"Ovid Metamorphoses Book I"
1 Ovid Metamorphoses Book I 1. In nova: neut acc pl. agreeing with corpora fert: 3 sing pres act ind > fero, -rere, tuli, latum mutatas: fem acc pl 4 pp > muto, -are, -avi, -atum 2. corpora: neut pl acc > corpus, -oris (n) = body di: nom / voc masc pl > deus (di, deos, deum, dis, dis) = god coeptis: neut dat pl > coeptum, -i = beginning mutastis: synchopated > mutavistis > muto, -are, -avi, -atum 3. adspirate: pl. imperative > adspiro, -are, -avi, -atum: I breathe on, blow at ( + dat) (singular imperative = adspira) (cf. spiro) 4. perpetuus, -a, -um: continuous, forever, universal My mind brings to speak about forms changed into new bodies: gods, (for you have changed and so have those [bodies]), breathe my beginnings and bring down a continuous song from the beginning of the world to my own time. 5. mare: neut acc sing > mare, -is: sea (rem: this is a neuter i-stem noun) 6. orbe: masc abl sing > orbis, -is (m) the world; a ring, circle or anything round 7. moles, -is (f): an unstructured mass dixere = dixerunt 3rd pl perf act ind > dico, -ere, dixi, dictum indigestus, -a, -um: disordered, unarranged, confused moles, -is (f): a shapeless mass; a massive structure 8. pondus, -eris (n): weight 2 quicquam: relative pronoun > quisquam, quisquam, quicquam (declines like quis, quis, quid + suffex quam) = anyone, anything (used only after a negative) congesta: 4th pp > congero, -ere, -gessi, -gestum: I build up; I bring together (goes with ‗semina‘). ―Heaped up in one place [eodem]). 9. iunctarum: fem pl gen > iunctus, -a, -um: joined, united (4th pp > iungo, -are, -avi, -atum) semin, -inis (n): a seed; offspring; race; an essence, principle, source occasion, cause In all the world of nature, before the sea and the lands and the sky which touches everything, there was one aspect [face?], which they called Chaos – rough structures and disordered things, nor anything but unmoving weight and built-up things in the same [place], discordant semina [??] of things not well joined. 10. adhuc (adv) = up to this point praebebat: 3rd sing imperf act ind > praebebo, -ere, praebui, praebitum = I show, supply, approve, allow lumina: neut acc pl >lumen, -inis (n) = light, lamp, the eye Titan, Titanis (m) = Titan. (In this context, Titan is a poetic word for sun. It is nominative, going with nullus = no sunlight). 11. crescendo = gerund ( = growing) reparabat: 3rd sing impf act ind > reparo, -are = I repair, make new, restore cornua: neut acc pl > cornu, -us (n) / cornum, -i (n) = horn, as in horns of the moon (dat. with the compound verb reparo) 12. circumfuso: abl masc sing 4th pp > circumfundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusum = I pour around, I surround aere: aer, aeris (m): the lower air, the atmosphere around us (the ‗a‘ & ‗e‘ are pronounced as separate vowels—this is not a diphthong!) tellus, -uris (f): the earth (nb: despite the –us ending, tellus is feminine). 3 13. ponderibus: neut abl sing > pondus, -eris (n) = a weight; balance or equilibrium librata: 4th pp > libro, -are, -avi, -atum: I (hold in) balance; I swing, hold suspended, brandish. bracchia> bracchium,- i (n): arm, esp. the forearm. 14. margine > margo, -inis (m/f): a border, edge, boundary (margine = abl. place where in this instance of Ovid) porrexerat > porrigo, -rigere, -rexi, -rectum: I stretch out, extend, reach Up to this point, no Titian [i.e., no sun, no sunlight] supplied light to the world, nor did Phoebe restore the new horns [of the moon] for the growing [world? with mundo in line 10?], nor did the world, having been suspended by its weight, hang in the poured-around air, nor Amphitrite extend her arms upon the far edge of the world [i.e., the sea, aka Amphitrite, did not wrap her arms, i.e., the circle of water, around the edges of the earth]; 15. utque: although (?) illic (adv): there, at that place 16. instabilis, -e: unfirm, unstable, inconsistent innabilis, -e: something in which one cannot swim (>in+navis?) 17. lucis> lux, lucis (f): light egens = nom. participle, agreeing with aer > egeo, -ere, -ui: I am in need of (+gen, as here with lucis); I want, desire (+ abl) maneo, -ere, mansi, mansum: I stay, remain, wait; with gen. (as here): I wait for, await 18. obsto, obstare, -steti, -statum: I stand at, stand out; I stand against, resist, obstruct, hinder corpus, corporis (n): body, matter 4 19. calidis > calidus, -a, -um: warm, hot. umentia = lit. ‗wet things‘ > umeo, -ere: I wet, moisten umens, -entis = moist 20. siccis > siccus, -a, -um: dry pondus, -eris (n): weight; burden [‗things having weight (fought) with things lacking weight‘] [15-20]: and although there was earth in that place and sea and air, the earth was not firm, water was unswimable [i.e., too solid to swim through] and air [i.e., the sky] in need of light; her form awaited nothing, and one thing stood against another, because in [her] one body, cold fought with warm, wet with dry, soft with hard, and that which had no weight fought that which had weight. 21. melior: comparative adjective of bonus (bonus, melior, optimus) litem > lis, litis (f): dispute, legal controversy or legal action. dirimo, -imere, -emi, -emptum: I separate, divide; I halt or interrupt a dispute. 22. abscido, -cidere, -cidi, -cisum: I cut off 23. liquidus, -a, -um: flowing, liquid; clear, bright, serene spissus, -a, -um: thick, dense, close secerno, -cenere, -crevi, -cretum: I separate, divide, part, sunder [21-23] god and better nature separated this dispute. For he cut off lands from the sky and waves from the lands and divided water from denseness and air from sky [i.e., divided the dense element that made water unswimable and divided the upper atmosphere from the air around us]. 24. Quae: neut. acc. pl. referring to the four elements mentioned in 22-23. 5 evolvo, -volvere, - volui, -volutum: I roll out, roll forth; I unroll (a book, scroll) exemit > eximo, -imere, -emi, -emptum: I take out, take away; I take out and use; I remove: I free, release; I waste. (take ‗quae‘ at the beginning of the line as the object). Verbs of freeing take an abl. separation without a preposition. (Benn 214.1a). acervus, -i (m): a heap, pile 25. dissociata > dissocio, -are, -avi, -atum: I separate, sever, divide locis: abl. respect concors, concordis (adj w/ comp. & super.): concordant, harmonious, agreeing pace: abl. means ligo, -are, -avi, -atum: I bind, tie, connect 26. igneus, -a, -um: burning, fiery, glowing with heat > ignis, -is (m): fire convexus, -a, -um: vaulted, arched vis (acc: vim, abl. vi; plur vires, -ium) (f): power, strength, force pondus, ponderis (n): weight, balance, burden 27. emico, emicare, emicui, emicatum: I shine forth, gleam; I spring forth summus, -a, -um: highest (super. of superus) locus, -i (m): place, location arx, arcis (f): fortress, citadel, stronghold [24-27]: afterward, he unrolled these things, and sorted them out from a blind pile, he bound them in their places [i.e., with respect to their places; each in their proper places] in concord by means of peace: the power of the vaulted sky, firey and without weight, shone forth and it made for itself a place in the highest stronghold. 28. levitas, -atis (f): lightness 6 29. elementum, -i (n): element; first principle grandia > grandis, -e (adj): full-grown, great, large 30. circumfluus, -a, -um: flowing around 31. possedit > possido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I take possession of, have, hold coerceo, coercere, coercui, coercitum: I enclose, shut in [28-31] The air is closest to it [i.e., to the ether of the upper heavens] with respect to its lightness and location; the earth is denser than those [i.e., denser than the upper or lower atmospheres], and drags large elements and is pressed by its own weight; moisture, flowing around, has the final things [i.e., has last place] and encloses the solid orb [of the earth]. 32. dispono, -ponere, -posui, -positum: I put in different places, distribute quisquis >quisquis, quicquis (pronoun): whoever, whatever 33. congeriem > congeries, -ei (f): a heap, mass, pile secuit > seco, secare, secui, sectum: I cut sectam> 4th pp of seco (see above) 34. aequalis, -e (adj): equal, level; co-existent; same principo = abl. of time when (i.e., at first?) ne non aequalis: ‗ne non‘ is litotes, = ‗lest it (the earth) not be equal in from (in?) every part‘ 35. species, -ei (?) a seeing, view, look; shape, form, outward appearance; image glomero, -are, -avi, -atum: I form into a globe, sphere or rounded heap orbis, orbis (m): circle, ring, disc, sphere, globe, etc. (anything round) 7 ‗in‘ should go before ‗speciem,‘ but is placed after the word it governs through anastrophe; therefore sc. ‗in speciem orbis.‘ foret ( = ne + subj) s a subjunctive in a purpose clause (Benn. 282). [32-35] Then when he (whoever of the gods he may have been) cut the distributed mass, he arranged each cut into sections (‗membrum‘ can = parts or limbs). First he rounded ( = ‗glomaverit‘) the earth into the shape of a great orb, so it would be equal in every part (lit: lest it not be equal in every part). 36. fretum, -i (n): a straight, sound, estuary or firth; in pl., the sea diffundi = pres pass infin > diffundo, -ere, diffudi, diffusum: I pour out tumesco, -ere, tumui, – : I (begin to) swell 37. ambio, -ire, ambi(v)i, ambitum: I go around, surround terae = dative after a compound verb 38. stagnum, -i (n): unmoving water lacus, -us (m): lake, large body of water; a hollow place (here it is acc pl) 39. flumin, fluminis (n): a stream cingo, -ere, cinxi, cinctum: I surround, I encircle declivis, -e (adj): bent, sloping or inclined downward ripa, -ae (f): a river bank 40. partim (adv > pars, parties (f)): partly sorbeo, -ere, -ui, -entum: I suck in, drink down, swallow ab ipsa = abl of agent, referring to the earth itself 41. campus, -i (m): any level surface, including both land and sea surfaces recipio, -cipere, recepi, receptum: I hold back, retain; I draw back I take back; I recover 8 pervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum: I reach, arrive at, come through to 42. liberioris = fem. pl. abl. comp. > liber, libra, librum: free pulso, -are, -avi, -atum: I strike, beat, knock [36-42]: Then he commands the seas to be poured out and to swell by means of swift winds and to flow around the shores of the surrounded lands [i.e., the lands are now surrounded by the circle of ocean]; he added both springs and huge, unmoving bodies of water, and lakes, and joined downward-flowing streams with slanting banks, which, in various places, are partly sucked into itself [i.e., sucked into the earth], and partly flow through in the sea, and, having been received in the wide expanse [ = campo] of more freely flowing water [lit. of freer water], it strikes shores rather than (? pro ?) river banks. 43. extendi = pass infin > extendo, -ere, extendi, extensum: I stretch out subsido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I settle down, sink; I crouch down 44. tegi = pass infin> tego, tegere, texi, tectum: I cover lapidosus, -a, -um: stony, rocky (with montes = ‗rocky mountains to rise‘) 45. totidem (indecl. numerical adj): as many as; just as many ( > tot = so many + idem = the same) 46. zona, -ae (f): terrestrial zones; a belt or girdle (as in Orion‘s belt or a money belt) ardentior = comp. adj more fiery, more burning (from the participle ardens, -entis > ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsum= I burn) 47. onus, oneris (n): a load, burden, weight inclusum= 4th pp> includo, -cludere, -clusi, -clusum: I shut in, enclose, confine distinguo, -uere, distinxi, distinctum: I divide up; I mark off 9 48. plaga, -ae (f): a flat surface; a zone, a region; also: a net; a wound, blow or stroke tellus, -uris (f): the earth [43-48] He ordered [indirect speech:] the fields to be stretched out, the valleys to sink down, the trees to be covered by foliage, rocky mountains to arise, and so two terrestrial zones to cut the sky on the right with as many a part on the left [i.e., two zones south of the equator and two zones north of the equator]. The fifth [i.e., the equatorial zone] is hotter than those [others], thus the care of the god divided the shut in burden [i.e., the earth, the burden shut in by the sky], with the same number, as many as the zones that are pressed in on the earth. 49. habitabilis, habitabile (adj): habitable aestus, -us (m): heat; boiling, seething; agitation, excitement 50. nix, nivis (f): snow ‗alta‘ can mean high or deep. Prefer ‗deep‘ here. uterque, utraque, utrumque = each of two (> uter, utra, utrum = which of two) 51. temperies, -ei (f): a proper mixture; mildness 52. inmineo, -ere (also: immino, -ere): I project over, overhang; I threaten [compound verb, taking dative object] quanto = abl. degree of difference ‗pondere terrae‘ = ―…than a weight of earth…‖ abl comp (Benn. 217). 53. levius = comparative adverb = lighter tanto = abl. degree of difference onerosior = comp. > onerosus, -a, -um: heavy, burdensome 10 [49-53] It is the middle which, of these things, is not habitable because of the heat [aestu = abl cause?]; deep snow touches two [zones]; as much as between each he placed and gave mildness with cold having been mixed with heat. The lower air overhangs these things – which, by how much the weight of water is lighter than the weight of earth, by that much [the air] is heavier than [the weight (sc pondere again)] of fire. 54. nebula, -ae (f): vapor, fog, mist consistere: lit. ‗to stand still,‘ but here ‗to reside‘ 55. motura = fut. act. ptcpl. > moveo, -ere, movi, motum = I move, stir up tonitruum, -i (n): thunder 56. fulmen, fulminis (n): a stroke of lightning; a thunderbolt fulgur, -uris (n): a flash of lightning (i.e., sheet lightning) 57. quoque (adv, placed after the word it modifies): too, also passim (adv): variously; here and there; up and down; far and wide 58. aera: Greek masc. sing. acc. agreeing with ‗habendum‘ (cf ‗aether, line 68). (See Bennett 47 for Greek 3rd declension nouns in Latin). permitto, -mittere, -missi, missum: I permit, allow (+dat); I yield; I surrender obsisto, -sistere, - stiti, -stitum: I oppose, resist, withstand; I place in the way of ‗The creator of the world don‘t permit to them (―his‖) the air as well, to be held far and wide.‘ 59. cum= concessive (+subjunctive) quisque, quaeque, quidque (also quicquid): each, every, everyone, everything flamen, flaminis (n): a blowing, a blast of wind tractus, -us (m): track, trail; position; extent 60. quin: (used in this instance for emphasis) but indeed 11 lanio, -are, -avi, -atum: I tear to pieces, mangle lacerate The brothers refered to here are the winds mentioned in live 56. Are these the same winds tht bring the floods in lind 264? One is locked up and the other given free reign? If there were both released, might gehy have torn the world apart then flood it? 61. recedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessum: I go back, retire; I retreat, withdraw regnum, -i (n): kingdom (acc of dest. w/ ‗ad‘) 62. subdo, -dere, -didi, -ditum: I place under, I lie under or near; I subject, subdue matutinus, -a, -um: early in the morning; pertaining to the morning 63. vesper, -eris (m): evening; the west, as the sun, at evening, sets in the west. occiduus, -a, -um: setting; westerly; dying sole> sol, solis (m): the sun tepesco, -ere, tepui: I am lukewarm, tepid 64. proximus, -a, -um: very near, nearest (of location or time); superl. of propior, -us (adj) (gen. = propius) = near, close triones, -um (m pl): ploughing oxen; the constellations Great Bear and Little Bear 65. horrifer, -fera, -ferum: causing shudders of fear or cold invado, -ere, -vasi, -vasum: I attack, fall upon; I go in, enter; I undertake Boreas, -ae (m., not f.) the north wind contrarius, -a, -um: opposite, against; opposed, contrary 66. adsiduus, -a, -um: constant, persistent; continuously in one place or engaged in one occupation madesco, -ere, madui: I become moist or wet ( > madeo = I am wet) Auster, Austri (m): the south wind; south 12 67. liquidus, -a, -um: liquid; flowing, fluid; clear, bright careo, -ere, -ui, -itum (+abl): I lack, do without 68. aether, -eris [acc = athera] (m): the upper air quisqam, quaequam, quicquam (or quidquam): anyone, anything (used with negatives or questions) terrenus, -a, -um: earthen, terrestrial; mortal, of the lower world faex, faecis (f): the dregs of a liquid, esp. wine [54 -] And [post-positive ‗et‘] in this place he ordered mist, in this place clouds to reside and [he ordered] thunder, destined to stir up [ = mortura] human minds, and winds making lightning-flashes with thunderbolts. [61-69] Erus receded to Aurora (i.e., the east) and the Nabatean realm and Persia and the lands subdued by the morning rays; Vester (i.e., the west) and those shores made warm by the setting sun were closest to Zephyer; cold-bristling Boreas fell upon Scythia and the seven oxen (i.e., the north); the earth opposite that became wet with constant clouds and rain from Austrus (i.e., the south). Above these things he placed flowing (bright? clear?) aether, lacking weight and having nothing (lit. ‗nor anything) of earthly dregs. 69. ita (adv): thus, so, in this fashion disaepio, -ire, -psi, -saeptum: I hedge off, separate; I divide 70. caligo, -inis (f): fog, vapor, mist 71. effervesco, -ere, -i: I boil up, I burst forth passionately; I break out into a glow 72. neu = neve (adv): an not, or not, nor regio, -onis (f): a direction, line, a region or area marked by borders ullus, -a, -um (gen= ullius; dat= ulli) any (used mainly in negations or 13 hypothetical situations; any one, anything (subst.) animal, -alis (n): a living being, animal orbus, - i (m) / orba, -ae (f): an orphan 73. astrum, -i (n) a star, constellation; a great height; a glory, immorality caelestis, -e: heavenly, belonging to heaven, heavenly thing(s) solum, -i (n): bottom, lowest part (short ‗o‘) solus, -a, -um: alone, only (long ‗o‘) 74. cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum: I go, proceed; I change; I go away, withdraw, retire nitidus, -a, -um: shining, glittering (>niteo, -ere: I shine) [70-75] scarcely had they thus marked off everything with fixed borders when, those things that had been obscured for a long time with pressing mist (quae referring to the things that follow), the stars had begun to break into a glow through the sky; nor would any region be lacking (lit: an orphan) its own animals (lit: life). The stars and the forms of the gods (i.e., the constellations?) held the lower heavens, the waves, about to be inhabited by shining fishes, changed (receded?), the earth adopted wild animals, the sky (adopted) flapping birds. 75. capio, -ere, cepi, captum: I take, seize; w/ places: I take up, choose, adopt agitabilis, -e (adj): easily moved, light 76. sanctius (neut. sing. comp. adj.) > sanctus, -a, -um: holy, sacred, hallowed capacious (neut. sing. comp. adj.) > capax, -acis (is this an adj?) wide, roomy, able to hold much, broad, capable (of) [+gen] able to grasp. Loeb translates this passage as ―more cabable of lofty thought‖ 77. huc (adv): up to this point, so far, hither to; with neg: not yet, still, even, now ceterus, -a, -um: the rest; the other (used w/ pl). posset = 3 sing impf act subj> possum, posse, potui: I can, am able (Relative 14 clause of purpose, not a potential subjuntive) Ben 282.2. Usualy it would take an ‗ut‘, but here begins with a relative pronoun). dominor, -ari, -atus (dep): I rule, dominate 79. opifex, opificis (m/f): a maker, creator, fabricator; a workman, artisan 80. recens, entis (adj): new, fresh, young; vigourous seducta > seduco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum: I take or lead apart nuper (adv): recently, not long ago 81. aether, aetheris (>Grk. acc = aethera): the upper air; heaven cognatus, -i (m): a relationship on the father‘s side cognata, -ae (f): a relationship on the mother‘s side [76-81] A more god-like being than these, and more capable with his noble mind (lit: broader of noble mind), was absent to this point, and which would be able to rule over the rest (purpose clause= ―in order to rule over the rest‖?). Man is born, whether the creator of things made him from divine seed, the beginning of a better world, or whether the new earth was holding back seeds of father sky, recently separated from the high ether. 82. satus > sero, -ere, sevi, satum: I sow, plant; I beget, bring forth: in pass. I am born, sprung from (+abl) Iapetus –i (m): a Titan, father of Atlas, Epimethius and Promethius quam = acc. referring to telus in line 80 (―some earth,‖ i.e., he took some earth, mixed it with water and shaped the mud into the shape of the gods, & gave it life). pluvaialis, -e: relating to, bringing or growing after rain 83. fingo, -ere, finxi, fictum: I shape, form mold; I arrange, put in order effigies, effigiei (f): an image, likeness; a shade, ghost moderantum = pres act ind gen ptcpl> modero, -ari, -atus (dep): I control, govern, direct; I set or keep within bounds 15 cunctus, -a, -um: the whole, all mixtam > misceo, -ere, -ui, mixtum: I mix 84. pronus, -a, -um: inclined or sloping forward; perhaps ‗hunched‘ in this context. specto, -are (freq. of specio): I look at carefully, contemplate, observe (used here in the subjunctive as part of a concessive [?] clause) 85. sublimes, -e: uplifted, raised, lofty, elevated 86. erectus, -a, -um ( > erigo, -ere, erxi, erectum: I raise, lift up): I am raised, lifted, upright, elevated vultus, -us (m): the face; the expression on a face 87. rusis, -e: rough, uncultivated imago, -inis (f): image, likeness; a form 88. induo, -ere, -ui, -utum: I put on; I assume, take the shape or role; I engage in [82-88] He born from Iapetus (i..e., Prometheus), shaped (some) earth, mixed with water from rain, into the shape of the gods who rule everything. Although the rest of the stooped beasts looked at the ground, he gave an uplifted face to man; and he ordered those raised up (i.e. people) to see the sky and lift their faces to the stars. Thus, the earth, which would had been recently uncultivated and without a form was turned around, and put on the unfamiliar shape of humans. 89. sata est: was planted (> sero, -ere, sevi, satum = I sow, plant, beget). vindex, -icis (c.): a protector, a claimant; an avenger, punisher (abl. of attendant circumstances, whch Hale says is translated using ‗with,‘ ‗in,‘ or ‗under.‘ So, ‗…with no protector…‘). 16 90. sponte (abl) (spontis (gen). whch appear to come from ‗spons‘ though this latter form does not appear in the dictionary). Of people: willing, voluntarily, of one‘s own accord. Of things: automatically, by itself, alone, for it‘s own sake. fidem: object of ‗colebat‘ rectum: 4th pp > rego. as a neut. substantive = right, virtue 91. poena, -ae (f): money paid as a fine; a punishment, penalty minantia: neut. pl. nom. ptcpl > minor, -ari, -atus sum: I threaten (deponent) 92. supplex, supplicis (adj): kneeling, humbly entreating, suppliant 93. os, oris (n): mouth; face; sight, appearance tutum, -i (n): safety; a safe place (subst. > tutus, -a, -um: safe, watched over. Tutus > tueor, tueri, tutus sum / tueo, -ere: I look at, behold regard; I look at with care for the purposes of protecting). [89-93] The golden age, which was under no one‘s guidance (protection?), was created first. Of it‘s own accord, it cultivated fidelity and virtue without law. There was no punishment or fear, nor were threatening words, fixed in bronze, read (i.e., Roman laws were engraved in bronze), nor did the suppliant crowd fear the face of its [i.e., the crowd‘s] judge; instead they lived without a protector of their safety. 94. nondum (adv): not yet caesa: cut, felled, fallen, cut down (> caedo, -ere, cecidi, caesum = I cut, cut down; strike, beat) peregrinus, -a, -um: foreign, strange 95. liquidus, -a, -um: liquid; flowing, fluid; clear, bright suis…montibus: dat. with the compound verb descendo 17 96. norant = noverant (> nosco, noscere, novi, notum: I know) 97. praeceps, praecipits (adj): of motion: headlong, quick; of places: steep precipitous; as neut. substantive: a steep place, precipice. cingo, -ere, cinxi, cinctum: I surround, encircle oppidum, -i (n): town fossa, -ae (f): a ditch, trench, channel [94-] Not yet had the fallen pine descended its own mountain into the shining waves in order to visit forien lands (lit. ‗ the forieng world‘), and mortals knew nothing ( = nulla) beyond their own shores. 98. derecti> derigo, -rigere, -rexi, rectum: I set straight; I direct; I aim (a weapon) aes, aeris (n): copper; money; something made of copper or bronze flecto, -ere, flexi, flexum: I bend, turn; I alter the direction of ‗directi‘ and ‗flexi‘ are not passive infinitives. ‗derigi‘ and ‗flecti‘ are passive infinitives. What are ‗directi‘ and ‗flexi‘? 99. galea, -ae (f): helmet miles, militis (c.): a soldier usus, -us (m): use, application; practice, exercise 100. securus, -a, -um: care-free, unconcerned, tranquil, safe, secure perago, -ere, peregi, peractum: I pass through (a place or time); I carry through, accomplish, complete [97-100] The tuba had not been straightened, and the horn of brass was not curved, there was neither helmet nor sword; without the use of soldiers (lit. 'soldery'), races passed through the gentle leisure of peace (lit. 'of sercurit'). 18 101. quoque (adv, placed after the word it modifies): too, also inmunis, -e (immunis, -e): exempt, immune, free, without duty, exempt rastrum, -i (n): an instrument for scraping; a plough, hoe, rake 102. saucius, -a, -um: hurt, wounded, injured vomer, -eris (m): a ploughshare 103. contenti > contentus, -a, -um: content, happy. (sc. ‗homines‘ = ‗people, contented with food created by no one‘s effort…‘) cibus, -i (m): food, nourishment, fodder cogente = abl. sing. ptcpl. > cogo, -ere, coegi, coactum: I bring or draw together; I compel; I constrain, confine creatis, > creo, -are, -avi, -atum: I make, create, produce 104. arbuteus, -a, -um: relating to the arbutum (wild strawberry) [‗arbutus‘ in English] fetus, -a, -um: pregnant; fruitful, fertile fetus, -us (m): bearing, bringing forth or hatching young; offspring fraga, -orum (n. pl.): strawberries lego, -ere, legi, lectum: I collect, gather 105. durus, -a, -um: hard, tough, strong, enduring haerentia > haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum: I stick, adhere, hang on; I come to a standstill, get stuck; I am stuck, embarrassed morum, -i (n): a mulberry or a blackberry rubeta, -orum (n. pl.): brambles, thickets cornum, -i (n): a cornel-cherry 106. decido, -ere, decidi, decisum: I fall dead, die; I sink (> de + cado); I cut off, I cut down, I cut short (de + caedo) 19 patulus, -a, -um: standing open, spreading glans, glandis (f): acorn, chestnut, a mast 101-106: The earth itself, also immune (to work?) and untouched by the rake nor wounded by the plough, gave everything of its own accord; content people collected ripe arbuts berries and mountain strawberries and cornel-cherries, these foods created no one‘s effort (lit. ‗with no one compelling‘ > nullo cogente); and they (collected) blackberries stuck in unyielding (lit. ‗hard‘) brambles and chestnuts which had fallen beneath the spreading tree of Jove (i.e., beneath an oak tree). 107. ver, veris (n): spring placidus, -a, -um: gentle, quiet, still tepeo, -ere: I am lukewarm, tepid aura, -ae (f): air, wind, breath 108. mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum: I stroke, touch gently zephyrus, -i (m): a warm west wind 109. frux, frugis (f): fruits of the earth, food inaratua, -a, -um: unplowed, fallow (> in + aro) 110. renovatus: renewed, renovated, restored (> renovo, -are) caneo, -ere, -ui: I amy hoary; I am white arista, -ae (f): the beard on an ear of grain; by metonym. The ear of grain itself ager, agri (m): land 111. lac, lactis (n): milk nectar, nectaris (n): nectar 112. virids, -e (adj): green stillo, -are: I drip, drip down; I drop 20 ilex, ilicis (f): a holm-oak mella, -ae (f): mead 107-112: Spring was eternal, gentle winds, with warm breath, continuously caressed flowers cultivated (lit. ‗born‘) without seed; soon even uncultivated land bore fruit, renewed (i.e., cultivated) land didn‘t grow hoary with heavy heads of grain, and already rivers of milk, already rivers of nectar, flowed, and yellow mead dropped from the green holm-oak. 113. tenebrosus, -a, -um: dark, gloomy 114. proles, -is (f): offspring, descendants, posterity subeo, -ire, subii/subivi, subitum: I enter, approach argenteus, -a, -um: of silver, belonging to the silver age 115. deterior, deterius (gen: deterioris) (comp. adj.): lower, inferior, pooer, worse (sup. = deterrimus, -a, -um) pretiosus, -a, -um: costly, precious, of great value 116. tempus, -oris (n): a division, a section; a portion of time contraho = con + traho, lit ‗drag in, drag together‘ here, ‗shorten‘ 118. brevis, -e (adj): short (of space or time) spatium, -i (n): space, extent, room; here: ‗periods of time, seasons‘ exigo, exigere, exegi, exactum: I complete; drive out; demand; examine annus, -i (m): a circuit; a circuit of the sun (i.e., a year) 113-118: Afterward, with Saturn sent down to gloomy Tartarus, the world was under [the rule] of Jove, and descendants of the silver age appeared, worse than [people of the] gold [age] but greater than [people of the] bronze [age]. Juppiter shortened the time of ancient spring, and through winter, summer, uneven autumn and brief spring, he completed the year with four seasons [lit. ‗four periods of time]. 21 119. fervor, -oris (m): boiling or seething heat uro, urere, ussi, ustum: I burn 120. candeo, -ere, -ui: I glow with heat, I shine, I glitter ventus, -i (m): wind glacies, -ei (f): ice, icicles adstrictus, -a, -um: tight, compressed, drawn together (> adstringo, -ere, -strinxi, strictum: I tighten, compress, contract, draw together) 121. subiere = syncopated form of subierunt > subeo (see line 114) anturm, -i (n) a cave, a hollow tree 122. frutex, fruticis (m): a shrub or bush cortex, -icis (m or f): bark, rind, shell virga, ae (f): a green twig, a branch, a stripe of color vinco, -ere, vici (not ‗vinxi‘!), victum: I conquer, overcome, defeat, subdue (Is this correct? ―Vinctae‖ looks like it is a 4th pp, but the 4th pp of ―vinco‖ is ―victus, -a, -um‖ not ―vinctus -a, -um‖) 119-22: For the first time, the air glowed, burned by dry heat [lit. ‗heats‘] and compressed ice [i.e., snow?] hung on the winds; then for the first time, they [i.e., the people of the bronze age] entered houses; houses [domos] were caves, dense bushes and chopped [lit. ‗conquered‘] branches [covered] with bark. 123. sulcus, -i (m): a furrow, trench or ditch; a furrow produced by plowing 124. obruo, -ruere, - rui, -rutum: I cover, bury; I overwhelm; I obscure iugum, -i (n): yoke, collar gemuere = sychopated for ‗gemuerunt‘ > gemo, -ere, -ui, gemitum: I sigh, groan iuvencus, -i (m): a young bullock (substantive > iuvencus, -a, -um: young 22 125. succedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessum: I come after, succeed; I go under; I go from under, ascend, mount aeneus, -a, -um: made of copper or bronze; aenea proles: ‗the bronze age‘ 126. ingenium, -i (n): nature; the natural disposition, temperament or character of a person or thing 127. scelero, -are, -avi, -atum: I pollute; I profane with guilt ―The final [sc. ‗age‘ or ‗people‘] is made out of hard iron [‗fero‘ is abl. of condition out of which; vid. Hale 406.3] 128. protinus (adv): forward, further, further on inrumpo, -ere, inrupi, inruptum: I break in, burst in, rush in vena, ae (f): vein; a vein of metal; a watercourse; veins / streaks in wood or stone peioris = comp. > malus, -a, -um aevus, -i (m) or aevum, -i (n): eternity; life-time; a period of time 129. nefas (n; indecinable): sin, crime, impiety fugere = syncopated form of ‗fugerunt‘ > fugio, -ere, -ui: I flee verum: this is a substantive > verus, -a, -um: true, real, genuine. As a substantive it can mean ‗the truth,‘ ‗reality,‘ but can also mean ‗right action,‘ ‗duty.‘ In this sense, which is how Ovid uses it here, it is the same as ‗veritas.‘ 130. subiere: see line 121. ‗in quorum subiere locum…‘ should be treated as ‗in locum quorum subiere…‘ 131. insidiae, -arum (f. pl.): snares, traps; deceptions; ambushes sceleratus, -a, -um ( > scelero, -are: I pollute, profane): polluted, profaned by guilt, wicked 23 habendi: gerund and objective genitive. Treat as: ‗amor sceleratus habendi (res).‘ = ‗wicked love of having (things).‘ (i.e., greed). [125-131]: Third after that came the bronze age [lit. 'descendent of bronze'], more savage with respect to temperaments, and quicker to frightful arms, but [the people of the bronze age were] not profane; that is for the age of unyielding iron [lit. 'the final (age, sc. proles) is from iron]. Later on, every evil erupted into an eternity of lesser mettle [lit. a baser vein of metal; also a baser sort of people; i.e., the people of the iron age]: modesty, duty and trustworthiness fled; in place of these things [quorum] arrived deceit, sadness, deception, compulsion and the wicked love of having [things; i.e., greed]. 132. velum, -i (n): a sail; velum dare: to give sail, to set sail illos: masc. pl. acc. > ille, -a, -ud = ‗them.‘ It agrees with ‗ventis‘ (masc pl). 133. navita = nauta, -ae (m, not f): a sailor prius = prior: (comp > primus, -a, -um: first) previous, earlier; prius as adverb: previously, earlier, before 134. insultavere = syncopated > insulto, -are (freq. of insilio): I leap or prance in/on carnia, -ae (f): the keel of a ship; by meton., a ship 135. comunis, -e (adj): shared, common, universal, public (opp. = proprius: individual, private) ceu (adv): as, like, like as (used in comparisons) lumin, -inis (n): light aura, -ae (f): air, breath, wind sc. ‗omnibus,‘ = ‗once common (to all) like the light of the sun and the winds.‘ ‗lumina‘ and ‗auras‘ seem to be acc. by association with ‗humum,‘ or else Ovid uses the acc. after ‗ceu‘ to indicate by case that ‗lumina‘ and ‗auras‘ are being compared to ‗humum.‘ 24 136. cautus, -a, -um: cautious, wary; guarded, forewarned ( > caveo, -ere, cavi, cautum: I am on guard; I beware; I take care for, provide [+ dat]), careful humus, -i (f not m): ground, earth, soil; land, country singo, -are, -avi, -atum: I put a mark on, inscribe mensor, -oris (m): a measurer (oft. of land, i.e., a surveyor); an architect limes, -it is (m): a by way, path; a boundary line 137. tantum: so much; (as adv.) so much, so far; only (tantum is a substantive > tantus, -a, -um: of such great size; so big, so great [sometimes used as ‗so small‘]) nec/non tamtum…sed etiam/itam = not only…but even/also seges, segetis (f): a corn field, a crop; a field, ground, soil; (fig). ground, source, origin; any thickly packed mass; profit alimentum, -i (n): food debeo, -ere, -ui, -itum: I owe; I am due (+ infin); I am bound, I ought dives, divitis (adj): rich, wealthy 138. posco, poscere, poposci: I ask earnestly, I request (rem: ‘pop’ the question) humus, -i is feminine not masculine itus, -us (m): a movement, going; a departure (?? This doesn‘t work in the context of the line. Is ‗itum‘ some how derrived from ‗eo‘?) Passive verbs can tke dirct objects when the passive has been formed from an active construction. There is an accusitive + infinitve complimentary accusatives here: ‗Men asked the earth (1st acc) to provide crops and foods (comp. accusatives)‖ the earth (subject acc.) was bound (new particple added) to provide (implied infinitive) crops and food (retained comlementary accusatives). Benn. 178.2, and Anderson‘s commentary. viscus, -eris (n): flesh; internal organs (usu. found in pl: viscera, -um) 139. Stygius, -a, -um: infernal, belonging to the underworld admoveo, -ere, -movi, motum: I move to, bring to; I apply; I direct; I devote 25 Loeb translates this as ―hid‖ – how do other translations treat it? ―Hide‖ isn‘t a dictionary definition of this word. umbra, -ae (f): shade, shadow Loeb gives ―the creator‖ as the subject for the verbs in 139, but I don‘t see anything in the Latin to imply a creator acting here. How do other translations handle this line? Could ―hums‖ in 138 be the subject? I.E., ―which (the ground) had hidden and deveoted to the Stygian shades?‖ Or, ―…moved into the Stygian shades‖? recondo, -dere, -didi, -ditum: I store put away, put back; I hide; I close again 140. effodio, -ere, -fodi, -fossum: I dig out; I excavate ops, opis (f): in sing = power (esp. power to aid); in pl (opes, opum): resources, wealth, means; as proper noun: Ops: mother of Jupiter inritamentum, -i (n): an incitment, incentive ( + gen) 141. nocens > noceo, -ere: I hurt, harm, injure prodeo, -ire, -i, -itum: I go forth 142. utroque (adv): to both sides, in both directions 143. crepito, -are (freq. of crepo): I creak, rattle, rustle, clatter concutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake violently or together, agitate; I shatter, disturb; I impair 144. vivitur: sc ‗vita‘ before ‗vivitur‘ raptum > rapio: I take, snatch hospes, hospitis (m): a host; a guest or forigner 145. soccer, soceri (m): a father-in-law gener, generi (m): a son in law gratia, -ae (f): pleasantness; favour with others, esteem; indulgence toward an offender; thankfulness 26 146. exitium, -i (n): a going out or away; ruin, destruction coniunx, coniugis (c): a spouse, usu. a wife but sometimes a husband maritus, -i (m): a husband (substantive > maritus, -a, -um: matrimonial, conjugal) 147. luridus, -a, -um: pale yellow, ghastly aconitum, -i (n): a poisonous herb, aconite, monk‘s hood noverca, -ae (f): a step-mother 148: inquiro, -quirere, -quisivi, -quisitum: I investigate, look into; I look for evidence against someone 149. pietas, pietatis (f): dutifulness (pietas toward the gods = ‗piety‘; toward one‘s country = ‗patriotism‘; from the gods = ‗compassion‘) iacio, iacere, iacui : I lie, recline (don‘t confuse this with iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum = I thorw) caedes, -is (f): a cutting down, slaughter ( > caedo = I cut down) 150. caelestis, -e (adj): heavenly, belonging to heaven; as n. pl. substantive: the gods 151. neve (adv): nor; or not; and not (also seen as neu; cf. seve/seu = whether, or if‘) adruus, -a, -um: steep, towering, lofty; difficult, hard to reach 152. adfectasse: syncopated form of ‗adectavisse‘ the perf. infin > adficio, -ficere, -feci, -fectum: I influence, work upon; in pass. I am affected or influenced ferunt: can be used to mean ‗they say‘ or in the passive, ‗fertur‘ to mean ‗it is said.‘ Both introduce indirect speech. 153. struxisse: perf. infin. > struo, struere, struxi, structum: I pile up; build, prepare 154. perfringo, -fringere, -fregi, -fractum: I break through; I shatter 27 omnipotens = ‗all powerful‘ rather than ‗all knowing‘ 155. excutio, -cutere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake out; I strike off, knock away, drive out; I shake down, examine a person, search Pelion and Ossa are the names of mountains that the giants piled on top of Olympus in their attempt to reach the gods in heaven. Jupiter struck Olympus with his lightning and then knocked Pelion off of Ossa. subiecto … Ossae: dat. seperation [143-155] (Life) was lived from plunder: host was not safe from guest, nor father-in-law from son-in-law, and favor between brothers [subjective genitive?] was rare; man held the destruction of wife over her head and she that of her husband, horrible mothers-in-law mixed pale-yellow monk‘s hood, son searched for evidence against their father‘s old age before their day [i.e., sons, with no respect for their father‘s old age, searched for evidence to end their fathers‘ lives before the appointed time]: defeated dutifulness lay down, and the virgin Astraea, last of the gods, left behind lands soaking with slaughter. Nor was high heaven safer than those lands, for the giants intended to take action against the heavenly kingdom, and to build piled-up mountains to the high stars. Then the all-knowing father shattered Olympus with the thunderbolt he cast (=misso), and shook Pelion down from cast-down Ossa. 156. obruo, -ruere, - rui, -rutum: I cover, bury; I overwhelm; I obscure dira, -orum (n): curses, bad omens; substnt. > dirus, -a, -um: fearful, horrible, dire, cruel, frightful 157. perfundo, -fundere, -fudi, -fusam: I pour over, steep; I fill natorum = ―of her sons‖ 158. immadui (inf. immaduisse) = I have become moist, wet (> immadesco, in + madesco) cruor, oris (m): blood, gore, esp. the blood from a wound; fig. slaughter, murder 28 anima(vi)sse = ―she breathed life into the warm blood…‖ > animo, -are: I give life 159. stirps, stirpis (f, sometimes m.): stock; root of a tree or family; foundation; source, origin monimentum = monumentum maneo, -ere, mansi, manum: I stay, remain; + gen: I wait 160. facies, -ei (f): shape, form, figure; fig. character, nature propago, -inis (f): a layer, slip or shoot; offspring, race; posterity propago, -are: I spread, propagate; I enlarge, extend ‗illa‘ signals a change of subject from Tellus to propago (her offspring) 161. contemprtix, -ricis (f): one who despises or is contemptuous (masc = contemptor, -oris). avidus, -a, -um: vehemently desiring, longing for (often with gen. object) 162: scires = 2 sing, impf. act. subj. > scio [156-162]: Although (taking ‗cum‘ + subjunctive as concessive, their dire bodies lay covered by their own structure, the Earth, they say (=‗ferunt‘)grew wet, soaked over with so much blood of her offspring, and she breathed life into the warm blood, and, lest no monument of her children should remain, she turned it into the likeness of people; but these offspring too were contemptuous of the gods above, they longed for savage slaughter and were violent: you know they were born from blood. 163. Saturnius, -a, -um: Saturnian, descended from Saturn ingem, -ere: I sigh, groan over 164. vulgata > vulgo, -are: I make common, generally accessible, publish 29 recens, recentis (abl. sing. = recenti): new, fresh, recent, young facto … recenti: abl.. cause (Benn. 219) 165. foedus, -a, -um: foul, horrible, filthy (NB: This is not the same as foedus, -eris [n]: treaty, agreement; league) Lycanonius, -a, -um: sprung from Laycaon, i.e., Callisto; adjectival form of Laocon, -onis (m): King of Arcadia, father of Callisto; he was turned into a wolf by Jupiter. convivium, -i (n): a feast, banquet, entertainment 166. ingens, ingentis: vast, huge, monstrous dignus, -a, -um: worthy, deserving (of people); becoming, fitting, suitable, deserved (of things). (NB: dignus and indignus usually take abl., e.g., ‗dignas Iove‘ = ‗worthy of Jupiter.‘ Vid. Hale, p. 232, sec. 442 ). concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum: I take together, hold together; I take in, absorb, begin to feel, conceive; grasp by the senses 167. vocatos > voco, -are, -avi, -atum: I summon, call. Here, vocatos = ‗those (gods) having been called.‘ These things, the Saturnian father (i.e., Jupiter) saw from his high citadel, and he groaned, recalling (referens) the foul banquet of the Lycaonian table, not yet widely known (lit. having been published widely = ‗vulgata‘) as it was (too) recently done (facto recenti = abl. cause), he felt in his mind a terrible anger (lit. angers), worthy of Jupiter (abl. with ‗dignas‘): no delay held those summoned (i.e., the gods he called to his consilium didn‘t hesitate to respond). 168. sublimis, -e: high, lofty, elevated; lifted up serenus, -a, -um: clear, bright, fair, serene 169. lacteus, -a, -um: milky, milky-white; of or relating to milk 30 candor, -oris (m): dazzling white color notabilis, -e: notable, remarkable, striking 170. hac (adv): this way, i.e., along this path (?) iter, iternis is NEUTER not feminine. superis: dat. of reference, ‗for those above,‘ ie, ‗for the gods‘ tectum, -i (n): roof, covering; house, temple (substant. > tego, -ere, -texi, tectum: I cover; I conceal; I bury) 171. domus, –us (f, not m): house laevus, -a, -um: left, left-hand; left-handed, foolish 172. atrium, -i (n): the hall or entrance of a Roman house valvae, -arum (f): folding doors clebro, -are, -avi, -atum: I visit frequently; I fill; I celebrate (a festival), honor, sing the praises of someone/thing valves … apertis = abl. absolute 173. plebs, plebes (f): the common people; the lesser gods habito, -are (freq. of habeo): I inhabit (transitive); I dwell (intransitive) locis: abl. of respect = ‗in separate place,‘ (i.e., diverse with respect to location; > locus,-i, m); modifying ‗plebs‘. 174. caelicola, -ae (adj): heaven-dwelling; as substantive: gods carus, -i (m): famous, noble; the title applied to Roman noblemen posuere: truncated form of posuerunt > pono, ponere, posui, positum 175. audacia, -ae (f): courage, daring (used approvingly); audacity, impudence (used reprovingly) detur: 3rd sing. perf. pass. ind. > do, dare, dedi, datum 31 176. timeam: future less vivid [168-176] The road is high, clearly visible in the peaceful sky; it has the name ‗milky,‘ remarkable in its own whiteness. For those above, this journey, along this path (= ‗hac‘), is to the house and royal home of the great Thunderer: on the right and left of the gods, the atria of the noble gods were filled, with the folding doors standing open. The lesser gods live in other places (lit: the lesser gods dwell dispersed with respect to place): in this area (i.e., the path followed by those gods going to Jupiter) the powerful and noble gods place their household gods; this is the place which, if courage is given to my words, I would hardly fear to call the Palatine of great heaven. 177. sedere = truncated form of sederunt marmor, -oris (n): marble recessus, -us (m): a retreat, a going back; a place of retreat, a quiet place 178. celsus, -a, -um: upraised, high, lofty; eminent (referring to rank); haughty (referring to personality or disposition) innitor, inniti, innixus sum: I lean upon, rest upon, support my self eburn(e)us, -a, -um: ivory, made of ivory 179. caput, capitis (n): head; life; the head or leader of a group; summit concutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum: I shake together; I violently agitate 180. caesaries, -ei (f): hair, a head of hair 181. talis, -e: of such a kind, such (abl. way or manner, Hale 445) inde (adv). thence, there upon, from there indignantia: participle >indignor, -are, -atus: I consider unworthy, am offended 182. anxius, -a, -um: anxious, uneasy magis (comp adv): more, more so 32 183. tempestas, -atis (f): a period of time, season; weather, esp. bad weather, a storm quisque, quaeque, quidque (also quicquid): each, every, everyone, everything ‗centum‘ modifies ‗bracchia‘; ‗qua‘ is an adv. = ‗when‘ illa tepestate = abl. of time when/at which (Benn. 230). 184. inicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum: I throw in or into; I cast, put into; I throw or cast over anguipes, -pedis (?): snake-footed. Ovid invented this word, which appears only here in all of Latin literature. Anderson says Ovid conflates the war vs. the giants with the war vs. the Titans and their snake-footed allies. Is Ovid making a mistake, or is Ovid making Jupiter make this mistake. [177-184] So, when those above sat in the marble meeting room, (Jupiter) himself, in a higher place (i.e., on a dais or raised chair so he is clearly above the other gods), and leaned upon his ivory staff, he shook his terrible, long-locked head, three and four times, with which he moves land, sea and stars. He moved his indignant lips [i.e., he spoke] in this way: ―I have not been more worried for the kingdom of the world (even) during the time, when everyone of the snake-footed (giants? titans?) prepared to throw his hundred arms to the captive sky [i.e., around the captive sky?]. For although the enemy was savage, that war, however, hung originated from one body and from a single source. captivo…caelo = dat or abl? Dat of disadvantage? 185. quamquam (adv): although, though; nevertheless (when first word in a sentence) ferus, -a, -um: wild, untamed, savage, rough; uncultivated 186. pendeo, -ere, pependi: I hang, suspend; I originate from (‗pendeo‘ is not the same as ‗pendo‘) 187. qua (adv): whereby, in which way; where, on which side 33 Nereus, -eois (or –ei) (m): a sea god, son of Oceanus and Tethys; father, by Doris, of the Nereids. circumsono, -sonare, -sonui: I sound all around, I cause to resound; I echo mihi: dat. of reference (?), i.e., ‗it is a concern to me that…‘ qua (adv) = where, as far as 188. genus, -eris (n not m): race, stock; birth, descent, origin; kind, variety, sort iuro, -are, -avi, -atum: I swear, take an oath flumen, -inis is neuter 189. infer, -a, -um (same as inferus, -a, -um): low, below; as subst. the underworld lucus, -i (n): a wood, grove, a sacred grove 188-9. ‗labentia‘ seems to agree with ‗flumina,‘ as in ―I swear by the infernal waters beneath the earth that glide by the Stygian grove.‖ 190. sc. ‗sunt‘ before the gerundive. 191. ense = abl. sing. of ensis, ensis (m) = sword; here, knife, scalpel recido, -ere, -di, recisum: I cut back, cut off. (NB: This verb has a long ‗i,‘ unlike recido, -ere, -cidi, -asum: I fall back, recoil, fall, descend.) sincerus, -a, -um: whole; genuine; clear, pure; earnest, sound, honest But that which is untreatable must be cut off [sc. ‗est‘ before ‗ricidendum‘ for a gerundive of obligation] with the blade of treatment [ense curae], the whole part be infected [lit. ‗dragged‘ down, > ‗trahatur‘]. 192. numen, -inis (n): divine will or power; a god monticula, -ae (m, not f): highlander (Ovid created this word) Silvanus, -i (m): a god of the uncultivated lands 194. quoniam (conj): since, seeing that 34 honor, -oris (m): honor, esteem (abl. specification with the verb dignor. Benn. 226.2) certe (adv): of course, assuredly; at least 195. ‗quas‘ refers to ‗terras‘ 196. an: or, perhaps; surely not credo, -ere, credi, creditum: I trust, belive, think, suppose, have faith in 198. insidiae, -arum (f. pl.): ambushes, snares, traps feritas, -ae (f): wildness, savagery ‗Fertate‘ is (I think) abl. cause (Benn. 219). Abl cause answers why the action of the ver is undertaken and L. is known because of his savagery (i.e., why is L. known? On account of his savagery). Since we do not yet dignify those (lesser gods) with the honour of the sky, at least (certe) let us permit them to live on the lands which we gave (to man?). Surely it is not enough, O Gods, to think [‗credite fore‘?] them safe, when Lycaon, known for his savagery, built traps for me, who holds the thunderbolt and rules you. 199. confremo, -ere, -ui: I murmur aloud studium, -i (n): enthusiasm; affection; partisanship; study, literary work ausum, -i (n): enterprise ‗studiis ardentibus:‘ I think this is an abl. absolute, which doesn‘t have to use a passive participle; active participles, as found here, can be used too. 200. deposco, -scere, - posci: I demand (legal term demanding someone be punished) talia > talis, -e: of such a kind. ‗Talia‘ functions as a direct object of ‗ausum‘: ―demanded an enterprise of such sorts.‖ saevio, -ire, -ii, -itum: I rage, rave 35 202. attonitus, -a, -um: thunderstruck, terrified, astonished; inspired (Abl. cause, answering why the world was suddenly astonished; on account of the terror of great ruin). tantus, -a, -um: such, so great/so little 203. genus is neuter perhorresco, -escere, -ui: I shiver, tremble; I am horrified at 204. gratus, -a, -um: pleasing, welcome, dear, thankful; deserving thanks minus (adv): less 206. murmur, -is (n): hum; rumbling, roar con(com)primo, -primere, -pressi, -pressum: I squeeze; I check, restrain, I suppress, with hold ‗qui‘ refers to Jupiter, who restrains the murmuring of the gods with his voice and hand. 207. subsisto, -istere, -titi: I stand still, halt, remain; I hold out; I resist (+ dat) (these are all intransitive meanings); I lie in wait for (this is the transitive meaning) 209. quidem (adv): in fact (emphatic); at any rate (qualifying); it is true (concessive); for instance (alluding) poena, -ae (f): penalty, punishment 210. vindicta, -ae (f): punishment, revenge; the rod used in manumitting a slave; defense, deliverance admissim, -i (n): crime 211. contingo, -ingere, -contigi, contactum: I touch, hold; I partake of; be near, border on; reach, come to; touch on, affect, concern aures: ‗ears‘; ‗aurum‘ is gold 36 212. delabor, -labi, lapsus sum: I fall down, fly down, sink ‗quam‘ refers to ‗falsam‘ in 211 213. humanus, -a, -um: human, humane, kind; cultured, refined, well educated lustro, -are: I scan, survey, review ; I purify; I traverse lustrum, -i (n): a purificatory sacrifice held every 5 years; also a den, lair, brothel 214. nox, noxae (f): a hurt, harm, offence; guilt; punishment What kind of gen. is ‗noxae‘? Gen quality? Benn. 203. quantum (adv): how much, as much as ubique (adv): anywhere, everywhere reperio, -ire, repperi, repertum: I find (out), discover; I get; I devise, invent ‗sit‘ = subj. in indirect question 216. Latebra, -ae (f, usually in pl.): a hiding place, lair; subterfuge, loophole ferus, -a, -um: wild, savage, rough; uncultivated 217. gelidus, -a, -um: icy, cold, frosty pinetum, -i (n): pinewood, pine forest 218. hinc (adv): from here, hence; from this cause sedes, -is (f): a seat, chair, throne; home, abode; temple; grave 219. sera, -ae (f): a bolt for fastening a door (short ‗e‘) serus, -a, -um: late (long ‗e‘) crepusculum, -i (n): twilight 222. experior, experiri, expertus sum: I try, test, prove, put to the test; I know from experience discrimin, -inis (n): that which divides, a dividing line; an interval; a distinction, difference; a turning point, critical moment; a crisis, danger 37 apertus, -a, -um: open, uncovered, clear (related to ‗aperto, -are‘ = ‗I lay bare,‘ used by Pliny) 222-3. sc. ‗experiar utrum [adv. = ‗whether‘] deus sit hic … an sit mortalis‘ But why are ‗deus‘ and ‗mortalis‘ nominative? Shouldn‘t they be accusative subjects after ‗experiar‘? 223. mortalis, -is (m): a mortal man (substantive > mortalis, -e: mortal, subject to death) dubitabilis, -e: doubtful, uncertain (appears for the first time here in Ovid) 224. gravis, -e: heavy, weighty necopinus, -a, -um: unexpected, not expecting What do ‗necopina‘ and ‗morte‘ agree with? Are the abl. attendant circumstances, i.e.: ‗he prepared to destroy me, heavy with sleep, in a night not expecting death.‘? 225. comparo, -are: I prepare, get ready; I arrange, settle; I provide, furnish; also: I couple, form into pairs (paro, -are: I set, put; I prepare, make ready; provide, furnish) [‘comparat’: thelatinlibrary.com (from where the text I’m using came) begins line 225 with ‘comparat’. However, the text provided by William S. Anderson (whose commentary I’m using) says line 225 begins with ‘me parat.’ Prefer the ‘me parat’ reading, since ‘gravem’ has to agree with something, and the latinlibrary.com version has nothing for it to agree with ]. experientia, -ae (f): a trial, testing; knowledge gained by experience 226. obses, obsidis (c.): a hostage; a surety, security or pledge 227. mucro, -onis (m): a sharp point or edge; a sword‘s point or edge; sharpness; the edge of a piece of land, boundary iugulum, -i (n): the throat resolvo, -ere, -solvi, -solutum: I unbind, untie, loosen, open; here: ‗cut‘ or ‗slit‘ 38 228. seminex, seminecis (not found in nom.) half dead partim (adv > pars, parties (f)): partly artus, -us (m): the joints or limbs 229. mollio, -ire: I make pliable, soft torero, -ere, -ui, tostum: I burn, parch, dry up with heat or thirst ignis, -is (m): fire (abl. of means/instrument) [NB: 3rd declension i-stem nouns originally took an ‘i’ in the abl. sing., but this ending has been replaced in some words with ‘e.’ Ignis, -is is found with both ‘e’ and ‘i’ in the abl. sing. See Hale 88.2 or Bennet 37 & 38]. 230. inpono (impono), -ere, -posui, -positum: I put, set lay or place in; I put, set, lay or place upon; I impose a burden or duty upon vindex, -icis (c.): a protector, a claimant; an avenger, punisher 231. the word order is mixed up to save ‗penates‘ for the final place in the sentence. It could be re-ordered this way: ‗vindice flamma, ego everti tecta in penates, (sc. qui fuerant) dignos domino.‘ I.E., with my avenging flame (i.e., his lightning bolt), I brought down the house upon his household gods, (who were) worthy of such a master. [Rem: dignus and indignus usually take abl. object, e.g., ‘dignas Iove’ = ‘worthy of Jupiter.’ (Met. 166) Vid. Hale, p. 232, sec. 442] 232 nactus > nanciscor, -i, nactus (also ‗nanctus‘): I obtain, get; I come upon, find silentium, -i (n): silence, quiet, stillness rus, ruris (n): countryside; a farm, estate 233. exululo, -are: I howl out or loudly (intransitive); I invoke with cries (transitive) frustra (adv): in vain, without effect; for no reason conor, -are, -atus: I attempt, try, undertake, endeavour, strive 39 234. colligo, -ere, collegi, collectum: I gather together, collect, bring together; I tie, bind, fasten together; I detain, hinder, stop rabies,-ei (f): madness, rage, fury solitus, -a, -um: accustomed, habitual, usual (> soleo, -ere, solitus sum: I am accustomed, used to) 235. veritur > verto, -ere, versi, versum: I turn pecus, -udis (f): a beast, animal; a cow or sheep gaudeo, -ere, gavisus sum: I rejoice, am glad 236. villus, -i (m): shaggy hair abeo, -ire, -ii, -itum: I go away; I change vesis, -is (f): a covering, garment; clothing crus, cruris (n): the shin, shin-bone, leg; the supports of a bridge lacertus, -i (m): the upper arm, the bicep 237. ‗fit‘ > fio = I become servo, -are: I watch over, observe; I keep, retain, preserve 238. canities (f): a whiteish-grey color, esp. of the hair (acc. = canitiem; abl. = canitie; no gen. or dat.) violentia, -ar (f): violence, vehemence, impetuosity 240. unus, -a, -um: ‗one‘ but also ‗only one,‘ ‗just one‘ or ‗one alone‘ [‗one house fell, but not one house alone was worthy to perish‘] pereo, perire, peri(v)i, peritum: I die, am lost, wasted; I perish 241. qua (adv): where; by which way, on which side pateo, -ere: I lie open; I am exposed; I spread, extend ferus, -a, -um: wild, untamed, savage, rough; uncultivated regno, -are: I rule, have sway, mastery 40 Erinys, -yos (f): a fury; a scourge, curse 242. facinus, -orus (n): a deed, action; a crime, wicked deed iurasse: truncated perf. infin > iuravisse > iuro, -are, -avi, -atum: I swear; I swear allegiance to (w/ in + acc; ‗iurasse in facinus‘ = to swear allegiance to wickedness) sc. ‗omnes‘ or ‗omnes viri‘ before the infinitive. dent: jussive subjunctive > do, dare, dedi, datum ocius (adv): swiftly, more swiftly 243. meruere: truncated form of meruerunt > mereo, -ere, -ui, -itum: I deserve, earn, obtain sententia, -ae (f): a way of thinking, thought, opinion 244. pars, parties (f): some; the singular noun sometimes appears with a plural verb meaning ‗some.‘ probo, -are: I approve; I recommend as good; I show, prove, demonstrate stimulus, -i (m): a goad used for driving cattle or slaves; a stimulus, incentive; a pointed stake used to halt the advance of enemy troops fremo, -ere, -ui, itum: I roar; I murmur; I growl 245. adicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectum: I throw to; I add; I outbid at auction adsensus, -us (m): assent, agreement; echo inpleo (impleo), -ere, -plevi, -pletum: I fill in, fill up, fill to full; I fulfill; I play a part 246. iactura, -ae (f): loss, sacrifice 247. omnibus = dat. of possession? 41 dolori = dat. by attraction to ‗omnibus‘? i.e.: ‗the loss of the human rase is, however, to everyone a grief.‘ Vid. Bennett 190. (Normally, I think ‗dolori‘ would be nom. ‗dolor‘ i.e., ‗iactura humani generis est dolor omnibus‘). ‗omnibus‘ would be, I think, a dative of reference, rather than an indirect object, as the loss of the human race is a concern to all the gods. terrae = dat. of possession. orba, ae (f): orphan mortalibus = abl. of separation. (Verbs and adj. of lacking, depriving and freeing take abl. seperation. Vid. Bennett 214.) I.e., ‗They ask what future form shall there be to the earth, an orphan from mortals.‘ 248. forma, ae (f): shape, figure, form laturus = future active participle > fero ara, -ae (f): an altar; a hearth; hearth, home ‗rogant‘ and ‗sit laturus‘ are subjunctive because indirect questions take subjunctive verbs, not acc. + infin. See Bennett 315. 249. tus, turis (n): incense, frankincense freisne = dat. or abl. > ferus, -a, -um = wild? populo, -are: I destroy, devastate, lay to waste trado, -ere, -didi, -ditum: I hand over, give up, surrender 250. talis, -e: of such a kind fore = future infinitive > sum (irreg. form) sibi = dat. of reference (―the rest of the cures to be a care to himself‖?) 251. trepido, -are: I am busy; I am anxious; I bustle about veto, -are, vetui, vetitum: I forbid suboles, -is (f): offspring, race; a shoot, sprout 42 prior, prius: former, first (gen. = prioris) dat. separation (?) dat with a compund adj derived from a compound verb? i.e., ‗and he promised offspring from a miraculous origin (abl source), different from the earlier population.‘ 252. promitto, -mittere, -misi, -misum: I promise; I send forward; I let grow mirus, -a, -um: wonderful, astonishing, extraordinary 253. sparsus erat: future active participle with sum = ‗…was about to…‘ sparsus > spargo, -ere, sparsi, sparsum: I sprinkle, scatter, divide 254. fortis, -e: strong, powerful; as adverb: strongly, bravely sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy, sacred tot (indcl. num. adj.): so many aether, -eris (n; acc. = aethera) the upper air 255. axis, -is (m): the axis of the earth, which extends to heaven; by metonym. the heavens concipio, -ere, -cepi, ceptum: of fire: to catch; of fluids or air: to suck or draw in; more generally, I take in completely, absorb; also: I take or hold together; I grasp by the senses, conceive. ardesco, -ere: I take fire; become inflamed; blaze up. 256. fatum, -i (n): fate, destiny; the will of the a god, divine utterance reminiscor, -i, --: I call to mind, recollect adfore (= adesse?): to be present, i.e., ―there would be a time‖ 257. corripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum: I seize violently, lay hold of, take up regius, -a, -um: royal, regal, kingly; as substantive: regium, -i (n): royal dwelling, place; the royal family 258. obsido, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I blockade, besiege 43 moles, -is (f): a shapeless mass; a massive structire 259. telum, -i (n): a missile, spear; a weapon; lightning (when used of Jupiter) 260. poena, -ae (f): punishment, penalty; a fine diversus, -a, -um: different; opposed, hostile; turned away sc. ‗ei‘ after ‗placet,‘ i.e., ‗a different punishment is pleasing to him.‘ 261. nimbus, -i (m): a cloud, esp. a dark rain cloud; a violent thunder storm ‗ex omni caelo‘ = ‗from every sky‘ or in English, ‗from every part of the sky‘ 262. protinus (adv): further on, forward; continuously; immediately Aeolius, -a, -um: of or descended from Aeolus, ruler of the winds Aquilo, Aquilonis (m): the North Wind 263. flamen, -inis (n): a blast (of wind, of a trumpet, etc). induco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum: I cover, spread over; I bring in, lead in/on fugo, -are: I put to flight, chase away; I dismiss, avert ―Whatever blasts (of wind) scatter the gathering (inductas) clouds are put to flight with the north wind.‖ 264. Notus, -i (m): the South Wind madidus, -a, -um: wet, moist alis > ala, -ae (f): wing evolat > evolo, -are: I fly out, forth 265. piceus, -a, -um: pitch; pitch black picea, -ae (f): spruce-fir tree tectus, -a, -um: covered, concealed (> tecto: I cover) caligo, -inis (f): fog, vapour, mist tectus: a middle, taking ‗vultum terribilem‘ as its object. 44 266. barba, -ae (f): beard nimbus, -i (m): a cloud gravis is nom (gravis, -e), not abl. Don‘t let the endings confuse you! fluo, -ere, fluxi, fluxum: I flow. But what is ‗fluctum‘? 267. frons, frontis (f) forehead, brow roro, -are: I casue dew, I drip; I am moist; I bedew; I water or let fall in drops penna, -ae (f): a feather, wings (in pl); flight sinus, –us (m): a fold or bend; clothes (in pl). 268. latus, -a, -um: wide, broad, extensive; of people: proud, haughty nubilus, -a, -um: cloud-covered, overcast; as substantive: cloudy weather (sing) or clouds (pl, nubila, -orum). ‗manus‘ is fem. sing. agreeing with ‗lata‘ which can only be abl. because its final ‗a‘ is long. 269. fit > fio, present passive of facio. Here, ―a crash is made…‖ fragor, -oris (m): a breaking, noise of breaking; a crack, crash hinc (adv): thence, there; thereupon 270. nuntia, -ae (f) or nuntius, -i (m): a messenger varius, -a, -um: manifold, diversified; various, changeable, diverse, fickle 271. concipio: I take or hold together; I express in a certain form; I take in completely, absorb; I draw or suck in (this is how it is used here); of fire=to catch; I conceive; I take, gain alimentum, -i (n): food; fuel; maintenance 272. sterno, -ere, stravi, stratum: I stretch or spread out; I lie down; I cast or throw down violently, I strike to the ground, overthrow 45 deploro, -are: (intrans) I weep bitterly, lament; I give up, regard as lost coloni: gen. sing, but some mss have ‗colonis‘ dat. pl. here. 273. perit > pereo inritus, -a, -um: void, invalid; vain, ineffectual, useless; without doing anything 275. caerulus, -a, -um: blue (often of eyes, ocean or sky) auxilias, -e: helping, assisting iuvo = help, not ―order (iubeo)‖ 276. amnis, -is (m): a river or stream qui referring to the amnes entering the house of their master (tyranny …sui) 277. intravere = interaverunt > intro, -are:I go into, enter hortamen, -inis (n): an encouragement, exhortation 278. utor, -i, usus sum: I use, make use of, employ (often w/ abl.; see Ben. 218—this is abl. means); I am in possession of; I enjoy; I associate or am intimate with; (of persons): I find ―a long exhortation is not to be used now…‖ or ―now is not the time for a long exhortation…‖ vires = strength, not men 279. mole remota = abl abslte? ―with the dam removed, let loose every reign to your waves…‖ or ―with obstacles to your waves removed, let loose every reign‖ 280. inmitto, -ere, -misi, missum: I send in, let loose; I set or launch against habena, -ae (f): that by which anything is held; a strap, bridle or reigns; w/ ‗dare‘ or ‗fundere‘ = to give reign to; to loosen from the reign 46 281. redeo, -ire, redidi, reditum: I go back; I come back, return; I come back to something; I reduce to relaxo, -are: I loosen, widen, relax; I ease, lighten fons, fontis (m): fountain, not frons = forehead 282. defrenatus, -a, -um: unbridled, unrestrained (abl. place where w/out preposition, Ben. 228d) aequor, -oris (n): any flat, level surface such as a lake or a field; a plain volvunter = the fountains are unrolled, not the (demi)gods Nepture has just spoken to. 284. intremo, -ere: I quake, shake patefacio, -facere, -feci, -factum: I open; I throw or lay open; I make accessible; I reveal, bring to light (in pass: pateifo, -fieri, -factus sum) motu: abl means: ―by (means of) this motion, he spread out a road of water 285. exspatior, -ari: I deviate from a course; I digress 286. arbustum –i (n): a plantation, vineyard; trees (in poetry) pecudes = ? Flocks? sata, satorum: crops (substant. > sero, -ere, sevi, satum: I sow, plant) Abl. accompaniment (Ben. 222) 287. penetralis, -e: passing through, penetrating; as subst. penetrale, -is (n): inner chamber; interior; innermost shrine of a temple sacris> sacrum, -i (n): holy thing; holy place; as adj. sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy, sacred, consecrated 289. indeiectus, -a, -um: not thrown down culmen, -inis (n): an upright thing, stalk; the top, summit; the ridge of a roof 290. lateo, -ere, -ui: I lie hid, concealed; I am sheltere; I am unknown gurges, -itis (m): a whirlpool, eddy; troubled water; a flood 47 tego, -ere, texi, tectum: I cover 291. discrimin, -inis (n): that which divides; a dividing line, border; turning pint; danger 292. erat: sing. verb by attraction to ‗pontus‘ but ‗omnia‘ is the subject of the sentence. Some mss. have a plural verb here derant > desum: I fail; I am lacking, wanting; I am down 293. cumba, -ae (f): a small boat 294. remus, -i (m): an oar illic, illaec, illuc: that there (ille + ce) nuper (adv): recently, not long ago aro, -are: I plough. Here it is imperfect; some mss. have ‗ararat‘ = ‗araverunt‘ perfect 295. mergo, -ere, mersi, mersum: I dip, plunge, immerse; I sink deprendo, -ere, deprendi: I seize upon, catch hold of; I detect, catch; I observe ulmus, -i (f): elm tree 296. deprendo, -ender, -endi, -ensum: I seize upon, catch hold of. ulmus, -i (f): elm tree 297. figo, figere, fixi, fixtum: I fix, fasten, secure, attach viridis, -e: green; trees, herbs (presumably this is a substansive) fors, forte (no gen. acc. or dat. forms) (f): chance, luck ancora, -ae (f): an anchor; w/ tollere = to weigh anchor; w/ figere or pangere = to cast anchor pratum, -i (n): a meadow 48 298. tero, -ere, trivi, tritum: I rub, wear away vinetum, -i (n): a vineyard carina, -ae (f): the keel of a ship 299. gramen, -inis (n): grass, turf 300. deformis, -e: deformed, misshapen, ugly pono, -ere, posui, positum: I set down, place; I lay down, rest phoca, -ae (f): seal corpus, -oris (n) takes ‗a‘ in the plural, despite the ‗us‘ ending in the sing. 301. lucus, -i (m): a sacred grove or wood 302. Nereis, -idis (f): a daughter of the sea god Nereus delphinus, -i (m) or delphin, -inis (m): dolphin 303. incurso, -are (freq. of incurro): I run against, strike, attack, assault ramus, -i (m): a branch, bough, twig robur, -oris (n): hardwood, esp. oak. agito, -are (freq. of ago): I put in constant motion; I vex, agitate 304. nat > no, nare, navi: I swim veho, -ere, vexi, vectum: I carry, convey 305. ape, apri (m): a wild boar sc. prosunt (from 306) as the verb for 305 306. crura > crus, cruris (n): leg, shin bone ablato > abfero: I carry away prosum, prodesse, profui: I am useful; I do good, benefit 49 cervus, -i (m): a stag, deer (a male deer as opposed to ‗cerva‘ being a female deer?) 307. sisto, sistere, stiti, statum: I (cause to) stand; I set in place; I place myself, stand myself; I stand firm quaesitis … teris = abl. abslt.? ―With land having been sought for a long time…‖ 308. lasso, -are: I make weary, tire out, exhaust volucris, volucris (gender not given): bird (a substantive > volucer, volucris, volucre: flying, winged) vagus, -a, -um: wandering, roaming decedo, -ere, decessi, decessum: I move away, withdraw, retire 309. obruo, -ere, obrui, obrutum: I cover over, bury; I fall, collapse; I swamp, drown licentia, -ae (f): freedom, leave, liberty; dissolutness, licentiousness 310. montanus, -a, -um: of a mountain, found on a mountain cacumen, -inis (n): extreme point, tip, zenith, top 311. parco, parcere, peperci, parsum: I spare (+dat) 312. domo, -are, domui, domitum: I tame, break in; I conquer, subdue inops, inopis: helpless, without means ieiunium, -i (n): a fast, abstinence from food; hunger victos, -us (m): living; nourishment, food; a way of life ‗a long hunger from lack of food (inopi victu) subdued those (illos) whom (quibus, dat w/ a form of ‗parco‘) the water spared.‘ 313. arvus, -a, -um: ploughed, cultivated 314. ferax, feracis: fruitful, fertile, prolific 50 sc. ‗fit‘ after ‗illo‘ = ―but in that time, (it became) part of the sea and the wide expanse of sudden waters.‖ 316. vertex, vertices (m): that which turns, a whirl; a whirlwind or eddy of water; the crown of the head; the summit of anything (by extension from the crown of the head, which can be called ‗vertex‘ because of the whirl of hair growing there). 317. supero, -are: I go above, overtop, project; I rise above, surmount; I exceed, surpass, excel; I overcome, conquor 319. torus, -i (m): any swelling or proturberance; a muscle; a couch or bed; a mound of earth (this doesn‘t seem to work here. Could ‗tori‘ be dat, going with the compound verb? Could it be an i-stem abl?) vectus > veho, -ere, vexi, vectum: I carry, convey adhaeresco, -haerescere, -haesi, -haesum: I hang to, adhere; transfig.: I cling to, remain 320. adoror, -are (ad+oro): I speak to, address a god; honor, worship Corycides nympae: nymphs of the Corycian caves on Mt. Parnassus 321. fatidicam (fatum + dico): fate-uttering, prophetic Themis: goddess of justice who occupied Delphi before Apollo oracla = oracular. the ‗u‘ is dropped through syncope to fit the meter. Oraculum could be either the divine utterance (i.e., prophecy) or the place where an oracle is given. 233/4. The comparatives are taken from the participial stem, which is rare. Both take an objective genitive. 324. palus, -udis (f): a swamp, bog, marsh 325. supersum: I am left; I remain 51 milibus > milia, -ium: thousands, countless, innumerable (substantive) 327. innocuuls, -a, -um: harmless; safe; innocent, blameless abo, -ae, -o: both, two together. This is a dual. ‗Duo‘ can be m. or n. nom, or m. or n. acc. However, the m. acc. also appears as ‗duos.‘ See Ben. 80.2. cultor, -oris (m): cultivator, farmer; laborer numinis > numen, -inis (n): a god 328. nubilus, -a, -um: cloud covered, overcast disicio, -ere, disieci, disiectum: I throw in different directions, cast asunder; I ruin, disperse, break up nimbus, -i (m): cloud 329. ostendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum/-tensum: I hold out, show, display ‗aethera‘ is m. acc. sing. > aether, -eris (m): upper air 331. rector, -oris (m): ruler, governor, director, guide ( > rego/rectum) pelagus, -i (n, not m): the open sea profundus, -a, -um: deep; profound; high; boundless; as subst. the sea; an abyss; depth 332. extantem: pres. act. ptcpl. > exto: I stand out; I project murex, -icis (m): a shell fish that gave purple dye; the shell blown by Triton umerus, -i (m): the upper arm umeros…tectum: a passive particple used in the middle, taking a direct object 333. Tritona is accusative ‗caerulem‘ goes with ‗profundum‘ from 331. It can‘t go with ‗Tritona‘ because the ending of ‗caerulum‘ is neuter, not masculine like ‗Tritona.‘ sonanti = ‗echoing‘ 52 334. inspiro, -are: I breathe upon, blow upon ( + dat) fluctus, -us (m): waves, billows flumen, -inis (n): stream both ‗fluctus‘ and ‗flumen‘ > ‗fluo‘ therefore signify ‗a flowing‘ but each indicates a different kind of flowing. 335. cavus, -a, -um: hollow, concave bucina, -ae (f): a crooked trumpet, often a military trumpet; here: Triton‘s horn illi: dat. of agent. Normally an abl. of agent would be used, but Ovid excercises poetic licence here. 336. tortilis, -e: twisted, twined lauts, -a, -um: wide, broad. ‗in latum … crescit‘ = ‗grows wide/borad‘ turbo, -inis (m): a circular movement; an eddy; a whirl; a child‘s toy; a reel or spindle imus, -a, -um: superl. > inferus, -a, -um: below, lower ‗…which grows twisted in width from a lower whirl‘ (?) 337. concipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum ( > cum capio): I take together, hold together; I take completely, take in, absorb; I receive, take in, grasp by the senses; conceive, feel aera = acc. > aer, aeris (m): the lower air, the air around us 338. repleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletum: I fill again; I fill up; I make full; I satisfy utroque (adv): to both sides, in both directions; both ways; at each point sub utroque…Phoebo = ‗in the east and west‘; lit: ‗beneath Apollo (i.e., the sun) in both directions 339. roro, -are: I dip, bedew (acc. describing ‗ora‘ lips) 340. inflatus, -a, -um: blown into, a blowing into (describing the bucina) (> inflo, -are) 53 receptus, -us (m): a retreat, withdrawl; a return, a drawing back (often with ‗cano‘ to sound the retreat). iussos…receptus: pl= ―the commanded retreats‖; i.e., the bucina sounds the retreat ordered by Posidon. 341. audita est refers to the bucina undis is a dative of agent, > unda, ae (f): water, a stream, a surge (of people, water, etc). aequor, -oris (n): any flat surface 342. undis…quibus = dat. agent: ―by which waves it is heard, it restrains all…‖ coercuit > coerco, -ere, -cui, -citum: I enclose, shut in, restrain 343. litus, -oris (n, not m): shore, coast plenus, -a, -um: full alveus, -i (m): a hollow or cavity; a stream bed; a bath tub; the hold of a ship amnis, -is (m): a stream capio, capere cepi, captum: I take; I seize; I keep in, contain 345. solum, -i (n): the bottom or lowest part; the sole of a shoe or foot; land, soil 346. cacumin, -inis (n): top, zenith, tip, summit 347. limus, -i (m): slime, mud, mire, filth 348. inanis, -e: empty, void 349. desolatias … terras: acc subj. in indirect speech after ‗vidit‘ 350. oborits = ‗appearing‘ > oborior, oboriri, oborits sum: I arise, appear 54 351. superstes, superstitis (adj): present, standing near; witnessing; surviving 352. patruelis, -e: a cousin, descended from the father‘s brother ( > paturus) origo, originis (f): origin, source, beginning mihi = dat. poss.? 353. deinde (adv): from that place (referring to space or location); there upon, next, then (referring to time). I think the verbs here refer to quam from 352, which in turn referrs to Pyrrah. I.E.: …whom the marriage bed joined then to me (sc. mihi), whom these dangers now join to me (sc. mihi again). 354. terrarum goes after ‗turba,‘ i.e., ―…we to are the crowd of the world,…‖ ocasus, -us (m): the setting of the heavenly bodies; the west; death ortus, -us (m): the rising of the heavenly bodies, the east; birth, origin 356-7. the word order makes more sense this way: ―haec quoque vitae nostrae fiducia adhuc non est satis certa…‖ 356. fiducia, -ae (f): confidence, trust; self-reliance; courage, bravery; fidelity adhuc (adv): thus far; up to this time; still; even now 357. certus, -a, -um: settled, resolved, decided; certain, fixed; sure, dependable; undoubted, certain terreo, -ere, terrui, territum: I frighten, terrify etiamnum (also etiamnunc) (adv): still, yet, till now 358. eripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptum: I snatch away, tear out (here O. seems to mean ―snatched away from death,‖ not snatched away by death, i.e., the fates) 55 359. animus = P.‘s thoughts, i.e., ‗what for you now thoughts would be,‘ or ‗what would you think now‘ (tibi = dat. poss.) 360. posses = 2nd sing. impf. subj. consolor, -ari (dep): I console, comfort, encourage 361. credo takes dat. when it expresses trust, reliance upon; also when expressing belief in or giving credence to something. It can take dat. or acc. in other uses. 363. utinam (adv): O that! Would that! possim = 1st sing pres act subj. ‗O that I could restore people by the skills of my father!‖ D.‘s father was Prometheus, who made man from dirt and water. 364. formo, -are: I form, shape, fashion; I arrange, order, regulate infundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum: I pour out or on 368. sors, sortis (f): a lot; an oracular resposnce, prophecy (abl = sorti) 369. pariter (adv): equally, alike, at the same time ( > pars, parties = a match) Cephisus, -i (m): a Boeotian river and its associated god 370. vadum, -i (n): a shallow area or ford in a river; the bottom any stretch of water nota > nosco, -ere: I know secants > seco, -are: I cut liquidus, -a, -um: fluid, flowing; as subst. liquidum, -i (n); clear, bright; plain, evident; liquido = adv. 371. inroro, -are: I moisten (w/ dew); I trickle down upon. ‗inroravere‘ is 3rd pl. perf. act. ind. 56 libo, -are: I taste, I touch; I kiss, I offer to the gods (somehow these definitions are all derived from the word‘s primary meaning, ―I take away from‖ but I don‘t see the connection). liquor, -oris (m): a liquid, fluid (cf. liquidus, -a, -um, which gives us the substantive ‗liquidum‘ = a liquid or fluid) 372. flecto, -ere, flexi, flectum: I bend, I turn vestigum, -i (n): a footprint, track, a trace, mark ‗Vestibus‘ and ‗capiti‘ are dative with a compound verb. ‗Inroro‘ is the compounded form of ‗roro‘ ( = I drip), which is transitive. When transitive verbs are compounded, they can take both accusative objects and dative objects. Here, then, it could be translated ―they trickled liquid offerings on their clothes and heads.‖ (Ben. 187.III.2 / p. 131) 373. delubrum, -i (n): a shrine or temple fastigum, -i (n): the gable end or pediment of a roof turpis, -e (adj): ugly, foul, unsightly, deformed 374. palleo, -ere: I am pale (w/ fear); I am yellow; w/ dat: I fear for (e.g., palleo pueri = I fear for the boy). muscus, -i (m): moss arae: nom pl, going with the verb. 375. procumbo, -ere, -cubi, -cubitum: I lean or bend forward, I sink or fall down uterque, utraque, utrumque: each of two, both (gen = utriusque, dat = utrique) 376. humi = locative gelidus, -a, -um: cold, icy, frosty pavens = particple > paveo, -ere, pavi: I shake with fear; I panic 377. prex, precis (f): a prayer; an entreaty, rquest (usually this word is found in pl) 57 iustus, -a, -um: fair, just; lawful, proper 378. victa = conquered things? flectitur = 3rd sing pres. pass. ind. 379. damunm, -i (n): loss, damage, injury generis…nostri = obj. gen. (Bennet 200) reparabilis, -e (adj): repaired, restored (this is a predicate adj. going with ‗damnum‘) 380. fer: imerative of ‗fero‘ ops, opis (f): might, power, esp. power to aid mitissima: f. vocative superl. sing. > mitis, -e (adj): mild, soft, ripe mersis > mergo, -ere, mersi, mersum: I dip, plunge, immerse; I sink, overwhelm 379-80: indirect question; the normal word order would be: ―qua arte damnum generis nostri reparabile sit…‖ Indirect questions take a subjunctive verb (Bennet 315). 382. velo, -are: I cover, veil 383. iactate: imparative pl. > iacto, -are: I throw, cast fling (freq. of iacio) 384. obstupesco, -stupescere, -stupi: I become senseless; I am astounded 385. prior: first; former recuso, -are: I object to, protest against; I refuse pareo, -ere: I appear; I become evident; I obey; I yield, give way to; I perform what I promised; I am subject to; I serve iussis > iussum, -i (n): an order, command (subst. of iubeo = I order). I think it is in the dative here because it goes with a compound verb (recuso) plus an 58 infinitive. Cassell‘s dictionary gives an example of this compund verb + infinitive under the entry for ‗recuso.‘ 386. det = 3rd sing. pres. act. subj. > do, dare. (subj. verb in indirect speech after ‗rogat.‘ Imparatives in direct speech become subjunctive in indirect speech. See Bennet 316). venia, -ae (f): grace, indulgence, favor; pardon, forgiveness (acc in indirect speech after ‗rogat‘). pavidus, -a, -um: trembling, quaking, fearful paveo, -ere, pavi: I quake with fear, I panic (intrans); I quake at (trans) 387. laedo, -ere, laesi, laesum: I strike, knock; I hurt, damage; I offend, outrage, violate iactatis ossibus: abl. abslte. Take is as causal, i.e. throwing the bones would cause her fear. 388. repeto, -ere, -i(v)i, -itum: I seek again; I recall, recollect, go over in my mind latebra, -ae (f): a hiding place, a lurking place, a retreat (in pl.); a subterfuge, a loophole (in singular) 389. voluto, -are: I roll around, tumble; I turn over in mind, reconsider (freq. of volvo) inter se = each other ―meanwhile, they went over, each in his/herself (se cum) the words of the given prophecy, obscure because of confusing (caecis) subterfuge, and went over them again and again with eachother (inter se).‖ 390. Epimeteus, -ei (m): Pyrrha‘s father and brother of Prometheus 391. fallax, fallacis (adj): deceitful, treacherous, false. sollertia, -ae (f): cleverness, skill, ingenuity. Here: D.‘s skill in understanding the oracle. 59 392. Take ‗oracula‘ as the subject of the sentence. suadeo, suadere, suasi, suasum: I present in a pleasing manner, recommend, advise, convince, persuade 394. reor, reri, ratus sum: I reckon, think, and of the opinion, suppose, judge dici = present passive infinitve 395. augurium, -i (n): augury, the offices or work of an augur; any kind of prophecy. 396. dubius, -a, -um: doubtful, wavering, uncertain adeo (adv): to that point, so far; so far (of space); so long (of time); so much, to such an extent (of degree) ambo, -ae, -o (dual): both, together 397. diffido, -fidere, -fisus sum: I have no donfidence; I mistrust; I dispair montius, -us (m): a reminding, warning, admonition; an intimation of the will of the gods by oracles 398. recingo, -ere, -cinxi, -cinctim: I ungird, loosen 399. vestigium, -i (n): a footprint; a track; a trace 400. vetustas, -atis (f): age; antiquity; past time; remote posterity testis, -is (c): a witness, one who gives evidence 401. durites, -ei (f): hardness, harshness, severity (this is the 5th declension form of the verb; it has a 1st declension form too: durita, -ae) 402. mollio, -ire: I make pliable or soft (molliri: pres. pass. infin.) mora = used loosely as an instramental abl., in the manner of English ‗gradually‘ but more literally, ‗with delay.‘ 60 mollita, -ae (f): softness (like ‗durita‘ this word also has a 5th declension form: mollities, -ei) 403. cresco, crescere, crevi, cretum: I come into existence, spring forth, arise; I grow (in size, fame or power) mitis, -e: mild, soft, ripe, gentle 404. qui/quae/quod-dam: a certain person or thing, known but not necessarily named 405. coeptum, -i (n): a thing begun or undertaken (subst. > coepio, -ere, coepi, coeptum: I beging, commence) uti (adv): as; when; how (interog. or exlam.) 406. exigo, -ere, exegi, exactum: I drive or force out; I exact, demand; I drive through, complete; I settle, adjust simillimus, -a, -um: superl. > similis, -e: like, resembling, similar rudis, -e: rough, raw, unwroght; undisciplined; unrefined; unskilled signum, -i (n): a sign, mark; a signal; a signet or seal; a representation of a person, a statue, figure 407. sucus, -i (m): juice, sap, nectar; flavor, taste; vigour, energy. (I think ‗suco‘ is abl. of attendant circumstances: ―But from these things, the part of it that was wet with some nectar and earthen…‖) 408. terrenus, -a, -um: earthen, belonging to the earth; mortal (subst. = terrenum, -i (n): ground, land, earth) usum > utor, uti, usus sum: I use. Here it means ―…was changed into a usable body.‖ 409. nequeo, -ire, -i(v)i, -itum: I am unable flecti: pres pass infin > flecto 61 410. vena, -ae (f): blood vessel, vein; watercourse; innermost, vital part of anything 411. inque = in + que, i.e., ‗et in‘ numen, -inis (n): a not of assent; will, command, consent (often, as here, meaning the will or consent of the gods). 412. facies, -ei (f): shape, form, figure; face; character, nature 414. laborum = obj. gen. 415. documentum, -i (n): an example, pattern; a warning; a proof. damus: 1st pl. pres. act. ind. > do, dare, dedi, datum nati simus: take simus as the auxiliary verb to the participle nati, > nascor, nasci, natus sum: I am born . (But why is it subjunctive?) 417. peperit = ? vetus, -eris: old, ancient, longstanding umor, -oris (m): moisture, fluid 418. percalesco, -ere, -calui: I become very warm caenum, -i (n): mud, filth, dirt (always with negative association); disgrace, degredation udus, -a, -um: wet, moist; tearful; drunken palus, -udis (f): swamp, marsh, bog 419. fecundus, -a, -um: fruitful, prolific; abundant, full, plentiful; rich, abounding in semen, -inis (n): seed; somethin sown, planted; a cause or origin; scion 420. vivax, -acis (adj): long-lived; lasting, enduring; vigorous, lively, brisk solo vivaci = vigorous on its own, describing ‗alvo‘ nutrio, -iri, nitrivi, nitritum: I nourish; bring up; I make good; I sustain, support 62 ceu (adv): as, like as; as when, as if (often with ‗si‘ in this usage) alvus, -i (f, not m): belly, womb; the hold of a ship; a beehive 421. aliquis, aliquae, aliquod: some morando: gerund = ―delyaing‖ or ―with delay.‖ Tx. it as ‗gradually,‘ similar to ‗mora‘ in 402. 422. desero, -ere, -deserui, desertum: I sever my connection; I desert, abandon; I neglect (of religious rites); I fail to appear (legal term) septemfluus, -a, -um: ―Seven-mouthed,‖ a term invented by Ovid. 423. alveus, -i (m): a howllow, a cavity; a trough or bath tub; a stream bed; the hold of a ship; a beehive; a gaming table. ―alveo‖ : for metrical reasons, combide the ‗e‘ and the ‗o‘. This is a process called ‗synizesis.‘ 424. exardescom –ardescere, -arsi, -arsum: I blaze up; I become hot; I glow; I become excited, inflamed; I break out (as of things such as war, arguments, etc). sidus, -eris (n): a star, constellation limus, -i (m): slime, mud, filth aetherius, -a, -um: heavenly; belonging to the upper air; the upper world (as opposed to the lower world). I think this is an abl. cause (ben. 219). 425. glaeba, -ae (f): a lump or clod of earth; earth, land , soil. Also spelled ‗gleba, -ae‘. 426. invenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum: I come upon, find; meet with; I discover; I invent; I procure, acquire, get, earn qui/quae/quoddam: a certain (person or thing) modo (adv): by measure, according to a limit; only, just merely; just now, recently. ‗in his‘ referrs to the glaebae of 425. 63 427. nascendi: what case is this? Is it gen? why? 428. truncus, -a, -um: lopped, maimed, mutilated, cut short ‗numeris‘ = limbs (abl of specification, which is the same as ablative of respect. Ben. 226). 428-29: a more logical word order would be: ―et saepe altera pars vivit, (et) pars altera, in eodem corpore, rudis tellus est.‖ Not the repetition of ‗altera‘ = ‗one part‘ and ‗another part.‘ 430. quippe (conj and adj): certainly, by all means, to be sure, indeed temperies, -ei (f): a proper mixture; tempering; a mild climate. ―Temperiem supsere‖ = ―when they (heat and moisture) acquire a proper mixture...‖ 431. concipio, -ere, -concepi, conceptum: I take together, hold together; I take in, absorb; I receive, take in, grasp by the senses 432. pugnax, -acis (adj): fond of fighting, combative; obstinate, contentious ―aquae‖ = dat. with an adj of unfriendliness (Ben. 192) ―cum‖ + subj. = concessive clause: ―Although fire is combative toward water...‖ vapor, -oris (m): vapour, steam; a warm exhalation, warmth 433. creo, -are: I make, create, produce; I beget, bear; I elect aptum, -a, -um: fitted or fastened together; fitted or equipped with; suitable, appropriate, fitting. ―discors concordia‖ = ‗discordant concord‘ or ‗conflicting coorperation.‘ ‗Discors‘ is an adj. with ‗concordia‘ as its noun. fetibus > fetus, -us (m): the bearing or bringing forth of offspring (Dat. purpose of tendency? Ben. 191) 434. diluvium, -i (n): a flood, deluge, inundation 64 lutulentus, -a, -um: muddy, dirty, filthy; morally dirty or filthy 435. recandesco, -escere, -recanui: I become hot; I become hot again; I become white aesuts, -us (m): a boiling, seething, agitation; heat; fury, raging (of the sea); dizziness, excitement, fury, perpelixty, anxiety (of people) ‗solus aetheriis‘ I think this means ‗heavenly lights‘ as in the repeated days of sunlight after the clouds. It can‘t be an abl. agent, as that takes a(b). Maybe it‘s an abl. attend. circumstances? Abl. cause? (Benn 219) 436. edo, edere, eddidi, editum: I put forth, give out; I produce; I publish, divulge, spread species, ei (f): a sight, a look, a form, an appearance; a speices; a kind of thing 437. monsturm, -i (n): a portent; significant supernatural event (used of events, objects and living things; the dictionary didn‘t give ‗monster‘ in our sense of the word as a definition). 438. Illa refers to the earth quidem (adv): indeed, even nollet: subj. in a contrary to fact statement: ―Indeed, she (the Earth) would not have permitted (it, but…)‖ maxime python: masc. voc. 439. incognita: Andersen‘s commentary gives this ward as ‗incognite‘ (masc. voc. case). That makes more sense here, as a masculine would agree with ‗maxime python.‘ incognitos, -a, -um: unexamined, unknown (w/ dat. person); un recognized 440. spatii: part. gen. ―You held such an extent of the mountain (i.e. Parnassus, upon which Ducalion and Phyrra landed).‖ 65 441. arcitenens, -entis: bow-holding ( > arcus + teneo); an epithet used of both Apollo and Diana. (Andersen‘s commentary spells it as ‗arquitenens‘). letalis, -e: deadly, mortal, fatal 442. damma, -ae (f): a deer or antelope; venison caprea, -ae (f): a roe (don‘t confuse it with capra, -ae (f): a she goat) utor, -i can take abl objects as well as acc objects 443. paene (adv): almost, nearly ―gravem‖ modifies ―hunc‖ in 441. 444. vulnus, -eris (n): a wound venenum, -i (n): a drug; a poison; a love potion; a dye for coloring cloth. 445. neve / neu (adv): and not, nor, not fama, -ae (f): talk, rumour; tradition; public opinion, repute deleo, delere, delevi, deletum: I blot out, efface; I destroy, annihilate vetustas, -atis (f): age; antiquity; past time; long duration; length of time 446. certamen, -aminis (n): a contest, struggle; a rivalry celeber, celebris, celebere (adj): filled, crowded, frequented; celebrated, famous These are both abl., but what kind of abls are they? 448. iuvenis, -is (adj): young, youthful qui/quae/quodcumque: whoever, whatever -ve / vel (enclitic) or, perhaps rota, -ae (f): a wheel; a chariot 449. aesculeus, -a, -um: oaken; relating to the winter oak 66 450. laurus, -i (f): laurel or bay tree, sacred to Apollo, used to crown poets, generals, priests and ancestral busts (pl. ‗laurus‘ in nom & acc). decentia, -ae (f): decency, propriety, comeliness; > verb: decet, -ere, -uit: it is proper, fitting, seemly; particple: decens, -entis: proper, fit; well-formed 451. qualibet (adv): where ever you like; anywhere; in any way you please; any tempus, -oris (n): a division, section; the temples of one‘s head 452. Peneius, -a, -um: offspring of the river god Peneus ‗quem‘ refers to the ‗amor‘ at the beginning of the line 453. fors, forte (found in nom and abl only): chance, luck ingarus, -a, -um: ignorant of, unacquainted with, inexperienced in (active meanings); unknown (passive) ‗ira‘: sc. ‗dedit‘ after ‗ira‘ 454. Delius, -a, -um: of or relating to Delos, the island where Apollo and Diana were born; hence Delius, -i (m): Apollo; Delia, -ae (f): Diana ‗hunc‘ refers to Cupid superbus, -a, -um: haughty, exalted, proud 455. adduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductum: I draw to; I bring or lead to a place; I bring to a certain condition; I bring someone to a certain state of mind nervus, -i (m): a tendon; a bowstring; the string of a musical instrument; the leather used to cover shields; in pl: strength, vigour, effort 456. lascivus, -a, -um: playful, frolicsome (in a good sense); whanton, insolent (in a bad sense) 457. iste, ista, istud (demonst. pronoun or adj): that of yours, thatbeside you; such, of such a kind 67 gestamen, -inis (n): that which is carried (hence Eng. ‗gestate‘); the means by which something is carried, a carriage or litter decet, -ere, -uit: it is fitting, seemly (the person or thing fitted or suitable is expressed in the accusative, occasionally in the dative). ―ista gestamina decent nostros umeros‖ = those things you carry (i.e., bow and arrows) are fitting for our (i.e., ‗my‘) shoulders…‖ 458. sc ‗vulnera‘ after ‗certa‘ and later in the line ‗certa‘ before ‗vulnera‘ – i.e., ‗possumus qui dare certa (vulnera) ferae, dare (cetera) vulnera hosti.‘ = ‗we who are able to give un erring wounds to wild animals, to give unerring wounds to the enemy.‘ 459. pestifer, -fera, -ferum: pestilential; destructive; injurious venter, ventris (m): the belly, stomach; womb 460. strerno, -ere, stravi, stratum: I spread out; I throw down violently tumidus, -a, -um: swollen, puffed up (a predecate adj. which appears to go with ‗pythona‘ wich I‘m guessing is a Greek acc., since ‗presentem‘ also appears to go with ‗pythona‘). 461. fax, facis (f): a torch nescius, -a, -um: unknowing, ignorant, unaware; unable + infinitive. Here, it takes ‗quos amores‘ as its direct object: ―be content with your touch to light what loves I do not know.‖ Apollo‘s ignorance of love is shattered by Cupid‘s ploy to have him fall in love with Daphne; but perhaps Daphne‘s rejection keeps Apollo in a state of ignorance?). 462. inrito, -are: I stir up, incite, excite, stimulate laus, laudis (f): praise, fame, glory; something praiseworthy adsero, -serere, sevi, situm: I plant at or near 68 adsero, -serere, -serui, -sertum: I join myself to; I lay hold of a slave (legal term); I lay claim to 463. figo, -ere, fixi, fixum: I fix, fasten, attach; I fix a limit; I attack. Understand this as the verb (in a concessive clause) for both ‗omia‘ and ‗te,‘ with ‗arcus‘ as the subject for both 464. cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum: I go, proceed; I yield (to); I am inferior (to) [this is how it is used here] 454-5. quanto…tanto: abl. degree diff 465. nostra = abl. comparison ―Although your bow, Phoebus, may pierces all [other] things, my bow will pierce [understand a future indicitave form of ‗figo‘ here] you. By however much all animals are inferior to a god, your glory is that much less than mine.‖ 466. penna, -ae (f): feather; in pl.: wings elido, elidere, elisi, elisum: ( > ex laedo) I strke, knock or thurst out; I dash to pieces, shatter percurro, -ere, per(cu)curri, percussum: I hasten or travel through; I run through a speech or mention inpassing; I run through in my mind; I look over 467. impiger, impigra, impigru: unsloughful; diligent, active (also spelled ‗inpig-‗) 468. promo, -ere, prompsi, promtum ( > pro+emo): I bring forward, bring out, produce eque = e + que, i.e.: and from, going with ‗pharetra‘ sagittifer, -fera, -ferum: arrow-carrying (an adj. going with ‗pharetra‘) 469. fugo, -are: I rout 69 470. auratus, -a, -um: golden, ornamented with gold cuspis, -idis (f): a point (esp. of a weapon), a bee‘s sting; a spear, lance acutus, -a, -um: sharp, pointed; keen, intelligent; shrill, piercing fulg(e)o, -ere, fulsi: I flash, I illuminate, light up; I shine, gleam 471. obtusus, -a, -um: pariciple > obtundo, -ere, -tudi, -tusum: I beat upon, thump; I make dull, weary; I weaken harundo, -inis (f): a reed; the shaft of an arrow plumbum, -i (n): lead, tin 472. ‗hoc‘ referrs to the arrow that makes love flee 473. laedo, -ere, laesi, laesum: I strike, beat, knock; I hurt, injure; I violate; I offend traicio, -ere, -ieci, -iectum: I throw or shoot something across; I convey over, transport; I pass through; I penetrate, pierce medulla, -ae (f): middle; bone marrow; heart; innermost part of something 475. latebra, -ae (f): a hiding place, lurking place; a subterfuge; a loophole ferus, -a, -um: wild; untamed, uncultivated 476. exuviae, -areum (f. pl.): things taken off; clothes; spoils in war; animal hides (this is how it is used here) innupta, -ae (f): an unmarried woman aemulus, -a, -um: rivaling in, vying with (in a positive sense) (often w/ gen.); zealous, jealous (in a bad sense); aemulus, -i (m) / aemula, -ae (f): a rival, esp in love (often with obj. gen.) Phoebe, -es (f): Diana, sister of Apollo (obj. gen. with ‗innuptuae‘) ‗Gaudens‘ referrs to Daphne, and takes an abl. of cause 477. vitta, -ae (f): a ribbon or band coerceo, -ere, -cui, citum: I enclose, encompass, keep in order; I confine, restrain 70 sine lege = ‗without law,‘ i.e., ‗freely‘ 478. aversor, -ari, -atus sum (dep): I turn away; I shun, avoid; I turn away from ( + acc.) 479. expers, -ertis (adj): having no part in; not sharing in; wanting in, destitute of; lacking a husband avius, -a, -um: without roads, untrodden (of places); wandering, remote; lost (of people) neus, -oris (n): a grove, forest; woods with pastureland lustro, -are: I illuminate,make bright; I purify, cleanse by sacrifices; I go around (as in a ceremonial purification); I observe, review, examine inpatiens, -entis: impatient; unable to bear or endure 480. conubium, -i (n): marriage, intermarriage sint: I think this is a subjunctive in an indirect question, which takes nom. subjects in the subordinate clause. [Benn. 300] curo, -are: I care for, pay attention to, trouble about 481. gener, -eri (m): a son-in-law 483. velut (adv): as, even as, just as (w/ indicative); just as if, as though (w/ subj) taeda, -ae (f): pine wood; a pine board; a torch, esp a wedding torch crimen, -inis (n): a crime or fault; guilt; an accusation; an object of reproach; used here in apposition to ‗taedas‘ = ‗…she, hating wedding toches just as though they were something to reproach/as though they were something criminal…‘ exosus, -a, -um: hating exceedingly iugalis, -e (adj): yoked together (as oxen); matrimonial, nuptual 484. vercundus, -a, -um: bashful, modest, shy 71 suffundo, -ere, -fudi, -fusum: I pour over, spread over, suffuse; I steep, strain, cover rubor, -oris (m): a blush, a redness 485. blandus, -a, -um: flattering, fondling, caressing; enticing, alluring, tempting lacertus, -i (m): the upper arm The word order here is confusing; read it as: ―haerens in cervice patris [cum] blandis lacertis‖ in cervice: abl. place where (Benn. 228) blandis lacertis = abl. association, which is often used with verbs of joining or clinging (Benn. 222) 487. fruor, frui, fructus sum: I enjoy + abl. (hence ―verginitate‖) 488. obsequor, -sequi, -secutus sum: I comply with, yield to, obey decor, -oris (m): grace, beauty iste, ista, istud: that of yours, that beside you ‗quod‘ is the object of ‗optas‘ ‗sed tua forma vetat te esse, quod optas‘ = ‗but your beauty forbids you to be what you wish.‘ 489. repugno, -are: I fight against, oppose, resist; I am incompatible with, inconsistent with votum, -i (n): a vow, promise; a desire, wish (dat. in this passage becaue it goes with the compound verb ‗repugnat‘). 491. fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsim: I deceive; I mistake; I diapoint, fail in; I cheat; I escape the notice of. [nisi fallor = ―unless I am mistaken.‖] spero, -are: I look for, expect; I hope (for), promise myself, flatter myself (positive sense); I fear, forbode, anticipate (negative sense) ‗quodque‘ goes with ‗sperat‘ 72 492. stipula, -ae (f): a stalk; stubble; a reed pipe demo, -ere, dempsi, demptum (de + emo): I take away, subract adoleo, -ere, -ui: I magnify, I burn; I offer sacrifice; I honor with a burnt sacrifice arista, -ae (f): the beard on an ear of grain; an ear of grain; a harvest; hair 493. saepes, -is (f): a hedge, fence viator, -oris (m): a traveler; a messenger in a magistrate‘s service 494. nimis (adv): very much; too much; excessively; non nimis: not very much, not particularly relinquo, -ere, reliqui, relictum: I leave (behind); I bequeath; I leave unchallenged; I allow to remain; I abandon, desert, forsake 495. abeo, -ire, abi(v)i, abitum: I go away 496. sterilis, -e: barren, unfruitful, bare, empty; vain, unrequited 497. inornatus, -a, -um: unadorned, plain; unpriased, uncelebrated collum, -i (n): neck 498. como, -ere, compsi, comptum: I put together; I tidy, arrange, make neat; I comb, braid (of the hair) mico, -are: I move rapidly to and fro; I vibrate; I flicker; I shine, sparkle, glitter similis, -e (compr.): like, resembling, similar (often with gen. but used here with abl. comparison); used here as predicate to ‗occulos‘ 501. nudos is predicate to lacertos, i.e., ―he praised … her upper arms, bare beyond the middle part (?)‖ 502. acior (compr. > ocius, -a, -um: swift): swifter, quicker 73 503. levis, -e (adj): light; fast, swift, rapid (when used in reference to movement); the ―i‖ ending is abl. resisto, -ere, -stiti: I stay, contine; I stand still, halt (when used in reference to movement); I resist, oppose, withstand revocantis: what kind of gen. is this? 504. insequor, -sequi, -secutus sum: I follow after, I pursue (w/ hostile intent) hostis, -is (c): a stranger; an enemy. (I think it is used here as a nominative in apposition to the subject [i.e., Apollo] implied in the verb) Penei = voc. of Peneis, the adj. form of Peneus, Daphne‘s father 506. aquila, -ae (f): an eagle; a military standard; a gable or pediment penna, -ae (f): a feather; in pl: wings; flight trepido, -are: I am agitated; I am busy, anxious (about); I fear penna … trepidante = abl. of attendant circumstance (I think!) 507. quisque, quaeque, quidque: each, every; everyone, everything understand ‗fugiunt‘ from the previous line as the verb here. 508. miser, mera, miserum: miserable, poor, wretched, unhappy. (acc. of exclamation, Benn. 183) pronus, -a, -um: inclined or leaning forward; rushing forward, steep; disposed toward, favorable; easy cadas: 2nd sing. pres. act. subj. > cado, -ere, cecidi, casum indignave = ? laedo, -ere, laesi, laesum: I strike, hit, knock; I hurt, damage; I volate, outrage (pass. infin. here?) 509. crus, crurus (n): the shin, shin bone; supports on a bridge 74 noto, -are: I mark; I observe, mark out; I write out; I put a mark against a citizen‘s name sentis, -is (c): a thorn bush 510. asper, aspera, asperum: rough, uneven; as substantive: roughness; harshness, grating; stormy propero, -are: I hasten; I accelerate; I complete quickly moderatius = comp. > moderatus > modero, -are: I keep within bounds, regulate, restrain. ―-ius‖ is the neut. comp. ending (Benn. 71). 511. inhibeo, -ere, inhibui, inhibitum: I hold in, hold back, check, restrain; I practise, use, emply 512. inquiro, -ere, inquisivi, inquisitum: I seek, search for; I look for; I look for evidence against. Here: ―Ask to whom you are pleasing!‖ i.e., ―ask who it is that find you so attractive.‖ I think ‗cui‘ is dat. with a compound verb. ‗placeas‘ = subjunctive verb in an indirect question (Benn. 300). incola, -ae (c): an inhabitant 513. armentum, -i (n): cattle used for ploughing; a herd of oxen; a herd of horses or stags 514. observo, -are: I watch, observe; I attend to; I guard; I observe rites or laws ‗hic‘ refers to Apollo, i.e., he uses it to refer to himself ‗horridus‘ is used by Apollo to refer to himself, i.e., ―I do not watch over flock over oxen and flocks as an awful-to-behold commoner‖ [very loose translation]. Loeb translates ‗horridus‘ as ‗unkempt.‘ 515. temerarius, -a, -um: inconsiderate, rash ‗quem fugias‘ = subjunctive in an indirect question after a verb of knowing ideo (adv): on that account, therefore, for that reason/purpose 75 mihi = dat. of reference 516. regius, -a, -um: royal, kingly, regal; as feminine substantive: regia, -ae (f): the royal dwelling place, the palace. Patareus, -a, -um: the adj. form of Patara, -ae (f): a city in Lycia with an oracle to Apollo. Since ‗Patarea‘ is the adj., take ‗regia‘ as a substantive noun. Anderson notes that Apollo is bragging falsely, as Patara didn‘t have a palace. sc. ‗me‘ as obj. of ‗servit.‘ 518. pateo, -ere, patui: I am / I stand / I lie open; I am revelaed, exposed (used here to refer to oracles given by Apollo). Don‘t confuse ‗pateo‘ with ‗patior‘ = ‗I suffer.‘ nervus, -i (m): sinew, tendon; the string of a musical instrument; a bow string. Dat. w/ a compound verb (vid. Cassell, p. 128 under the entry for ‗concordo, - are‘). 519-20: ―nostra sagitta certa est, tamen una sagitta, certior nostra (abl. comp.), quae fecit vulna in vacuo pectore.‖ 520. vulnus, -eris (‗wound‘) is neuter not masculine. 521. obifer, -fera, ferum ( > ops + fero): helpful 522. ‗dicor‘ = ‗I am called‘ rather than ‗I am said‘ 523. ei mihi = me miserum (why is this phrase dat?) sanibilis, -e: that which can be healed, curable 525-6: ―on her fearful course, Daphne fled (sc. ‗eum‘), about to say (sc. ‗locuturm,‘ agreeing with the implied ‗eum‘) more 527. decens, -entis: proper, fit; well-fromed, comely, handsom 76 nudo, -are: I make naked, bare; I strip, I reveal, expose; I spoil, plunder 528. obvius, -a, -um: in the way; meeting; exposed to; ready to hand, of easy access flamen, -inis (n): a blowing, a blast of wind 529. retro (adv). back, backward, behind in/impello, -ere, -ui,-pulsim: I drive or strike against; I set in motion, drive on; I incite, impel (Loeb translates ‗inpulsos‘ as ‗streaming‘) 530. augeo, -ere, auxi, auctum: I increase susteno, -ere, sustinui, sustentum: I hold up, support, sustain; I hold back, check, restrain; I endure, have heard ( + infin) 531. blandita, -ae (f): flattery, coaxing (in both good an bad senses); charm, attraction perdo, -ere, perdidi, perditum: I destroy, ruin, do away with; I kill; I ruin morally, I waste, squander 532. admitto, -ere, -misi, -misum: I send to, admit; I let go, give regin, put at a gallo (usu. of horses); I allow words and entreaties to reach; I permit; I commit (a crime or deed) passus, -us (m): a step, stride, pace; a footstep, track ‗passu admisso‘ = ‗at full speed‘ 533. lepus, -oris (m): a hare, rabbit arvum -i (n): ploughed land, a field (subst. > arvus, -a, -um: ploughed, > aro: I plough) How does ‗cum‘ fit in? ―in vacuo arvo‖ accounts for the abls. What does ‗cum‘ govern? 534. praeda, -ae (f): spoils of war; plunder; prey hic = the Gallic hound; ille = the hare 77 salus, -utis (f): health, soundness; safety, welfare 535. inharesco, -haerescere, -haesi, -haesum: I adhere or cling to. The ‗ur‘ is a future active participle indicator (Benn. 337.4) sc. ‗leporem‘ after ‗tenere‘ 536. extentus, -a, -um = prtcpl. > extendo, -ere, -tensi, -tensum/tentum: I stretch out, expend, extend prtcpl. = wide, extensive string, -ere, strinxi, strinctum: I bind, tie; I strip off; I clip, pluck, prune; I graze, touch lightly rostrum, -i (n): that which gnaws, a beak or snout; the ramming prow of a ship ‗vestiga‘: in the pl. vestigum, -i (n): can mean ‗feet‘ as well as footsteps, traces, tracks or marks 537. con/compre(he)ndo, -ere, - pre(he)ndi, -pre(he)nsum: I grasp; I embrace, include; I take firmly, seize; I capture, arrest; I comprehend, perceive sit = subj. in an indirect question 538. morsus, -us (m): a bite, biting; eating; laying hold of; a biting taste, a pungent smell; a malicious verbal attack; mental pain, vexation eriptur = middle voice (i.e., ―frees itself‖) tangentia = acc pl neut partcpl > tango, -ere, tetigi, tactum: I touch, going with ‗ora‘ i.e., ‗it leaves behind the touching jaws.‘ 539. ‗est‘ is the verb for both ‗deus‘ and ‗virgo‘; sc a second ‗est‘ after ‗celer‘ ―thus is the god and the virgin; he is swith with hope, she with fear.‖ 540. insequor, insequi, insecutus sum: I follow after, succeed; I pursue a subject, I pursue with hostile intent 78 aditus = particple > adiuvo, adiuvare, adiuvi, adytum: I help, assist, support. NB: the ‗us‘ ending on the particple in this line refers to Apollo, not the wings; i.e., ―helped by the wings of love,‘ not ‗he follows withhelping wings of love.‘ 541. ocior, ocius (comp adj): swifter, quicker requiem = acc. > requies, -etis (f). rest, repose 542. sparsum > spargo, -ere, sparsi, sparsum: I scatter; I sprinkle; I strew or throw about; I spread out adflo, -are: I blow or breathe upon 543. adsumo, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptum: I take to myself; I clam; I take, appropriate expallesco, -pallescere, -palui: I become very pale viribus > vis, vim (acc) (f): strength; power, force. ―When strength is taken away…‖ citus, -a, -um: swift, speedy 544. vica > vinco, -ere, -vici, victum: I conquer, overcome, defeat, subdue (―having been overcome by the labr of her swift flight…‖) 545. numen, -inis (n): a not of the head; a nod of approval; (an expression of) divine will; a divine command 546. nimius, -a, -um: very great, very much; as a substantive: much, a lot, a great deal, an excess, to much; as adj: an excessive amount, too great here it agrees with ―figuram‖ – the sentence makes more sense like this: ―si flumina habetis numen, perde figuram (qua placui nimium) mutando!‖ If your waters have a god, destroy this form (by which I plased [Apollo] too much by changing (my form)!‖ 79 547. laedo, -ere, laesi, laesum: I strike, knock, hurt, injure; I strangle; I hurt or offend feelings; I violate, outrage. Laedar = 1st sing pres pass subj. what does ―quae‖ agree with? 548. artus, -us (m): limbs, joints torpor, -oris (m): a numbness, sluggishness; inertness, inactivity 549. praecordia, -orum (n. pl): the midriff, diaphragm; stomach; the breast, heart tenui = abl > tenuis, -e: thin, fine, slight, slender liber, libri (m): the inner bark of a tree; a book 551: piger, pigra, pigrum: slow, lazy, unwilling, sluggish radix, -icis (f): a root haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum: I stick, cleave, adhere; I come to a standstill, get stuck; I become perplexed; I am embarrassed 552. cacumen, -inis (n): top, tip, zenith, extreme point, limit nitor, -oris (m): brilliance, brightness, splendour; beauty, elegance unus = alone, only 553 stipes, -itis (m): a log, stump or tree trunk; a tree or branch; as an insult: a blockhead ―postia … dextra‖ = ―having palced his right [hand] on the bark…‖ 554. pectus, -oris (n): the breast as the seat of affections; the heart, soul repidare = infin. in indirect discourse after ―sentit‖ trepido, -are: I am agitated, I flicker 555. complexus, -us (m): an embrace ( > complector, -plecti, -plexus: I embrace, wncircle, hold fast); complexus, -us (m): a combat; a grasp; love, affection 80 lacertus, -i (m): the upper arm 556: lignum, -i (n): wood, timber, firewood (not wood for building); a wooden writing table 555-6: read the word order this way: ―dat complexus suis lacertis ut ramos (sint) membra, (et) scula lingo‖ – ―he gave an embrace to her arms as if the brancheswere limbs and gave kisses to the bark.‖ 557. quoniam (conj): since, because, seeing that, whereas 559. laure = voc. > laurus, -i (f): the laurel or bay tree 561. pompa, -ae (f): a solemn procession; a train, suite, retinue ‗vox‘ agrees with ‗laeta‘ = ―when happy voices [will] sing [i.e., praise] the triumph‖ capitolium, -i (n): the temple of Jupiter built on the tarpeian rock 562. custos, -odis (m or f): a guard, guardian, watchman, keeper eadeam (adv): in the same way, likewise 563. foris, -is (f): a door (most often found in pl) stabis = 2nd sing. fut act ind > sto, stare tuebere = you will behold, look intently upon (I‘m not certain of the exact form and tense of this verb as it appears here) > tueor (deponent) / tueo, -ere intonsus, -a, -um (> in + tondeo): unshorn; transf: rude, rough (of people); wooded (of forests and mountains) 566. paean, paeanis (m): healer; a name used of Appolo ‗Laurea‘ is the subject before the colon; the focus has switched from Apollo to the tree 81 567. cacumen –inis (n): the top, extreme point, tip, summit, zenith ‗visa est‘ = ‗she seemed‘ a more logical word order would be: ―factis ramis modo, Laurea adnuit caput, utque, visa est, agitasse cacumen.‖ 568. nemus, -oris (n): a grove, forest; a wood with glades for cattle Haemonia, -ae (f): an old name for Thessaly praerumpo, -rumpere, - rupi, -ruptim: I break off in front; hence the particple praeruptus, -a, -um: broken off; of places: steep; of people: headstrong, hasty undique (adv): from or on all sides; (from) everywhere; altogether, in every respect 569. Peneus, -i (m): chief river of Thessaly; as a river god, the father of Cyrene and Daphne. It is acc. pl. (Peneos) in my text, but Anderson‘s commentary gives the same word in the nom. sing. (Peneus). The latter makes more sense because it agrees with ‗effusus.‘ imus, -a, -um: superlative of inferus, -a, -um: below, lower ‗per queae‘ refers to ‗Tempe,‘ which is an indeclinable neuter plural 570. Pindus, -i (m): a mountain range between Thessaly and Epirus spumosus, -a, -um: foaming, full of foam 571. deiectus, -us (m): a throwing down, a steep slope; here it means ‗waterfall‘ tenuis, -e (adj): thin, fine, slight, slender; refined, subtle; unimportant, slight; weak, feeble; low, mean 572. a(d)spergo, -inis (f): a sprinkling, besprinkling; a spray nubilus, -a, -um: cloud-covered. It is neut. pl agreeing with ‗Tempe.‘ The participle ‗agitantia‘ ends in ‗ia‘ which is neuter plural, not fem. sing. nom., which would end in ‗ns,‘ or fem. sing. abl. which inds in ‗nte.‘ 82 573. im/inpluo, - pluere, -plui: I rain upon vicina, -ae (f): nearness, neighborhood, vicinity; plusquam vicina = ‗more than the (immediate) neighborhood, i.e., the sound of the falls wearies neighboring areas far from the falls themselves fatigo, -are: I weary, tire, fatigue; I vex, harass, worry 575. amnis, -is (m): a river or stream. The foucs of the narrative nowshifts to the river god Peneus. resido, -ere, -sedi, -sessum: I settle (down), rest; I skink down facto = ppp > facio; sc. ‗facto de cantibus‘ before ‗antro‘ anturm, -i (n): a cave cautes, -is (f): a rough, sharp rock 576. ius, iuris (n): a law, a right colentibus = pres. act. ptcpl. > colo, colere, colui, cultum: I cultivate. Tx. as ―…and the nymphs, taking care of the waves…‖ 577. illuc (adv): to that place; (trans.): to that matter popularis, -e: belonging to the same people or country; of the people; relating to the whole state; being derived from the state primum (adv > prior = former, previous): at first, for the first time; as soon as 578. nescius, -a, -um: ignorant, unaware; not knowing; unable to do something; in passive: unknown gratentur = subjunctive in an indirect question after ‗nescia‘ > gratior, -ari (dep): I wish joy to; I congragtulate consolor, -ari: I console; I comfort; I encourage; I allieviate, lighten (here used with the particle ‗ne‘ = ‗whether‘) 579. populifer, -fera, -ferum: producing poplar trees 83 581. in/impetus, -us (m): a violent motion; a rapid motion; a strong current; an onset; a making for, a drive for; an attack how does ‗qua‘ work here? 582. erroribus = abl. cause (Ben. 219): ‗…tired from (i.e. because of) the wanderings…‖ 583. recondo, -ere, didi, -ditum: I put away, put back, store; I haide, conceal 584. fletus, -us (m): weeping, crying; bewailing. Here it is an abl. means. augeo, -ere, auxi, auctum: I make grow, enlarge, increase Io: this is indeclinable. Tx. it here as acc. 585. lugeo, -ere, luxi: I mourn, am in mourning (intrans); I lament, bewail, wear mourning for (trans) amitto, -ere, -misi, -missum: I send away; I let go; I let slip; I lose (esp. by death). Here: ―…he, most unappy, mouned his daughter (natam) Io as (ut) lost.‖ ‗nescit‘ starts an indirect question fratur = 3rd sing. pres act subj > fruor, -i, fructus sum: I enjoy. ‗vita‘ is nom. so I think this line says ―he didn‘t know whether life enjoyed (her), or whether it (i.e., her life) was in the place of the underworld.‖ However, it seems more logical to me to say ―he didn‘t know whether she enjoyed life, or whether whe was in the place of the underworld.‖ 586. manes, -ium (m. pl.): the shades of the departed; the spirits of the dead; (transfig): the lower world. (hence ‗dis manibus‘) invenio, -ere, -veni, -ventum: I find, come upon, meet with; discover, find out; procure, get, acquire usquam (adv. > ubi + quam): anywhere; in any way at all; in any direction 84 587. nusquam (adv. > ne + usquam): nowhere; in nothing, on no occasion; to / for nothing; with ‗esse‘: not to exist; to be nowhere vereor, -eri, -itums sum: I am afraid, anxious; I fear (for) + dat; I fear ( + ‗de‘ w/ abl). animo = abl. place (?) (i.e., in his soul) peiora = neut. acc. pl. 588. redeuntem = ? 589. beatus, -a, -um: partcpl > beo, -are: I bless, make happy; hence: beatus, -a, -um: happy, blessed; as a noun: beatum, -i (n): happiness 590. a fut. act. partcpl., but it is not part of the indirect speech, despite its place in the sentence. The word order might make more sense like this: ―O virgo, digna Iove, (tu) factura nescio quem (virem) beatum tuo toro..‖ O virgin, worthy of Jove, you will make I know not which man happy with your bed…‖ I think ‗tuo toro‘ is an abl. mean, but then again could be an abl. location (i.e., ‗happy in your bed‘) 591. monstro, -are: I show, point out; I teach; I ordain, appoint; I inform, denouce 592. ‗calet‘ takes ‗sol‘ as its subject 593. latebra, -ae (f): a hiding place 594. praesideo, -sidere, -sedi, -sessum: I sit before; I watch over, protect, guard; I manage, direct, govern, preside over secerno, -cenere, -crevi, -cretum: I separate, part, sunder; I distinguish; I set aside; I reject; as partcpl: secretus, -a, -um: set apart, alone, separate; retired; solitary; hidden, secret; deprived of (+ abl); as subst: secretum, -i (n): a retirement; solitude; a solitary place; a secret; a mystery subibis = second sing. fut. act. ind > subeo, -ire, -i(v)i, -itum: I approach, enter 85 deo = abl. means? I.E., ‗safe by means of a god‘? I don‘t think it could be abl. accompaniment, because that takes ‗cum‘ with verbs of mition. 595. plebs, plebes (f): the common people; the lower order of gods 596. sceptrum, -i (n): a royal secptre or staff; transfig: a dominion or kingdom vagus, -a, -um: wandering, roaming, roving fulmen, -inis (n): a stroke of lightning, a thunderbolt; a crusing calamity 597. pascuum, -i (n): a pasture; pascuus, -a, -um: for pasture or grazing Larna, -ae (f): a marsh in Argolis; the Larnaen hydra, which was killed by Hercules, lived in that marsh 598. consita = ? Loeb translates it as ―thick-set‖ arvus, -a, -um: plughed; as sustant: arvum, -i (n): ploughed land; a field, land 599. caligo, -inis (f): fog, mist, vapor; darkness; gloom 601. despicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectum: I look down, regard from above 602. facies, -ei (f): shape, form, figure; face; (transfig): character, nature, seeming, pretense voucer, volucris, volucre: flying, winged; as subst: volucris, -is (f not N): a bird or flying insect 603. nitidus, -a, -um: brillian, bright, shining, glittering; flourishing, luxuriant; handsom, trim, elegant mirata = ? 604. umens, -entis (adj): moist (> umeo, -ere: I am moist, wet); rem: 3rd declension adjs. take ―i‖ in the abl sing. (Ben. 68-70). I think this would be an abl. cause. 86 sentio, -ire, sensi, sensum: I feel; I experience; I feel the force of something (emotionally); I realize, perceive; I think, judge, suppose 605. ‗suus coniuns ubi sit‘ = indirect question. ―She looks around, (wondering) where her husband might be.‖ 606. depr(eh)endo, -endere, -endi, -ensum: I seize upon, catch hold of; I catch, surprise, detect; I discover (esp. a crime); I observe, detect, mark. It agrees with ‗mariti‘ totiens (adv): so often, so many times nosset = novisset: 3rd sing. pluperf. act. subj. > nosco furtum, -i (n): theft, robbery, stolen property; a trick, deceit, a secret or stolen love ut + subj: this is a relative clause of characteristic, with an accessory notion of cause (also introduced by ‗quippe‘ or ‗utpote‘); hence: ―now she looked around, since (ut) she had often known the stolen loves of her husband, caught so many time before.‖ 607. reperio, -ire, repperi, repertum (> re + pario) I find again; I discover something new; I invent‘ ‗quem‘ = Jupiter caleo = abl. location, i.e., ―…when she did not find him in the sky…‖ 610. praesentio, -ire, -sensi, -sensum: I feel or perceive beforehand niteo, -ere: I shine, glitter, am bright; I glow, am sleek; I flourish ‗mutare‘ + ‗in‘ takes an acc. of the ting changed and an acc. of the thing it is turned into 611. Inachidos: Greek gen., patronymic, i.e. the name of a father to stand for his son or daughter. Here it = the daughter of Inachus. vultus: this is actually gen, but Anderson‘s commentary says to treat it as if it were ‗formam.‘ Is it Gen. by attraction to ‗Inachidos‘? Shouldn‘t it be accusative? 87 612. bos, bovis (m or f): cow or an ox fromosus, -a, -um: beautiful, beautifully formed species, -ei (f): a seeing, a view; an outward appearance; a beautiful form, beauty; Anderson‘s commentary says it‘s a synonym for ‗froma.‘ Saturnia, -ae (f): Juno, daughter of Saturn vacca, -ae (f): a cow 613. invitus, -a, -um: unwilling probo, -are: I approve, find good; I judge by a standard; I show prove, demonstrate nec non: the double negative simply means ‗and‘ (i.e., ‗nor does she not approve,‘ or ‗nor does she disapprove‘, i.e., ‗and she approves‘) unde (adv). from where, whence; how, from whom 614. -ve (> vel): or, or perhaps; ve … ve: either … or ‗sit‘ = subjunctive in indirect question armento > armentum, -i (n): a cow or ox for ploughing; a herd of oxen, cows, horses or other such animals. Anderson‘s commentary this is an abl. description, but I think abl. of source or separation would make more sense. quasi (adv): just as, as if Try this word order: ―Saturnia, quasi, nescia, veri, quaerit specium vaccae, quamquam invita, nec non probat, et (repeat ‗quaerit‘ here) cuius, et unde quove arment sit. 615. gigno, -ere, genui, genitum: I beget, bear, bring forth (often w/ abl. origion or ex + abl). mentior, -iri (dep): I lie, mislead, deceive auctor, oris (m): one that gives increase; an originator, causer, doer; founder of a family; a leader, beginner; author of a piece of information, authority; a backer, supporter; bail, a trustee or guardian 88 616. desino, -sinere, sii, -situm: I leave off, cease, give over, desist; I cease, stop, end; I end in (tears, laughter, etc). munus, -eris (n): an office, a duty, a function; a change, a tax; funeral honors, duties to the dead; a gift, present; a public show, esp those given by the aediles; a public building paid for by a private individual 617. faciat = deliberative subjunctive, ‗what could he do?‘ crdelis, -e (adj): unfeeling, cruel (takes ‗est‘ in 218 as its impersonal verb) addicio, -dicere, -dixi, -dictum: I assent to, promise favorably; I award; I give up, surrender; I hand over 618. suspectus, -a, -um: suspected (ptcpl > suspicio, -ere, suspexi, suspectum: I look upwards; I look from below; I esteem, respect; I look askance at; I suspect) suadeo, -ere, suasi, suasum: I present in a pleasing manner; I recommend, advise; I convince, persuade ( + acc w/ infinitive) Why is it subjunctive? illinc (adv): from that place; on that side 617-19:It is cruel (for Jove) to give up his loves, it is suspicious not to (give the cow as a gift): It is modesty which persuades on this side, and love that dissuades on that. 619. Why is ‗esset‘ in the subjunctive 621. poterat = 3rd sing impf. act. ind. Latin usually takes a subjunctive, present contrary to fact, but allows for imperfect indiciative 623. paelex, paelicis (f): a mistress, concubine (the wife goes in gen) protinus (adv): forward, futher (on); immediately, continuously 624. donec (conj): until, up to the time when; so long as, while Arestorides, -ae (m): a descendant of Arestor (i.e., his son Argus) 89 servo, -are: I watch over, keep, observe; I keep for the future, reserve, save up; I protect, preserve 625. inde (adv): thence, from there; then, thereupon, from that time forth vices, ive, vice / vices, vicibus (nom is not found; ‗vicis‘ is gen): one‘s palce, an office, post or duty; a change, alteration, vicissitude. ―From his duty‖ = abl seperation? (Benn. 214) bini, -ae, -a: two, twofold, two each ‗capiebant‘ refers to Argus‘ eyes. I think it is in the singular form, i.e., ‗in pairs,‘ ‗each in pairs‘). Abl means? 628. consto, -stare, -stiti, -stitum: I stand together (with someone or something); I depend or rest upon, I correspon to, am consistent with; I stand firm, stand still; I remain the same, am unaltered; I am resolved, certain; it is fixed, agreed, certain quamvis (adv): as much as you please, ever so much; however much, although ‗No wheresoever he stood, he watched Io; although he turned away (i.e., turned his back on her), he held Io before his eyes.‘ 630. pasco, -ere, pavi, pastum: I feed, graze, pasture; I feed, support, nourish luce = ‗by light of day‘ 631. vinculum, -i (n): a band, chord, chain; a bond, fetter. Here perhaps ―tether‖? collum, -i (n): the neck 663. aevum, -i (n): eternity; lifetime, a period of time, time in general nostros: if this really is accusitive, then this line says, ―Grief will extend is (i.e., me) into an unending age.‖ But could this be a subject accusative, like ‗deum‘ in 662; i.e., ‗my grief will extend into an unending age.‘ 90 664. maereo, -ere: I am sad, mournful; I grieve, mourn, lament; I grieve over (+dat); I bewail stellatus, -a, -um: starry; many-eyed; bright, glittering sub/summoveo, -movere, -movi, -motum: I move up from below, I move (something) away, drive off, remove; I clear a path for a magistrate; I banish ‗talia maerenti‘ = ‗with such words,‘ i.e., Inachus spoke such words with grieving. Talia is a cognate acc, wich is usually used with intrastitive verbs. (Cognate accusatives are a subset of acc. of result. Benn. 176.4). 665. pascuus, -a, -um: pastoral, for pasture or grazing; as subst. pascuum, -i (n): a pasture 666. abstraho, -ere, abstraxi, abstractum: I drag away, I exclude, estrange; I restrain (despite being a compound verb, this verb can take an accusative object). Procul (adv). far, to, at; from a distance; far away, without a doubt sublimes, -e (adj): high, raised, lifted up, lofty; as adv. sublime: on high, aloft cacumen, -inis (n): extreme point, to, tip, zenith 667. unde (adv): from where, whence speculor, -ari: I look out, spy, watch, observe 668. rector, -oris (m) ( > rego): a ruler, governor, director, guide Phoronidos: Phoroneus was Io‘s brother; this term is a way to refer to her through her brother (i.e., it is a type of patronymic called an antonomasia) 669. lucidus, -a, -um ( > lux): full of light, clear, bright partus, -us (m): a birth, bearing, bringing forth; a beginning; offspring natumque vocat = ―and called his son‖ partu = abl. means (?) i.e., whom a shining Plead bright forth in birth (i.e., by means of birth). 91 670. Pleias, -adis (f): a Pleiad, one of the stars who were daughters of Atlas and Pleione enitor, -niti, -nisus/nixus sum: I work my way up, struggle up; I climb; I strive, struggle, make an effort; I bear, bring forth enixum, -a, -um: strenuous, eager letum, -i (n): death, ruin, destruction (dat purpose? Benn. 191) det: subj ( > do, dare): a subjunctive in an indirect command (Benn. 316) without ‗ut‘; it takes ‗Argum‘ as its object. 671. virga, -ae (f): a green twig; a staff or wand; a branch; a stripe of color on clothes ptens, -entis = particple > possum, mondifies ‗manu‘ 672. tegumen/teimen, -inis (n) ( > tego): a covering, a cover; here, a hat 673. dispono, -ere, disposui, dispositum: I put in different places, distribute; I arrange, put in order 674. desilio, -ire, desilui, desultum: I leap down; I dismount 675. tantummundo (adv): only, just 676. devius, -a, -um: without roads; out of the way; solitary, erronius, unreasonable 677. canto, -are (freq. of cano): I sing (tranitive); I play an insturument (intransitive) avena, -ae (f): oats; a stalk or straw; a shepherd‘s pipe. (abl. instrument) 680. pecus, -oris (n): cattle; a herd or flock ullo loco = abl. location. ―… for the grass for (your) flock is more fertile in no other location…‖ 92 682. euuntem = participle > eo (iens, euntis) 683. detineo, -tinere, -tinue, -tentum: I hold away, hold back, detain; I prevent; I engage, occupy exclusively diem = acc. extent time going with ‗euntum,‘ i.e., ‗he engaged the passing day with talk, speaking of many things.‘ 684. harundo, -inis (f): a reed, an arrow shaft, a flute lumina = eyes servo, -are: I watch over, keep watch; I observe; I protect 685. evinco, -ere, -vici, -victum: I utterly subdue, conquor entirely; I prevail over; I get through; I bring about molles, -is (f): a structure, a mass; greatness, might, power 686. spoor, -oris (m): deep sleep 687. reperio, -ire, repperi, repertum: I find out; I discover, find out 688. fistula, -ae (f): a tube; a reed or water pipe nuper (adv): recently, not long ago; in recent times sit = subjunctive in an indirect question sc. ‗fistula‘ again with ‗reperta‘ 690. Hamadryas, -adis (f): a wood nymph, hamadryad celeber, -bris, -bre: crowded, filled; frequented; celebrated, famous Nonacrnus, -a, -um: Arcadian; Callisto > Nonacris, -is (f): a mountain and town in Arcadia 691. Naias, -adis (f): a water nymph (here in Greek nominative) Syringa = Greek acc. 93 692. eludo, -ere, elusi, elusm: I finish playing; I ward off, evade; I delude, mock 694. ‗Ortygiam deam‘ = Diana. Otrygia was the earlier name of Delos, where Diana and Apollo were born. 695. ritus, -us (m): a religious custom, useage, ceremony, rite; something done in the mander of someone or something else. (Usually this word will be in the abalative, and will take a genitive object). Read this passage: ―quoque cincta (vestimentum suum) ritu Dianae‖ = ―(She) also tied up (her garments) in the manner of Dianna.‖ 696. fallo, -ere, fefelli, falsum: I ceceive, I lead astray; I disappoint; I fail in; I escape notice; I am concealed (from); in the passive voice: I am mistaken. (Juno uses it in this way in line 607). fallet and posset = imperfect subjunctive for pluperfect in past contrary to fact Latonia = Diana. Latona was her mother. 697. huic = syrinx. It is dat. possive illi = Diana 696-8. She would have deceived (many pursuers) and was able to be believed (to be) Diana, if not for her bow of horn; (or) if she (i.e. Diana) would not have had a bow (sc ‗arcus‘ again) of gold (lit. ‗if not to her was a bow of gold‘); nonetheless, she often deceived (her pursuers). 698. redeuntem = ? What verb is this from? It‘s also used in 588. Lycaeus, -i (m): a mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Jupiter and Pan 699. hanc = Syrinx pinus, -us (f): a pine or fir tree 94 praecingo, -ere, -cinxi, cinctum: I gird in front; I surround with a girdle; as a middle verb: I gird myself. Here, it refers to Pan refert = ‗said‘ 700. resto, -are, restiti: I resist, oppose; I remain, stay behind; used impersonally (as here): ―it remains.‖ This verb actually refers to Mercury, not Pan. We‘ve already heard Apollo and Jupiter try to win their women over. Ovid doesn‘t subject us to a third round of the same speeches. 701. sperno, -ere, sprevi, spretum: I reject; I despise; I put away, remove. Used here in abl. abslute? nympham = acc. subject in indirect speech 702. harenosus, -a, -um: sanyd Ladonis: a river in Arcadia 703. venerit: perfect subjunctive (but it looks the same as future perfect indicative; don‘t confuse them!). It is a subjunctive because subordinate clauses in indirect speech take subjunctive verbs, while the main clause takes an accusative subject with an infinitive. (Benn. 314.1). It is perfect in this instance to make it parallel with the perfect infinitive ‗fugisse‘ in 701. Normally, it would be pluperfect, because the main verb of the clause that introduces the indirct speech (‗restabat‘) is in secondary (i.e., historical) sequence (imperfect in this instance). (Benn. 318). 704. cursus, -us (m): a running; a rapid motion; a course, march, journey im/inpedio, -ire: I entangle, ensnare; I render impassible; I surround; I hinder; I embarrass orasse: the perfect infinitive is oravisse. Is ‗orasse‘ a syncopated form? liquidas = ‗water-dwelling‘ 95 705. prendo, -ere, prendi, prensum (syncopated form of prehend, -ere, prehendi, prehensum): I lay hold of, seize; I grasp; I seize violently; I reach; I take in sibi = dative of agent 706. calamus, -i (m): a reed; anything made from reeds, such as pens, pan-pipes, arrows, fishing rods. paluster, -tris, -tre: marshy, boggy; living in marshes; filthy ―corpore pro‖ = ―pro corpore‖ the juxtaposition of preposition after the noun it governs, rather than before, is called ‗anastrophe.‘ ‗Pro‘ can be translated with the words ―as if‖ which works well here. 707. suspiro, -are: I sigh; I long for; I draw a deep breath ibi (adv): there, thereupon, at that place then, at that time 708. efficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum: I do, produce, effect, make; I build; I bring about queror, -eri, questus sum: I complain; I lament; I bewail; I make a plaintive sound 709. dulcedo, -inis (f): sweetness, pleasantness, charm 710. colloquium = conloquium, -i (n): talk, conversation, conference 711. dispar, -paris (adj): unlike, dissimilar, different, unequal calamus, -i (m): a reed; anything made from reeds, such as pens, pan-pipes, arrows, fishing rods. con/compago, inis ( > cum + pango): a joining together cera, -ae (f): wax 713. Cyllenius, -i (m): Mercury, who was born on Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia dicturs = future active participle, agreeing with ‗Cyllenius‘ i.e., ―Mercury was about to say such things…‖ 96 714. sub/succumbo, -cumbere, -cubi, -cubitum: I like down under, I fall down, sink down; I yield, give way, succumb; I surrender ( + dat) adoperio, -ire, -operui, -opertum: I cover; I close. ―Adoperta‖ according to Anderson‘s commentary. Sc. ‗esse‘ with it. Anderson says it is an infinitive in indirect speech, but it looks to me like a perfect passive particple, agreeing with ‗lumina‘, i.e., ―his eyes (were) closed with sleep.‖ 715. supprimo, -ere, -pressi, pressum: I press down, press under; I sink; I hold down, check, restrain; I keep back, suppress, conceal extemlo (adv): immediately, directly forthwith frimo, -are: I make firm; I strengthen; I make durable, secure; I encourage, cheer, animate; I prove, establish; I assent, maintain 716. languidus, -a, -um: faint, weak; limp; sluggish; feeble permulceo, -ere, -mulsi, -mulsum: I stroke; I charm; I soften, soothe medico, -are: I medicate, drug; I poison; I dye; as a participle = steeped, drugged; accomplished by drugs or magic virga, -ae (f): a green twig; a wand, especially Mercury‘s wand 717. falcatus, -a, -um: sickle-shaped; curved; furnished with sickles nuto, -are (freq. > nuo): I nod, keep nodding; I sway, waver; I waver in opinion, fidelity, etc. (Goes with ‗caput‘ in 718). 718. confines, -e (adj): having the same boundary, adjacent collum, -i (n): neck qua = where cruentus, -a, -um: bloody 719. maculo, -are: I spot, stain; I defile, pollute (hence Eng. immaculate = unspotted, undirty, perfectly clean). praeruptus, -a, -um: broken off; steep, precipitous; headstrong, ruthless 97 rupes, -is (f): a rock, cliff 720. iaceo, -ere, -iacui: I lie; I lie dead; I lie resting; I lie sick; I am overthrown; I am low in spirits, downcast, dejected ―Argus, you lay dead, and what light you had in so many eyes is extinguished, and a single night occupies your hundred eyes.‖ 722. exipio, -ere, -cepi, ceptum: I take out; I take up, catch; I receive volucer, volucris, volucre: flying, winged volucris, -is (no genger given): a brid or flying insect 723. con/colloco, -are: I place, lay, set, arrange gemma, -ae (f): the bud or eye of a plant; a jewel; in pl, the eyes on a peacock‘s tail cauda, -ae (f): an animal‘s tail stellans, -antis: starry, set with stars; bright, shining, glittering im/inpleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletum: I fill in, fill up; I fulfil, perform; I contaminate 724. exardesco, -ardescere, exarsi, exarsum: I blaze up, get hot; I am excited, inflamed protinus (adv): forward, further, further on distulit = ? Loeb translates it as ‗delay‘ tempus, -oris (n): a section, division; a section of time; temples of the head; a fit time for something 725. horrifer, -fera, -ferum: causing shudders of cold or fear obicio, -icere, obieci, obiectum: I throw in the way; I expose (someone to something); I inspire, I cause, produce; I present; I put before (as protection, or as an obstacle); I bring up as a reproach; I oppose Erinyn = Greek accusative oculis / animo = ablitve of respect describing the fury 98 726. Paelix, -icis (f): a mistress, a concubine stimulus, -i (m): a pointed stake; a goad for driving cattle; a sting; a torment; a goad, spur; an incentive caecus, -a, -um: blind, uncertain, objectless, hidden, unseen, dark, obscure. Here, ―buried an unseen spur in the heart of Argolian mistress…‖ Argolicus, -a, -um: a person of Argos; Argolian; Argolic 727. condo, -ere, condidi, conditum: I put together; I found, build; I form, establish; I compose; I store; I hide, keep save; I withdraw; I put, place; I bury exerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum: I harass, overwork; I work at, train, make strong (i.e., Eng. ‗exercise‘); I work at, use; I practice, cultivate; I exploit profugus, -a, -um: flying, fleeing, wandering; as substantive: an exile (rem Virgil ―Italiam fato profugus‖) 728. ultimus, -a, -um: fartherst (not furthest!), most distant, extreme resto, -are, restiti: I resist, oppose, withstand ( + dat); I stand still; I stay behind; I remain 728. ‗quem‘ refers to the Nile margo, -inis (m or f): a border, edge, boundary ‗positis‘ goes with genibus in 730: ―she ben forward with her knees placed on the edge of the river bank…‖ 730. procumbo, cumbere, -cubi, -cubitum: I lean or bend forward; I fall or sink down genu, genus (n): the knee resupinus, -a, -um: bent backwards; on one‘s back; laying low; walking with head bent back and the nose in the air; walking proudly (is this an ablative absolute?) ‗ardua‘ goes with ‗sidera‘ in 731 ‗vultus‘ is acc plural, not singular, but I‘m not sure why. Does Io have two faces (human and cow)? But then why only one neck (‗resupino‘ in 731)? ‗Vultus‘ agrees with ‗quos…solos‘ – she could lift her face to the stars, but not her hands 99 732. luctionus, -a, -um: sad-sounding 733. sc ‗est‘ with ‗visa‘ ‗cum Iove‘ = ? Anderson says this is equivalent to the English phrase ―complain to Jupier‖ but I don‘t know what specific kind of ablative ―Iove‖ is here 734. com/conplexus, -us (m): an embrace; love, affection ( > complector, plecti, - plexus sum: I embrace, clasp) colla > collum, -i (n): the neck. Why is it plural here? Is this a regal plural, as in ―We are not amused.‖ ‗pone‘ = ‗put aside‘ 737. palus, -udis (f): a swamp, marsh, bog (don‘t confuse it with ‗plaudo‘ = I strke, knock, applaud). 738. lentia > lenio, -ire, lenivi, lenitus: I make mild, smooth, alliviate illa = changes subject from Iuno to Io vultus, -us (m): face. Wy is it plural here? 739. saeta, -ae (f): a bristle, stiff hair 740. artus, -a, -um: narrow, tight, close orbis, -is (m): a circle or ring. Eyese are normally plural or dual, but here Ovid has them in the singular. Why this mixing of singulars and plurals? 741. rictus, -us (m): the mouth when it is open 742. ungula, -ae (f): a hoof, claw or talon quini, -ae, -a (distributive adjective): five at a time; five each delabor, -i, lapsus sum: I glide apart, I fall down or to pieces 100 absum, -ere, -sumpsi, -sumptim: I reduce; I consume; I waste; I destroy unguis, -is (m): a finger or toe nail; of animals: a claw or hoof 743. candor, -oris (m): whiteness, luster 744. officum, -i (n): a dutiful or respectful action; a sense of duty or deference; submission, allegiance nymphe = Greek nominative What kind of genitive is ‗pedum duorum‘ = ‗content of two feet‘? 745. erigio, -ere, -rexi, -rectum: I set up, lift up, raise up, erect; I arouse, excite; I raise up, encourage. Why is it passive? more (adv): foolishly > morus, -a, -um: silly, foolish 746. mugio, -ire: I moo, bellow, low timide (adv): fearfully, timidly intermitto, -ere, -misi, -missum: I leave a space between; I separate, break off 747. liniger, -gera, -gerum: clothed in linen (usually applied to Isis and her prists). Goes with turba, i.e., ‗the linen-clad crowd‘ used here as abl. agent. colitur > colo, -ere: I cultivate, till, tend; I honor, worship, pay respect to 750. huic = dat. poss referring to epahus animis = abl. respct > animus/anima (not sure which, but I think it‘s from animus, whch can mean ―character, disposition.‖) ―There was to him (i.e., Epaphus) Pahethon, begotten by the son and equal with respect ot their characters and ages.‖ 751. satus, -a, -um: sprung, born, begotten. > sero, serere, sevi, satum: I sow, plant; I beget, bring forth 101 quondam (adv): at a certain time in the past, once, formerly; at some future time, sometime; at times, sometimes quem: object of tulit in 753. Epaphus is the subject. 752. sibi refers to Epaphus, who is mad that Phaethon won‘t yield to him, who boasts Jupiter as his father. 753. Inacides = the grandson of Inachus, i.e., Epaphus demens, -entis (adj > de + mens): out of one‘s mind, insane, senseless 754. tumidus = ‗swollen with pride.‘ credis = ―you believe‖ it takes dat. Don‘t confuse with ―cadis‖ = ―you yield‖ 755. erubesco, -ere, -rubui: I grow red, blush pudor, -oris (m): a feeling of shame; modesty; decency, honor 756. convicium, -i (n): a loud cry, a shout; a violent reproach, insult 757. magis (comp adv): more, to a greater extent, rather doleo, -ere, dolui: I sugffer pain; I grieve, bewail. Of things: I cause pain. Used here with ―quo‖ in a relative clause of purpose. ―ille ego liber‖ = ―ego (sum) ille liber‖ = I am that free (i.e., outspoken) person‖ Freedom in Rome was closely linked with free speech. 758. ferox, ocis (adj): courageous, brave, high spirited (in a good sense); wild, arrogant, unbridled (in a bad sense). Here, ‗hot-tempered‘ is a good translation. ―I, he who is free of speech, he who is hot-tempered, kept silent (tacui)!‖ Pudet: sc. ‗me‘ as the direct object. pudeo, -ere: I feel ashamed opprobrium, -i (n): a reproach, scandal, disgrace, a taunt 759. refello, -fellere, -fefelli: I refute disprove 102 ―It shames (me) that these reproaches to us could have even (= et) been spoken and that it was not possible (potuisse) to refute (them).‖ 760. caelestis –e (adj): heavely, coming from or belonging to heaven. This is a two termination adjective, which can take ‗i‘ in the abl. sing. See Benn. 69. strips (also found as ‗stirpes,‘ and as ‗stirpis‘), stirpis (f): the stock or stem of a tree or plant; of people: stock, source, origin si modo = ‗if indeed‘ 761. edo, edere, edidi, editum ( > e + do): I put forth, give out nota, -ae (f): a mark, token, note, sign ―meque adsere caelo‖ is a variation of the legal term ―aliquem libertati adserere‖ = to make someone int a freedman. Ovid‘s phrase here means ―make me into a devine being‖ i.e., make me into a god. 762. in/implicio, -are, -ui, -itum (also found with regular 1st conjugation endings): I enfold, entwine, cling collo = dative object after a compound verb 763. Merops, Meropis (m): King of Ethiopia, husband of Clymeme, step-father of Phaethon suum: sc. ‗filium‘ i.e., by your son, i.e. Phaethon himself taedas = wedding torches 764. tradere = subjunctive in an indirect command without ‗ut‘; the same structure is used in 670. 765. ambiguous, -a, -um: moving from side to side; of doubtful nature; uncertain, doubtful; as a neuter substantive: uncertainty an (conj): or, or whether. Used ot introduce 2nd and subsequent clauses in questions (both direct and indirect), and to introduce sentences implying doubt. 103 766. crimin, -inis (n): an accusation, a charge; by meton. an object of reproach (hence Eng. ‗criminal‘?); the fault or crime with which a person is charged. Anderson says it is an objective genitive with ‗ira.‘ uterque, utraque, utrumque: both, each of two (genitive: utriusque; dative: utrique) caelo = ad caelum 768. tubar, -aris: a beaming light, radiance; the light of the sun, the moon or fire; a heavenly body, esp. the sun. radium, -i (m): a staff, rod or stake; a spoke on a wheel; a ray or beam of light insignis, -e: distinguished, remarkable, notable; eminent, extraordinary coruscus, -a, -um: shaking, trembling; twinkling, flashing 769. nate: voc. for natus = ‗son‘ ―quod‖ refers to the sun (iubar > 768) 770. tempto, -are: I set bounds, keep with in limits; I control or moderate myself; I spare; I keep or refrain from ( + abl); I distribute or mix properly; I temper; I rule, regulate (this is probably the best definition here). NB: the ‗erat‘ ending is not a pluperfect. It is present active. 769-71: Iuro tibi, nate, te satum (est) (ab) hoc Sole, quem spectas, te satum (est) (ab) hoc sole, qui temperat orbem, quod nos auditque viditque. Repeat ―sole‖ for the ―hoc‖ in ―hoc te‖ and repeat ―satum‖ for ―te,‖ which is an accusative subject in indirect speech after ―iuro.‖ 771. videndum: gerundive 772. mihi: dat. agent ‗se‘ is a 3rd sing. abl or acc reflexive pronound (Benn. 49). 104 773. nosse = novisse, perf act infin > nosco penates: by meton. = his father‘s house, not just the household gods. What does it say that the gods in Met. 1 that they have penates? That they are less divine than generally thought? That they need protection themselves? 774. unde (adv). whence, from where conterminus, -a, -um: bordering upon, adjacent, near 775. gradere > gradior. ―gradere‖ is a present passive imparative (Benn. 104, p. 65) scitor, -ari (dep, freq. of scio): I seek to know; I inquire, ask; I consult. The ‗-ire‘ is an alternate ending to the 2nd sing fut pass/dep indicative. Normally it would be ‗scitaberis‘ rather than ‗scitabere‘ (Benn. 102, p. 60). ab ipso = from the sun himself 776. emico, emicare, emicui, emicatum: I spring out, leap forth; I gleam or shine forth; I stand out, am conspicuous extemplo (adv): immediately, forthwith, directly 777. concipio, -cipere, -epi, -ceptum: ( > cum + capio): I take or hold together; I take in, absorb; I receive; I take in; I grasp with the senses, conceive, form inwardly aether, aetheris (m, with the acc sing form ‗aethera‘): the upper air; heaven; the upper world 778. Indi, -orum (m): the people of India suos = ‗his Ethiopians‘: his stepfather Merops ruled Ethiopia 779. ortus, -us (m) a rising of the heavenly bodies; the east; the place in which a person originated; an origin, source