First Aid Basics Salesianum School

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First Aid Basics Salesianum School Powered By Docstoc
					     First Aid

       Mr. Talley
Salesianum High School
A. Introduction
  1. First aid is the immediate assistance given to
     someone who is hurt or suddenly becomes ill.
  2. Basic Objectives
     a. Preserve life
     b. Minimize the effects of the injury
     c. Relieve pain and suffering.
B. Examination of the victim
1. Check breathing.
2. Locate wounds and control bleeding.
3. Check for lumps on the head.
4. If conscious, ask victim where it hurts.
5. Do not move the victim.
6. If head, neck, and spine are okay, check arms
   and legs.
7. If conscious, have victim take a deep breath
   and cough to determine chest injuries.
8. Check for internal injuries, have victim pull in
    and let out stomach.
9. Check for spinal injuries by running hand
    firmly down back.
10. Watch for SHOCK.
   a. Symptoms
      1. Pale, perspiring, and faint.
      2. Pulse is rapid and weak.
      3. Skin is cold and damp.
b. Treatment
   1. Keep the victim lying down.
   2. Keep the victim’s head lower than his body unless he has
      a head or chest injury.
   3. Keep the victim warm but not hot.
c. General Procedures
   1.   If seriously injured, do not move victim.
   2.   Do not act excited or afraid.
   3.   Be calm.
   4.   Be soothing and cheerful.
   5.   Examine by being careful, efficient, and quick.
   6.   Move to a safe place if necessary.
        7. If you do not feel you know enough to help the person,
           go for help immediately. If you are hunting with others,
           leave one person with the victim to calm him.
D. Artificial Respiration: Take a Red Cross
   First Aid Course.
E. Heart Attacks: three times more hunters
   die from heart attacks than from gunshot
F. Responsibilities after first aid.
1. Considerations in moving the injured person.
   a. Nature of injury
   b. Distance from help
   c. Discomfort and complications of injury.
   d. Terrain
   e. Weather conditions
   f. Time of day
   g. Medical help available at your destination
2. Considerations when leaving the victim to go
   for help.
   a. Is the victim capable of staying alone?
   b. Is victim out of shock?
   c. Will victim be comfortable?
3. Areas of concern for yourself.
   a. Do you know your route well?
   b. Are you mentally and physically capable of
      arriving in the time you plan?
c. If the weather gets worse, can you still reach help?
d. Be certain you can direct help to the exact location
   of the victim.
f. Take a First Aid Course.
              Water Safety
A. When hunting on or around water,
   drowning and hypothermia are the two
   major dangers.
B. Common causes of accidents
  1. Loading, overloading, or improper balance of
  2. Alcohol or drugs
  3. Inexperience with equipment.
4.  Standing up in a boat.
5.  Equipment failure.
6.  Inappropriate equipment.
7.  Unsafe firearm handling.
8.  Misuse or non-use of P.F.D.’s (personal
    flotation devices).
9. Unsecured or improperly secured equipment.
10. Wading accidents.
  11. Falling through ice.
  12. Weather
C. Suggested Equipment
  1. You should always wear a PFD while in a
  2. Oars or paddles
  3. Bailing bucket
  4. Small tool kit
  5. Repair parts
  6. Fire extinguisher
  7. Anchor and rope
  8. Flares
  9. First aid kit
  10. Rope
D. Water Emergencies
  1. Keep clothes on
2. Stay with the boat.
3. If two or more persons are in the water,
   huddle together.
4. Get out of the water as soon as possible.
A. Hypothermia is the lowering of the inner
   body temperature to a subnormal level.
B. Hypothermia is caused by exposure to
   cool air and/or water.
A. Detection of Hypothermia
  1.   Uncontrolled spells of shivering
  2.   Slurred speech or vague statements
  3.   Memory lapses
  4.   Fumbling, stumbling, and lurching
  5.   Drowsiness
  6.   Exhaustion
• Hypothermia Prevention
  – Plan ahead
     • Appoint a foul weather leader to watch for danger signs.
     • Check weather conditions before leaving.
     • Take a survival kit and dry clothes.
  – Hunting on land
     • Pace yourself; avoid efforts which cause sweating and
     • Stay warm and dry.
     • Stay out of the wind.
  – Wool is the warmest clothing because it insulates well
    when wet or dry.
  – Wear a hat. Most body heat is lost through the head.
  – Dress in layers.

• Even if the victim appears dead, clear the air
  passage and give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

• When victims begins to breath, place him in a
  sleeping bag or wrap in blanket to prevent further
  heat loss. Do not warm by applying heat.

• Carry victim to nearest medical facility. Do not
  allow the victim to walk. Keep the victim lying
    Treatment of Hypothermia
•   Even in mild cases require immediate treatment.
•   Move victim to shelter and warm him slowly.
•   Remove wet clothes.
•   Apply heat to head, neck, chest and groin.
    – Use warm moist towels, hot water bottles, or heated
    – Place naked patient in sleeping bag. Remove your
      clothing and get in with the person, allowing your body
      heat to warm the victim.
    – As the victim recovers, give warm drinks.
• Never give victim alcoholic beverages.
           Special Concerns
• Alcohol and drugs
  – Alcohol and drugs should never be used before
    or during hunting.
  – Booze and bullets don’t mix!

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