Treatment of Psychological Disorders Treatment of by xiuliliaofz

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									Treatment of Psychological
       Disorders
       By Alexa Lazar
            Insight Therapies
• Insight into the cause of the problem is the
  primary key to eliminating it
• Usually takes years
• Psychoanalysis- probes past defense
  mechanisms of repression and rationalization to
  understand the unconscious cause of a problem
• Free association- (tool to above) patient reports
  any and all conscious thoughts and ideas
• Transference- when patient shifts thoughts and
  feelings about certain people or events onto the
  therapist
• Countertransference- when the therapist
  transfers their own feelings onto the patient
• Client-centered therapy- Carl Rogers, clients
  can only be understood in terms of their own
  reality
• The goal is to help them realize their full
  potential
• Unconditional positive regard- key to
  successful client-centered therapy
• Accurate empathic understanding-
  describes therapist’s ability to view the
  world from the eyes of the client
• Gestalt therapy- clients are asked to act
  out psychological conflicts to make them
  aware of the interaction between mind and
  body
         Behavioral Therapy
• Is a short term process
• No underlying cause of problem, abnormal
  behavior is the problem and symptom
• Counterconditioning- a response to a given
  stimulus is replaced by a different response
• Aversion therapy- an aversive stimulus is
  repeatedly paired with the behavior that the
  client wants to stop
• Systematic desensitization- replaces one
  response with another response ( anxiety with
  relaxation)
• Extinction procedures- designed to weaken
  maladaptive responses
• Flooding- exposes a client to the stimulus that
  causes the undesirable response
• Implosion- client imagines the disruptive stimuli
  instead of confronting it
• Behavioral contracting- the therapist and the
  client draw up a contract to which they both
  agree to abide
• Modeling- Bandura, clients watch someone act
  in a certain way and then receive a reward
             Cognitive Therapy
• Rely on changing conditions
• Rational-Emotive Therapy- Albert Ellis, based on idea
  that when confronted with situations people recite
  statements to themselves that express maladaptive
  thoughts which result in maladaptive emotional
  responses
• Cognitive therapy- Aaron Beck, maladaptive schemas
  cause the client to experience cognitive distortions which
  lead them to feel incompetent
• Arbitrary inference- person draws conclusions without
  evidence
• Dichotomous thinking- involves all-or-none conceptions
  of situations
          Biological Therapy
• Electroconvulsive therapy- fairly high
  voltages of electricity are passed across a
  patient’s head and causes temporary
  amnesia (successful for depression when
  nothing else has worked)
• Psychosurgery-
• Prefrontal lobotomy- parts of the frontal
  lobes are cut off from the rest of the brain
• Psychopharmacology- treatment of
  psychological and behavioral maladaptations
  with drugs
• Psychotropic drugs- psychologically active drugs
  (four types- antipsychotics, antidepressants,
  anxiolytics, lithium salts)
• Antipsychotics- (chlorpromazine and
  haloperidol) reduce the symptoms of
  schizophrenia by blocking the neural receptors
  for dopamine
• Antidepressants- three types- monoamine
  oxidase inhibitors, tricyclics, selective reuptake
  inhibitors
• MAO inhibitors- increase amount of serotonin
  and norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft
• Tricylcis- more common
• reuptake inhibitors- increase amount of
  neurotransmitters at the synaptic cleft by
  blocking the reuptake mechanism of the cell that
  released the neurotransmitters
• Anxiolytics- reduce anxiety while
  increasing feelings of well-being and
  reducing insomnia
• Benzodiazepines- cause muscle relaxation
  and a feeling of tranquility
• Lithium salts- treat bipolar disorder,
  mechanism of action is unknown
           Types of therapy
• Group therapy- clients meet together with
  a therapist as an interactive group
• Twelve-step programs- not usually
  moderated by professional
  psychotherapists, mix of religion and
  group therapy
• Family therapy- allows family to express
  feelings to each other and to the therapist
  simultaneously
• Community psychologists- prevent
  dysfunction instead of treat it
• Primary prevention- prevents disorders
  from occurring in the first place
• Secondary prevention- detects problems
  early and stops
• Tertiary prevention- treats existing
  disorders and prevents from spreading or
  becoming worse

								
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