          The body size of
        men is, on average,
        10% larger than that
            of women.
Sources:
Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 137 and 462.
http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/sport/aktuell/schwingfest_-_wenger_eilt_in_frauenfeld_von_sieg_zu_sieg_1.7292911.html
      # 13
   Men lie about
earnings. Women lie
 about their weight
              Men tend to lie about their
              earnings and their height.




            Women tend to lie about their
               age and their weight.



Source: http://23moments.com/why-men-lie-up-and-women-lie-down
      # 14
    Women like
 brighter colours
better than men do
                                                Favourite colours
                                                    of men




Source
Survey of 232 people from 22 countries.
http://advertiser-in-arabia.blogspot.com/2011/03/true-colors-colors-by-gender.html
   Favourite colours
      of women




Source
Survey of 232 people from 22 countries.
http://advertiser-in-arabia.blogspot.com/2011/03/true-colors-colors-by-gender.html
    Part B
High masculinity
    cultures
       Degree of differences    Degree of differences
           in tasks that            in tasks that
         girls/women and          girls/women and
       boys/men do at home      boys/men do at work

   Degree of                                  Expenditure on
  agression in                                maternity leave
solving conflicts                             and child care
                    Masculinity
Percentage of                                 Development aid
men/women in                                 in percent of GDP
 parliament
                         Percentage of
                       companies owned        Percentage of
   Percentage of          by women             men/women
   men/women in
                                             doing board work
management positions     Extent to which
                       religions are tough
  High
masculinity
 Gender cap index




Source: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2010.pdf, p. 19.
Male – female ratio
on Facebook




Source: http://russiansphinx.blogspot.com/2011/03/men-vs-women-on-facebook.html
        For Arab families, honor is one of the highest values.

        Since family honor is dependent upon female purity,
        extreme modesty and sexual segregation must be
        maintained at all times.




Source:
http://www.healthcarechaplaincy.org/userimages/Cultural_Spiritual_Sensitivity_Learning_%20Module%207-10-09.pdf, p. 22.
                Dupatta                                                Tudong
                                              Chador




                                                                                    Abaya
                                 Burqa                      Hijab
   Niquab




Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
An Afghan woman at the older part of Kabul




Source
Die Welt in Bildern. Eine Bildauswahl der NZZ-Redaktion. February 16th, 2011.
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
Source: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704529204576257272103463618.html
                            A woman in Saudi Arabia is
                             not allowed to drive a car.




Source:
http://www.ethlife.ethz.ch/archive_articles/100416_Globetrotter_Sabrina3_su/index_EN
                  In Riyadh, a city of 4.7 million people,
                     1 million people work as drivers.




Sources:
http://kolindkuren.dk/2008/03/07/saudi-arabien-effektivitet/
   In Saudi Arabia, women must obtain written permission
   from their closest male relative to leave the country or
   travel on public transportation between different parts
   of the kingdom.




Source:
http://www.ethlife.ethz.ch/archive_articles/100416_Globetrotter_Sabrina3_su/index_EN
http://listverse.com/2008/11/20/10-extreme-examples-of-gender-inequality/
    Behind the steering wheel, all Saudi men turn into
    testosterone-driven predators who stop for nothing
    and no one.

    Horrendous traffic accidents are therefore the norm.




Source
http://www.ethlife.ethz.ch/archive_articles/100604_globetrotter_sabrina5_su/index_EN
           Eine saudische Frau kann ohne Erlaubnis
           ihres Vormunds nicht ein Telefon kaufen.




Source:
http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/ausland/asien-und-ozeanien/Warum-saudische-Vaeter-ihren-
Toechtern-die-Hochzeit-verbieten-/story/20512583
    In Saudi Arabia, Saudi women accounted for less
     than 1% of the private-sector workforce in 2009.




Source: www.strategy-business.com/article/11209?pg=all
                   Of the 260 lingerie shops in
                 Jeddah, 5 are staffed by women.




Source: http://us.mobile.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6A91S820101110
    Women who want to establish their own businesses
    are obliged to hire a male manager in order to
    receive a commercial license.




Source: http://genderindex.org/country/saudi-arabia
Percentage of women in national parliaments




 Source: http://www.ubs.com/2/e/medlib/wmr/IGWM_spez_2010_en.pdf
                  Kuwait prohibits women
                 from working after 8 PM.




Source:
http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Scaling_up_-_why_women_-
_owned_business_can_recharge_the_global_economy/$FILE/WomensWork.pdf
, p. 10.
      In Swaziland, women require the permission of
      husbands or fathers to open a bank account or a
      business, obtain a passport or enforce a contract




Source:
http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Scaling_up_-_why_women_-
_owned_business_can_recharge_the_global_economy/$FILE/WomensWork.pdf
, p. 10.
Swazi people dancing




Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swaziland
    In Iraq, Libya, Jordan, Morocco, Oman and Yemen,
    married women must have their husband’s written
    permission to travel abroad.




Source: http://listverse.com/2008/11/20/10-extreme-examples-of-gender-inequality/
     After the revolution in Iran in 1979, many laws were passed
     that disadvantaged women greatly. These laws are still in
     force today.

     Example # 1
     The age at which girls can be tried at court is 9 – for boys 15.

     Example # 2
     A woman’s testimony is worth only half of that of a man.
     In practice, that means that a woman has to produce 2
     witnesses in the event of a rape, for example.



Source
Interview with Dr. Shirin Ebadi, first female judge in Iran and Nobel Peace Prize winner.
https://emagazine.credit-suisse.com/app/article/index.cfm?fuseaction=OpenArticle&aoid=292118&lang=EN
                     Girls are nurtured primarily to
                      think of marriage, children.




Source
Interview with Ms. Najda Al-Awadhi, CEO of Dubai Media.
http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/papers/download/20090311middleeast-english.pdf
Men earn 4 times more than women in Egypt




Source:
http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/global-markets-institute/featured-research/power-of-purse-doc.pdf
Female labour force participation




Source: http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/global-markets-institute/featured-research/power-of-purse-doc.pdf
 % of working age population




Source:
http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Scaling_up_-_why_women_-
_owned_business_can_recharge_the_global_economy/$FILE/WomensWork.pdf
, p. 29.
Percentage of women in national parliaments




Source:
http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/global-markets-institute/featured-research/power-of-purse-doc.pdf
 When jobs are scarce, men should have
 more right to a job




Source: http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1639/global-survey-gender-equality-women-rights-job-priority-education-girls
Global
competitiveness




                                                                        Global
Source: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2009.pdf, p. 25.
                                                                      gender cap
 Egypt




Source: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2010.pdf, p. 126.
          As of April, 2010, music, musical ringtones,
           movies and bras are banned in Somalia.




Source:
http://www.news.com.au/world/music-bras-banned-in-somalia/story-e6frfkyi-1225853365318
Working proportion of mothers with children under 6 years




Source:
http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/demographic-change/womenomics-2011/right-column/womenomics3.pdf, p. 10.
2001 numbers.
              In Japan, a woman’s marriage
               chances diminish if she has a
                    career of her own.




Source: Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 154.
  Average number of hours per day fathers spend
       on household chores and childcare




Source:
http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/demographic-change/womenomics-2011/right-column/womenomics3.pdf, p. 14.
              Female graduates and post-graduates
                     in % of total graduates




Source: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/09/female-graduation-rates?fsrc=scn/tw/te/mt/degreesofequality
                   Right to vote for women
  Year                             Country
  1893                             New Zealand

  1913                             Norway

  1963                             Iran

  1971                             Switzerland

  2005                             Kuwait

  2015                             Saudi Arabia

Sources:
http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/suffrage.htm
http://www.mba.unisg.ch/org/es/mba.nsf/SysWebRessources/March-April/$FILE/Norway.pdf
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/middle-east/Royal-reprieve-for-Saudi-woman-driver/articleshow/10177933.cms
   1971
   Women are allowed to vote at Swiss elections.

   1990
   Women are allowed to vote in Appenzell Innerrhoden.




Source: http://demokratie.geschichte-schweiz.ch/chronologie-frauenstimmrecht-schweiz.html
      Seit 1971 ist die Schweiz eine Demokratie.
      Vorher war sie eine Männerherrschaft.
                              Mr. Franz von Däniken.
                              Ehemaliger Staatssekretär, Schweiz.




Source: Das Magazin, nr. 41, Oktober 2009.
5% women in Top Management




Source
http://www.schillingreport.ch/upload/public/5/4173/schillingreport_2011_DE_web.pdf, page 49.
           Alice Stümcke, CEO de Sede Group,
           beschäftigt in der Geschäftsleitung
           50% Frauen, im Kader 33%.




Source: http://www.getdiversity.ch/images/content/medien/Bilanz%2013_2010.pdf
Percentage of women in management
of 10 largest Swiss companies




Source: http://www.getdiversity.ch/images/content/medien/Bilanz%2013_2010.pdf
             Frauen verdienen in der Privatwirtschaft
                   im Schnitt noch immer fast
                 24% weniger als die Männer.




Source
Vergleichende Analyse der Löhne von Frauen und Männern anhand der Lohnstrukturerhebungen 1998 bis 2006.
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/03/22/lexi.Document.112211.pdf, p. 83.
                                                                                                    CHF




Source
Vergleichende Analyse der Löhne von Frauen und Männern anhand der Lohnstrukturerhebungen 1998 bis 2006.
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/03/22/lexi.Document.112211.pdf
                                                                                         CHF




Source
Vergleichende Analyse der Löhne von Frauen und Männern anhand der Lohnstrukturerhebungen 1998 bis 2006.
http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/03/22/lexi.Document.112211.pdf
   BMW was forced to recall a female-voiced navigation
   system on its 5 Series cars in the late 1990s after
   being flooded with calls from German men saying
   they refused to take directions from a woman.




Source:
http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/tech/innovation/female-computer-voices/
   Part C
Low masculinity
   cultures
Percentage of women in senior management




Source: http://www.getdiversity.ch/images/content/medien/WiB_11_06_Krabbenkorb.pdf
                Female managers are virtually
             nonexistent in Japan, but frequent
               in the Philippines and Thailand.




Source: Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 137.
     In the USA as well as in other masculine cultures
     such as Britain and Ireland, there is a feeling that
     conflicts should be resolved by a good fight.
     ”Let the best man win.”

     In femine cultures such as the Netherlands,
     Sweden, and Denmark, there is a preference
     for resolving conflicts by compromise and
     negotiation.


Source: Hofstede, Geert: Cultures and Organizations, p. 166.
Self confidence



          2                                           1
       Forcing                                    Cooperating


                                      3
                                 Compromising


         5                                             4
      Avoiding                                      Adapting

Source: Adapted from Blake & Mouton (1964)      Cooperative behaviour
     Prime Minister David Cameron has written to heads
     of government across the globe from Canada to
     Australia, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu, calling it
     an “anomaly” that, in an age of gender equality, the
     monarchy continues to enshrine male superiority.




Source: http://www.economist.com/node/21532321?fsrc=scn/tw/te/ar/equalityandthemonarchy
Public expenditure on child care and
pre-school education services




Source: http://assets.unicef.ch/downloads/rc8_eng.pdf
GDP per capita
(USD in thousands)




                                                                        Global
Source: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2010.pdf, p. 29.   gender cap
   Female employment rate in percent




Source: http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/demographic-change/womenomics-2011/right-column/womenomics3.pdf, p. 10.
Source: http://www.mckinsey.com/locations/swiss/news_publications/pdf/women_matter_english.pdf
Percentage of women on boards of Norway’s
public listed companies




Source: http://www.mba.unisg.ch/org/es/mba.nsf/SysWebRessources/March-April/$FILE/Norway.pdf
  2002
  Ansgar Gabrielsen, Minister of Trade and Industry in
  Norway, proposed - as a voluntary measure - a quota
  suggesting that, until July 2005, 40% of board members
  in Norwegian companies are female.

  2005
  The government introduced legislation. Firms were
  penalized first with fines, then with deregistration from
  the Oslo Stock Exchange and finally dissolution, if they
  didn’t reach the quota by January 1st, 2008.



Source: http://www.mba.unisg.ch/org/es/mba.nsf/SysWebRessources/March-April/$FILE/Norway.pdf
   The law was not about getting equality between the
   sexes; it was about the fact that diversity is a value
   in itself, that it creates wealth.

                                                         Mr. Ansgar Gabrielsen




Sources:
http://www.mba.unisg.ch/org/es/mba.nsf/SysWebRessources/March-April/$FILE/Norway.pdf
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOE3deWjE0Q
        In Spain, 6.6% of board seats are currently filled by
        women.

        Companies will have until 2015 to ensure women
        make up 40-60% of board positions.




Source
http://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/documents/Breaking%2520the%2520Mould%2520for%2520Women%2520Leaders%2
520-%2520could%2520boardroom%2520quotas%2520hold%2520the%2520key.pdf
Biggest advantages of
having women on boards

Advantage # 1
Better decisions due to more points of views.

Advantage # 2
More motivated workforce, because women
as well as men are represented on the board.




Source:
Ms. Annet Arris. http://youtu.be/-WvkSXjojwg, minute 9.
     Talented women, working in inclusive environments,
     bring in new ideas, values, and perspectives,
     alongside other benefits.

     These include new strategic input, less conflict, greater
     discussion, and debate about board decision-making.
     It is here that breakthrough strategies, creativity, and
     new ways doing business emerge.




Source: http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/12/make_the_argument_put_women_in.html
           ”The older you get, the more you
            are in favour of women quotas.”
                                         Ms. Annet Arris.




Source:
http://youtu.be/-WvkSXjojwg, minute 8.
Female labor-force participation rates have risen in Europe




Source: http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/demographic-change/women-hold-up-half-of-the-sky.pdf
                “Vivre la République à visage découvert, c'est
                une question de dignité et d'égalité.

                Le voile intégral dissout l'identité d'une
                personne dans celle d'une communauté.”

                                                                    Mme Michèle Alliot-Marie




Sources
http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2010/09/14/le-parlement-vote-l-interdiction-du-voile-integral_1411203_823448.html
     Le projet de loi, présenté par la ministre de la justice,
     Michèle Alliot-Marie, prévoit l'interdiction du port du
     voile intégral dans tout l'espace public, avec, à la clé,
     une amende de 150 euros en cas d'infraction. En cas
     de refus persistant, cette peine pourra être assortie d'un
     stage de citoyenneté.

     En outre, toute personne obligeant une femme à porter
     le voile intégral – niqab ou burqa – sera passible d'une
     peine d'un an d'emprisonnement et 30 000 euros
     d'amende.

Sources
http://www.publicsenat.fr/lcp/politique/parlement-vote-definitivement-linterdiction-burqa-36496
http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2010/09/14/le-parlement-vote-l-interdiction-du-voile-integral_1411203_823448.html
                Where 25% of French women working
                part-time say they want to work full-time,
                just 4% of Dutch women do.




Source: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/11/dutch_feminism
                  In the Netherlands, less than 10%
                  of women are employed full-time.




Source: http://www.slate.com/id/2274736
Norway




Source: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2010.pdf, p. 238.
      From 2011, 40% of people who are in management
      roles of Christlich Soziale Union (CSU), must be
      women.




Source:
http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/international/agenx_deutschland_csu_frauenquote_1.8193945.html

				
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Description: 14 differences between men and women. In addition, information about high masculinity and low masculinity cultures.