; Fluid electrolyte
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Fluid electrolyte


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									Distribution of Body Solids & Fluids
    Fluid Exchange

Processes in our body:
• Filtration
• Reabsorption
• Diffusion
• Osmosis
General barriers that separate intracellular
fluid, interstitial fluid, and blood plasma:

   1. Plasma membrane

   2. Blood vessel walls

   3. Lymphatic vessels
      Fluid Homeostasis

Fluid Balance

  1. Water

  2. Electrolytes
       Fluid Homeostasis

Regulate by:

1. Hypothalamus

2. Posterior pituitary (ADH)

3. Adrenal cortex

4. Kidney tubules
Sources of Body Water Gain & Loss
Hormonal Regulation
of Na+ & Cl-

 RAA pathway
   and ANP
Series of events in
water intoxication
• sodium (Na+)
• potassium (K+)
• chloride (Cl-)
• calcium (Ca2+)
• magnesium (Mg2+)
• bicarbonate (HCO3-)
• phosphate (PO42-)
• sulfate (SO42-)
Electrolyte and protein anion concentrations in
  plasma, interstitial fluid, & intercellular fluid

•   water, dextrose, potassium      •   water, sucrose syrup, glucose-
    citrate, sodium chloride and        fructose syrup, citric acid, natural
    sodium citrate. Nonmedicinal        and artificial flavors, salt, sodium
    ingredients: FD&C Blue #1 and       citrate, monopotassium
    Red #40 (grape flavor) and          phosphate, ester gum, sucrose
    FD&C Red #40 (bubblegum             acetate isobutyrate, red 40, blue 1
    flavor).                        •   Per 8 fl oz
•   Per 8 fl oz                         Total fat 0g
    Sodium 10.6 mg                      Sodium 110mg
    Potassium 4.7mg                     Potassium 30mg
    Chloride 8.3 mg                     Total carbs 14g
    Dextrose 5.9g                       Sugars 14g
    Calories 24                         Calories 50
  Acid-Base Balance

Removal of H+
1. Buffer systems
2. Exhalation of carbon dioxide
3. Kidney excretion of H +
      Protein Buffering System

      H                     H
NH2   C   COOH        NH2   C   COO- + H+
      R                     R

      H                         H
NH2   C   COOH + H+     NH3+    C   COOH
      R                         R
 By-product of respiration

CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ HCO3- + H + ↔ CO32- + 2H+

             carbonic acid

     The addition of CO2 makes blood acidic
    Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate
        Buffering System
Blood too basic:

H2CO3      HCO3- + H + pH drops

Blood too acidic:

HCO3- + H+          H2CO3 pH rises
          Blood ave. pH = 7.4
     Phosphate Buffering System

too basic:
OH- + H2PO4-  H2O + HPO42-
too acidic:
H+    + HPO42-  H2PO4-
Exhalation of CO2
Exhalation of CO2
Exhalation of CO2
Exhalation of CO2

Negative feedback
regulation of blood pH by
the respiratory system
Kidney Excretion of H+
Secretion of H+
by intercalated
cells in the
collecting duct

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