Engineer Society-Tsunami and Flooding at Japan 2011 by black90star


									             SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND

                                 BEC 403

                     ENGINEER & SOCIETY

                     MINI GROUP PROJECT

Question: Identify One Disaster Happen Recently and Discuss About It

NAME                  1. TAN YEE PIN                   092004913
&                     2. NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI DASMAR     102006323
MATRIC NO.            3. MOHAMMED ALI HUSSEIN          091903936
SUBMISSION            6TH MAY 2011 (WEEK 4)

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                 Page 1

NO                   CONTENTS                      PAGES
 1. Introduction                                    3–5
    -Deadliest Tsunami
    -Causes of Tsunami
 2. Case Study of Disaster                         6 – 13
    -Tsunami and Flooding in Japan 2011
    -Historical Tsunami in Japan Caused by
    - Impact of Tsunami at Japan
    -Important Facts about Tsunamis
 3. Similarity of Disaster                         14 – 15
    -Earthquake Generates Tsunami
    -Volcanic Eruptions Generate Tsunami
    -Education and Food
 4. Rectification Process                          16 – 22
    -Stages of Tsunami Disaster Rectification
    -Pacific Tsunami Warning System
    -International level
    -Regional Level
    -National Level
    -Organizational Level
    -Project Level
 5. Future Development                             23 – 29
    -Tsunami Warning Center
    -Tsunami Ready Program
    -Tsunami         Evacuation     Notification
 6. Recommendation                                 30 – 31
    -Awareness of People about Tsunami
 7. Conclusion                                       32
 8. References                                       33

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                       Page 2

       The word tsunami is of Japanese origin. If we break the word in half we see that "tsu"
means harbor and "nami' means wave. Tsunami is a set of ocean waves by any large, abrupt
disturbance of the sea surface. It can demolish coastal communities within minutes. Tsunami
disaster will cause massive floods, fire and a thousand of death. It is a series of waves and the
effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating. There are various reasons
behind the tsunami such as earthquakes, mass movements, volcanic eruptions, under water
explosions and meteoroid impacts.

       The major factor of tsunami is related to the earthquake, a very large disturbance or
massive floods can cause coastal area devastation and export tsunami destruction thousands
of miles away. Seems Tsunami is the high rank of natural disaster, it has been responsible for
the loss of over 420,000 lives and billions of dollars of damage to coastal structures and
habitats. Earthquakes are caused when pieces of the earth’s crust shift. This causes the water
in the ocean to be displaced or moved. They potential to reaching heights of more than 100
feet and commonly strike and occur in all oceans.

       In this century, more than 200 tsunamis have been recorded in the Pacific. Predicting
when and where the next tsunami will strike is currently impossible even the tsunami alert
warming is working. It is something unexpected to the world disaster. The development of a
Tsunami can be concluding when a huge volume of water is quickly shifted. This rapid
movement can happen as the result of an underwater earthquake. In other way it shows that
during an earthquake the leading edge of the overriding plate breaks free, and it moves up or
down. The sea surface would falls and the vertical displacement set off tsunami.

       From the observation of Tsunami wave propagation, the sea surface immediately
changes because earth movements associated with large earthquake occur and resulting
tsunami propagates as a set of waves whose energy is concentrated at wavelengths
corresponding to the earth movements. The wavelengths, wave heights and directionality of
tsunami disaster will be different with other coastal area because each earthquake is unique
and caused unexpected earthquake movements. Figure below show the development of
underwater earthquake or Tsunami.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                    Page 3
        Table below show the deadliest Tsunami overall the years which is recorded
according the principal area, years, magnitude of earthquake and the fatalities which causes
many death of human being and destroy the property.

Deadliest Tsunami

 Year     Magnitude                     Principal Areas                        Fatalities
 2011        9.0       Japan                                                    14,358
 2004        9.0       Indian Ocean                                             350,000
 1755        8.5       Portugal , Moroccoo, Irreland and United Kingdom         100,000
 1908                  Messina, Italy                                           100,000
 1782        7.0       South China Sea, Taiwan                                  40,000
 1883                  Krakatau, Indonesia                                      36,500
 1707        8.4       Tokaido-nankaido, Japan                                  30,000
 1896        7.6       Sanriku, Japan                                           26,360
 1868        8.5       Northerm Chile                                           25,674
 1792        6.4       Kyushu Island, Japan                                     15,030

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                               Page 4
Causes of Tsunami

       These awe-inspiring waves are typically caused by large, undersea earthquakes at
tectonic plate boundaries. When the ocean floor at a plate boundary rises or falls suddenly it
displaces the water above it and launches the rolling waves that will become a tsunami. Most
of the 80% of tsunamis happen within the Pacific Ocean’s “Ring of Fire” which is a
geologically active area where tectonic shifts make volcanoes and earthquakes common.

       Tsunamis may also be caused by underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions. They
may even be launched, as they frequently were in Earth’s ancient past, by the impact of a
large meteorite plunging into an ocean. Tsunamis race across the sea at up to 805 kilometres
per hour as fast as a jet airplane. At that pace they can cross the entire expanse of the Pacific
Ocean in less than a day. The long wavelengths of Tsunami which mean they lose very little
energy along the way.

       However, tsunami waves may appear only a foot or so high in deep ocean. When the
Tsunami approach shoreline and enter shallower water they slow down and begin to grow in
energy and height. The tops of the waves move faster than their bottoms do, which causes
them to rise precipitously.

       A tsunami’s trough, the low point beneath the wave’s crest, often reaches shore first.
When it does, it produces a vacuum effect that sucks coastal water seaward and exposes
harbour and sea floors. This retreating of sea water is an important warning sign of a tsunami,
because the wave’s crest and its enormous volume of water typically hit shore five minutes or
so later. It is important to recognizing this phenomenon so that we can save lives before
tsunami come.

       A tsunami is usually composed of a series of waves which called a wave train. Its
destructive force may be compounded as successive waves reach shore. People experiencing
a tsunami should remember that the danger may not have passed with the first wave and
should await official word that it is safe to return to vulnerable locations. In others way, some
tsunamis do not appear on shore as massive breaking waves but instead resemble a quickly
surging tide that inundates coastal areas.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                      Page 5

Tsunami and Flooding in Japan 2011

          The Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) occurred on the 11th March
2011. It was the largest underwater earthquake hit Japan in recorded history and the second
highest magnitude in the world since records began. With the magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter
scale and taken about 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected , the earthquake
triggered tsunami waves of up to 10 meters at the east coast of Japan, completely devastating
the area north of Tokyo. The earthquake had not caused much destruction but the destruction
was done by the resulting tsunami flood afterward caused by the earthquake, this flood had
cost Billions of Dollars.

          There have been over 11,000 deaths with over 17,000 still missing. In various
locations along Japan’s coast also showed severe flooding with dozens of cars, boats and
even buildings being carried along by waters just over an hour the earthquake occurred. A
large ship swept away by the tsunami rammed directly into a breakwater in Kesennuma City
in Miyagi prefecture. Figure below show the earthquake that struck Japan with the magnitude
of 9.0.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                Page 6
       The earthquake struck at a depth of six miles 10 kilometers, about 125 kilometers off
the eastern coast and the area is 380 kilometers northeast of Tokyo. The tsunami also was
caused by an uplift of the sea floor which meant that a lot of water was displaced. Then, it is
rushed inland trying to flatten its surface. The massive flood was observed at Sendai port in
Sendai, Miyagi prefecture that it dragged buildings out of their foundations and destroyed
almost everything in its path.

       This was not a local incident, vast regions were affected tragically and whole coastal
cities have been wiped off the map. The high death toll of tsunami is caused by the
unexpectedly large size of water surge and the tsunami walls at several of the affected cities
were based on much smaller tsunami heights. Also, many people caught and stuck in the
tsunami thought that they were located on high enough ground to be safe. The picture show
                                                                     the   Japan    floods     that
                                                                     caused damage in Japan.

                                                                             Tsunami      caused
                                                                     the degree and extent of
                                                                     severe damage to Japan
                                                                     and took a very high
                                                                     mortality rate although the
                                                                     country has invested the
                                                                     equivalent of billions of
dollars on anti-tsunami seawalls which line at least 40% of its 34,751 km coastline and stand
up to 12 m high. The massive floods simply washed over the top of some seawalls, collapsing
some in the process. The earthquake and tsunami created an estimated 25 million tons of
rubble and debris in Japan and totally shows the largest natural disaster in the past century.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                       Page 7
Historical Tsunami in Japan Caused by Earthquakes

       According to the NOAA National Geophysical Data Centre / World Data Centre for
Marine Geology and Geophysics / Global Historical Event databases, 2,099 tsunamis have
occurred in the world since 2000 B.C. and about 14% of these tsunamis which is 284
tsunamis caused deaths. In the Japanese region, 298 tsunamis have been observed and 79
(27%) of these events caused deaths. The majority of Japanese tsunamis were generated by
earthquakes (89%), the remainder resulted from volcanic eruptions (5%) and unknown causes
(6%). The most fatal Japanese earthquakes and tsunamis are listed below:

    1293 >> Kamakura earthquake caused 23,024 deaths and generated a small tsunami
    1498 >> Enshunada Sea earthquake-generated tsunami caused 31,000 deaths
    1586 >> Ise Bay earthquake and tsunami caused over 8,000 deaths
    1707 >> Nankaido earthquake and tsunami caused 30,000 deaths
    1771 >> Ryukyu Islands earthquake-generated tsunami caused over 13,000 deaths
    1855 >> Tokyo earthquake caused 6,757 deaths and generated a small tsunami
    1896 >> Sanriku earthquake and tsunami caused over 27,000 deaths
    1923 >> Sagami Gulf earthquake and tsunami caused almost 100,000 deaths
    1995 >> Kobe earthquake caused 5,502 deaths and generated a small tsunami

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                            Page 8
BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011   Page 10
Impact of Tsunami at Japan

       The following lists the impact of the earthquake and tsunami that hit northeast Japan
on March 11 and the subsequent crisis at a nuclear power plant. A total of 14,358 people
were confirmed dead by Japan's National Police Agency while 11,889 were missing. About
130,904 people were in shelters around the country. The government has also set up an
evacuation area around Tokyo Electric Power Co's quake-stricken nuclear plant in Fukushima
240 km north of Tokyo, with a 20-km radius. More than 70,000 people lived in the largely
rural area within the 20 km zone. It is unclear how many of them have been evacuated, but
most are believed to have left. Another 136,000 people, who live within a zone extending a
                                   further 10 km, have been advised to stay indoors.

                                           The government said on April 11 that because of
                                   accumulated radiation contamination, it would ask people
                                   to leave certain areas beyond the 20 km exclusion zone
                                   around the plant and those children, pregnant women, and
hospitalized patients should stay out of some areas 20-30 km from the nuclear complex. As a
result of the March 11 quake and tsunami, followed by strong aftershocks on April 7 and 11,
a total of 12,485 households in the north were still without electricity.

       Worst-affected areas are the states of
Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate, Yamagata, Ibaraki,
Chiba, Akita and Aomori in Japan’s northeast.
The tsunami caused severe damage along some
600 km of coastal region and went in as far as 7
km inland along Japan’s northeast. The
population in these areas before the disaster
was estimated at over 14.8 million people, of
which 1.6 million lived within 5 kilometers of the coast. Particularly hit hard are areas near
the coastal city of Sendai in Miyagi prefecture, with a population of some 1 million people.

       At least 79,000 households in five prefectures were without running water. At least
95,107 buildings have been fully destroyed, washed away or burnt down. The government

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 11
estimates the material damage from the quake and tsunami alone could top $300 billion,
making it by far the world's costliest natural disaster. The top estimate would make it the
world's costliest natural disaster. The estimate covers damage to roads, homes, factories and
other infrastructure, but excludes lost economic activity from power outages and costs arising
from damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant, as well as the impact of swings in
financial markets and business sentiment.

       The yen initially spiked to a record high against the dollar after the quake, prompting
the first joint intervention by the Group of Seven rich nations in 11 years to help shield
Japan's export-reliant economy. Japan's reconstruction spending will almost certainly exceed
that of the 1995 quake in Kobe, when the government needed extra budgets of more than 3
trillion yen. Japan's government approved a 4 trillion yen which is about $48 billion
emergency budget for disaster relief without resorting to new borrowing, but it is bracing for
heavier reconstruction spending later this year that will require issuing new bonds and,
eventually, rising taxes. According to the Foreign Ministry, 146 countries and 39
international organizations have offered assistance.

The tsunami set off warnings for much of the Pacific basin including the west coast of the
United States and South America. Officials say waves have not caused major damage in
Hawaii and pose no flooding danger in California.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 12
Important Facts about Tsunamis

       There are some important facts about tsunami that we must know. Some tsunamis can
be very large. In coastal areas their height can be as great as 30 feet or more, and they can
move inland several hundred feet. All low-lying coastal areas can be struck by tsunamis.

       A tsunami consists of a series of waves. Often the first wave may not be the largest.
The danger from a tsunami can last for several hours after the arrival of the first wave. Also,
Tsunamis can move faster than a person can run. Sometimes a tsunami causes the water near
the shore to recede, exposing the ocean floor.

       The force of some tsunamis is
enormous. Large rocks weighing several towns
along with boats and other debris can be
moved inland hundreds of feet by tsunami
wave activity. Homes and other buildings are
destroyed. All this material and water move
with great force and can kill or injure people. Tsunamis can occur at any time, day or night
which can travel up rivers and streams that lead to the ocean.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 13
-Earthquake Generates Tsunami

       The similarity of Tsunami and flooding in Japan with others disasters is the
destructive tsunamis are generated from large, shallow earthquakes with an epicentre or fault
line near or on the ocean floor. These usually occur in regions of the earth characterized by
tectonic subduction along tectonic plate boundaries. The high seismicity of such regions is
caused by the collision of tectonic plates. When these plates move past each other, they cause
large earthquakes, which tilt, offset, or displace large areas of the ocean floor from a few
kilometres to as much as a 1,000 km or more. The sudden vertical displacements over such
large areas disturb the ocean's surface, displace water, and generate destructive tsunami
waves. The waves can travel great distances from the source region, spreading destruction
along their path.

       The Great 1960 Chilean tsunami was generated by a magnitude 9.5 earthquake that
had a rupture zone of over 1,000 km which is similar to the tsunami in Japan. Its waves were
destructive not only in Chile, but also as far away as Hawaii, Japan and elsewhere in the
Pacific. It should be noted that not all earthquakes generate tsunamis. Usually, it takes an
earthquake with a Richter magnitude exceeding 7.5 to produce a destructive tsunami.

-Volcanic Eruptions Generate Tsunami

       Although relatively infrequent, violent volcanic eruptions represent also impulsive
disturbances, which can displace a great volume of water and generate extremely destructive
tsunami waves in the immediate source area. According to this mechanism, waves may be
generated by the sudden displacement of water caused by a volcanic explosion, by a
volcano's slope failure, or more likely by a phreatomagmatic explosion and collapse of the
volcanic magmatic chambers. One of the largest and most destructive tsunamis ever recorded
was generated in August 26, 1883, after the explosion and collapse of the volcano of
Krakatoa (Krakatau), in Indonesia. This explosion generated waves that reached 135 feet,
destroyed coastal towns and villages along the Sunda Strait in both the islands of Java and
Sumatra, killing 36,417 people. It is also believed that the destruction of the Minoan
civilization in Greece was caused in 1490 B.C. by the explosion/collapse of the volcano of

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 14
Santorin in the Aegean Sea. The picture show that Japanese policemen continue the search
for missing people in Ishinomaki, Miyagi
Prefecture, northern Japan, and 20 April 2011

Education and Food

       Nearly 3,300 schools have been closed
in 16 prefectures because they were damaged,
are within the nuclear exclusion zone, or are
now being used as evacuation centres. There are about 554 schools currently being used as
evacuation centres. In order to provide education to affected school children, the Ministry of
Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is allowing school children to transfer
without the necessary documents. Several local governments have offered to host school
children: Osaka offered to receive 3,000 high school student hosted by families, and Kagawa
Prefecture will take 200 elementary school children and 40 junior high school students. The
school teachers in affected areas require counselling as many are managing evacuation
centres in schools they used to teach in while coping with physical and mental exhaustion.

       The Emergency Disaster Response Headquarters reports that to date, 5.5 million
meals have been delivered to evacuation centres and hospitals in the affected areas.
According to Kyodo, the Government ordered Fukushima Ibaraki, Tochigi and Gunma
prefectures to suspend shipments of spinach and other leafy vegetables following the
detection of radiation in the produce at levels above legal limits. The order was given in
accordance with a nuclear disaster law, according to Kyodo. The Government nuclear
disaster countermeasure headquarters also asked Fukushima to refrain from shipping raw
milk. Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) is coordinating with
the private sector to mobilize food and water. MAFF is also coordinating with organizations
under its jurisdiction to share its reserved fuel and stockpiles of food with hospitals. MAFF
has requested the private sector for increased production of food products.

       For the example, the powerful earthquake with the magnitude of 9.3 on the Richter
scale struck the coastal region of Indonesia in 2004, the movement of the seafloor in excess
of 30 meters (100 feet) and more than 240,000 people died along the adjacent coastline. From
this disaster, the tsunami radiated outward and within 2 hours had claimed 58,000 lives in
Thailand, Sri Lanka and India which also affected the education and food provided.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                  Page 15
Stages of Tsunami Disaster Rectification Process
          Basically, tsunami disaster management can be divided into three apparent stages:
before disaster/proactive approach, during disaster, and post disaster. This study mainly
explores the post disaster stage. The common activities in each stage are given below.

  I.      Before disaster approach

       Proactive approach in tsunami disaster rectification process is important to minimize the
impact of the disaster. In this case, effective disaster preparedness is essential. There are
several steps that can be considered for creating an effective disaster preparedness program
and government should involve seriously for ensuring its successfulness.

          Activity                                       Descriptions
Establishing law            Law will give the program power and authority. It shows that the
                            government has commitment in the preparedness program and
                            shows the responsible personnel in the program.

Assessing the               Assessment can be done by recording prior disaster events and
tsunami hazard              searching information for historical data on the disaster.

Creating an         An EOP indicates the general courses of action to be taken during
emergency operation the disaster, however should be flexible enough to allow some
plan (EOP)          improvising.

Creating a warning          Warning provides vital information for the community such as when
system                      the disaster will occur, how long the disaster will last, and what
                            people can expect in term of impact.

Identifying and             An emergency manager should be able to reach people who can
acquiring resources         authorize the use of personnel, equipment, and supplies for relief
and grants                  activities.

Initiating mutual aid       Mutual aid agreement is a contract between different local
agreement                   governments to assist each other during the disaster.
Training and                Both are important to ensure that the personnel understand their
exercising                  responsibility during the disaster and also to test the applicability of
                            the EOP.

Public Education            Public education will provide information regarding the disaster to
                            the community, therefore they will understand to take proactive
                            action during the disaster.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                       Page 16
 II.     During disaster

         During the critical time of disaster, it is important that people are well informed
regarding the disaster. People should remain calm and follow the emergency procedures and
proactive actions that have been prepared in advance. If possible, it is vital to inform the
tsunami disaster to other areas that may be affected later on due to the time tsunami needs to
travel across the ocean. This information can save many lives and help other areas preparing
for the disaster.

III.     After disaster

         An effective relief program is essential to help people recover from the impact of the
disaster. Some aspects that should be considered in relief program are as follow:

       Activity                                       Descriptions
Declaration of        The declaration shows that the government acknowledges the disaster
the disaster          and that help is needed.
Distribution of       It is necessary to understand the needs of the people suffered because of
aid                   the disaster. Moreover, aid should be distributed evenly so everyone can
                      gain benefits.
Coordination          Relief operations need coordination and collaboration among various
and                   agencies and organizations. They are important for facilitating the
collaboration         sharing of resources and minimizing the duplication of efforts.
Knowledgeable         Experience in relief work is essential to ensure that people can get
relief workers        appropriate caring. Experience workers also will understand the needs of
                      local disaster victims.
Integration of        Development should become a high priority in the relief program.
relief and            Development will help people to rebuild their areas and bounce back
development           from the effects of the disaster.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 17
Pacific Tsunami Warning System

       The best defence against any tsunami is early warning that allows people to seek
higher ground. The Pacific Tsunami Warning System, a coalition of 26 nations headquartered
in Hawaii, maintains a web of seismic equipment and water level gauges to identify tsunamis
at sea. Similar systems are proposed to protect coastal areas worldwide.

                                                     The Pacific Tsunami Warning System,
                                             which has been coordinated by the
                                             Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
                                             (IOC) of UNESCO with cooperation from other
                                             UN agencies and dozens of nations, was called
                                             into action by the high-magnitude earthquake and
                                             subsequent destructive tsunami which occurred 11
                                             March, 2011. Within three minutes of the
                                             earthquake, the Japanese Meteorological Agency
issued a Major Tsunami Warning. Six minutes later warnings or watches were issued for
islands from the South Pacific to Hawaii, as well as Japan and Russia. The Japanese
Meteorological Agency monitors sea level gauges continuously in real time and reported
these observed tsunami measurements. Tsunami Warning System sea level gauges
immediately reported the arrival and amplitude of tsunami waves along the Japanese Coast.
In the subsequent 24 hours, the Tsunami waves were tracked across the ocean, and warnings
were issued for North and South America.

       The IOC Tsunami Warning Centers work in close cooperation with national agencies.
The IOC is primarily concerned with international coordination among nations, while the
operational duties of the centers reside with national agencies. For instance in the Pacific, the
Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, and the West
Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Centre have operational responsibility for issuing
international advisories to country national authorities. The Japanese Meteorological Agency,
JMA has been an integral part of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, which was
established under the leadership of IOC in 1965. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004,
the UN has designated the IOC to lead in the coordination of regional Tsunami Warning and

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 18
Mitigation Systems in the Indian Ocean, the Caribbean, and the North-eastern Atlantic and

       Tsunami early warning systems are based on observation networks of seismometers
and sea level measuring stations, which send real time data to national and regional tsunami
warning centers (TWCs). Based on these observations, TWCs are able to evaluate the
potential for a given earthquake to generate a tsunami, and confirm or cancel a tsunami
warning advisory. When a potentially destructive tsunami is detected, national authorities
decide if a tsunami warning and an evacuation order must be issued to their public.

       Sophisticated ocean wave models are now used to predict the cross ocean pathways of
tsunami propagation. These results can be used with minutes of tsunami detection to guide
warnings and advisories across the oceans. NOAA West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning
Center Tsunami warning systems are complete end to end warning systems, involving
advanced technology, as well as comprehensive learning activities to teach coastal
populations about tsunami danger and how to respond to a tsunami. For local tsunamis, where
the wave arrives in minutes, everyone must recognize the natural tsunami warning signs and
act immediately to save their lives by moving to higher ground. The priority of the
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, IOC programmers is to reduce risk, by
encouraging communities to implement effective preventive measures and become aware of
the hazards they face.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                Page 19
International level

         India has had friendly relations with Japan. Japan has been one of the investors in
India's infrastructure growth and development. India and Japan are coordinating their efforts
as part of the G4 nations to reform the UN Security Council. Both nations share their
historical, cultural and civilization links. True, that Japan has been dragging its feet in signing
a civil nuclear energy agreement with India on ideological grounds.

         It is time that India rises to the occasion and helps the people of Japan in the time of
their need. India has solid experience carrying out an international relief mission during the
Tsunami of 2006 in South East Asia. India's private sector needs to raise capital for the
disaster struck people of Japan. Indian NGOs have a role to play. Indian citizens need to
show solidarity with Japanese people in the time of their need. Government of India needs to
announce the governmental relief measures immediately. Perhaps, a fiscal package for relief
efforts in the range of one billion dollars should be immediately announced by the Prime
Minister. India's armed forces have always proved their nettle in carrying out relief work. If
Indian armed forces need to be dispatched to Japan to carry out disaster relief, so be it. Surely,
the Japanese government will welcome all the help including military from a friendly Asian
nation with a track record in promoting international peace and amity. If Indian nuclear
scientists and technicians need to be sent to Japan urgently to assess, assist and rectify the
situation on the nuclear reactors currently on fire, a wider nuclear calamity can be averted in

         It will enhance India's international stature if we announce a multi-pronged relief
package now and lead the rest of the world. It will extend our soft power in the international
arena as well as in the Asian theatre. Japanese people will remember our immediate help in
the future years to come.

Regional Level

         This is similar with the coordination and collaboration in the international level.
Regional level involves countries in one particular region. It is typical for countries in the
same region to have regional coordination and collaboration in order to increase the

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 20
effectiveness the countries in the region. An example of regional level coordination and
collaboration is Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which objectives are to
accelerate development and promote regional peace and stability in the region.

National Level

       Tsunami disaster usually affects one country greatly and become a national disaster.
The role of government in that particular country is important in this case. Government
should recognize the importance of the disaster management program and has commitment in
the program. It is necessary to make a formal organizational entity for handling the disaster
management program. An example for government involvement in disaster management can
be examined in Iran. Iran has Natural Disaster Headquarter (NDH) under the ministry of
interior which has full authority and responsible for policy, guidance, supervision,
coordination of the disaster management. NDH also has responsibility in coordinating rescue
and relief operations, temporary settlement and reconstruction with the cooperation of all the
respected government agencies.

       Immediately following the disaster, the Government of Japan established an
Emergency Response Team, headed by Prime Minister Naoto Kan. According to the Japan
Times, Japan’s Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) swung into full action on March 12. All available
SDF resources were mobilized for rescue efforts. The Ministry of National Defense has
deployed over 100,000 troops to lead the relief effort. The Government officially decided to
dispatch 10,000 SDF reserve personnel in the first deployment since the SDF was established
in 1954. There are now about 120,000 national emergency service personnel include military,
police and fire departments working to provide relief and participating in the clean-up

       To improve logistics and distribution of relief items to evacuees, the Government
announced the creation of a new sub-task force, headed by the Minister of State for Disaster
Management that will strengthen and further systematize Government response in tsunami-
affected areas. Plans of the national government include collecting relief items and food from
municipalities and the private sector and consolidating it at some 50 JSDF sites. The JDSF or
local government will give out the supplies to evacuation centers.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                    Page 21
Organizational Level

       Obviously, there are many organizations involved in the disaster management
program, such as Red Cross, fire department, humanitarian organizations, social
organizations, and churches. Consequently, disaster management is a complex process and
requires the involvement of many
actors and the coordination of
numerous emergency, recovery, and
development activities.

Project Level

       Tsunami disaster management will involve many projects for its implementation. This
project level management usually happens after the disaster. Basically, there are three main
projects that should be done after the disaster: rescue and relief, temporary settlement, and
reconstruction. Hence, coordination and cooperation are important to ensure that public will
get maximum benefits from the projects.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                  Page 22

Tsunami Warning Center
       Tsunami Warning Center should be more responsible for rapidly detecting, locating,
sizing earthquakes to determine their tsunami potential for detecting and measuring tsunamis;
for evaluating the tsunami threat based on all available data; and for issuing effective
Tsunami Warning, Watch, Advisory, and Information Bulletins as well as other supporting
products. Each Center is also responsible for supplying their operational data to the other
Center, to the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC), and to others, as appropriate.

       The Tsunami Warning Centers should develop techniques necessary to upgrade and
improve operational aspects of the TWS in future development. In addition, the TWCs
interact and collaborate with the ITIC, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, the other
national and international tsunami-related research and development entities. Through these
endeavors the Tsunami Warning Centers stay abreast of research in tsunami generation,
detection and forecasting, and implement appropriate and verified cutting edge techniques.
Tsunami awareness and education levels to the public, the scientific community, emergency
managers, and policy-makers are very important for the outreach of Tsunami Warning
Centers in the future. They shall conduct or participate in outreach activities to improve
tsunami awareness and education levels of the public to them. These activities are need
conducted secondary to TWS operational priorities.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 23
Tsunami Ready Program

       The ability of any warning system to successfully save lives and reduce property
damage depends upon getting the information to the public and getting them to respond to the
emergency. To help attain this goal, the National Weather Service need implemented more
program about tsunami such as Tsunami Ready Program which sets forth guidelines for
communities to improve tsunami preparedness. This program was started in 2000 and was
based on the National Weather Service Storm Ready program.

       The Tsunami Ready program's
purpose is to recognize communities which
have taken the steps necessary to be as
prepared as possible for a tsunami. This
requires the communities to follow a set of
guidelines. The guidelines show that the
community can receive and disseminate
warnings, have a tsunami hazard plan in
place, have posted evacuation routes,
designated shelters, and have worked to
enhance tsunami awareness throughout their
community. As of July 2009, 65 communities and counties along the U.S. west coast, east
coast, Alaska, and Hawaii are recognized as Tsunami Ready. Center personnel actively work
with local emergency officials to attain the Tsunami Ready recognition.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                               Page 24
Tsunami Evacuation Notification Techniques

       Tsunami detection techniques help us know that a tsunami has occurred. However,
this information by itself is not useful; the vulnerable population has to be warned of the
dangers. Almost all means of communications ranging from burning fires to issuing warning
in the Internet are useful in notifying the danger; however, for a given place, based upon the
available infrastructure, budget, level of consciousness among the population, some methods
are more suitable than the other. Paper touches upon the different techniques that are being
used and that can be used and their advantages and the shortcomings. It should be noted that a
successful notification system will be an integration of more than one of these techniques.

                    Aircrafts             Systems              Pagers and
                      and                                        Mobile
                   Helicopters                                  Phones

                                                                           Aerial Flares
      Mobile                                                                   and
     Announcer                                                              Explosive
      Systems                                                                Reports
      Television                                                              Amateur
     and Radios                                                                Radio

                    Telephone                                   Internet
                    Networks                                   Technology
                                          Sirens and

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                  Page 25
a)   Dedicated Radio Systems

       Dedicated radio systems such as Simultaneous Announcement Wireless System
(SAWS) used in Japan by local authorities for many different types of messages. The
authorities that are responsible for issuing the warnings can install transmitters and the
receivers can be installed in the government offices, hospitals, fire stations and the receivers
can be bought by the people interested in getting the warning too. Once the disaster hits, the
message can be transmitted over this system so that the population under the threat can
receive the warning. Moreover, loudspeakers can be put in the public places so that once the
warning is received, they become activated.

       However, there are a few shortcomings of the system. First, the receivers have to be
turned on all the time consuming the electricity. By putting the receivers in the standby mode,
one can reduce the power consumption to some degree though. Second, tsunamis are not day-
to-day events for most parts of the world. So, the receivers and transmitters have to be
maintained without coming in use for years. This may lead the users to be lax in maintaining
the receivers so that the system fails to work when the disaster hits at the last.

b) Television and Radio

       Televisions and radios can also serve as a means of issuing the notification. Once the
threat has been perceived, an appropriate message can be broadcasted over the television and
radio channels. With many people having such sets and many people using them, this can be
an effective method of issuing the notification. In Japan, broadcasting stations receive the
tsunami bulletins from local and regional observatories. Once received, the message is

       In case of the television, the map for which the warning applies is also shown.
However, there are many television channel, having all of them transmit the warning requires
a great deal of coordination. Moreover, each station may serve a wide area. Channels using
the satellite for broadcasting can cover many countries and all the areas covered are rarely
under threat. It may case panic to population which is not under threat too. Similarly, though
many people have these systems, these systems are not in use all the time. For example, a
notification issued in the late night may go unheard by the targeted population.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 26
c)   Telephone Networks

       Telephone networks can also be used for notification. An authority need to be set up
that can trigger the issuance of the warning. Once the warning has been issued the phone
numbers can be automatically dialed to notify the users. Pre-recorded message in a clear and
concise manner can be played to the user. This can allow a large audience to be reached
within a short period of time. Such systems are in use in USA.

       However, it presupposes that the telephone network is working, but this cannot be
guaranteed especially in case of a local tsunami. A local earthquake causing the tsunami may
easily damage the telephone network as well. Similarly, the prospective recipients should be
near the phone to receive the message. In a busy working day, the telephone lines may as
well be busy. Moreover, it takes a finite amount of time to call all of the households.
Similarly, the cost of issuing a warning increases as the number of telephones to be called
increases. Moreover, there is the cost associated with testing the system regularly and
updating the list of the numbers to be called.

d) Sirens and Bells

       Sirens are used as means of notifying the threat in Japan and USA as well. Some
villages use bells for the purpose in Japan. Sirens can sound distinct tone as the means of
notifying the threat. It has the advantage of reaching all population. People in a beach may
not be reached via a telephone, mobile phone, email, television or a radio message; however,
a siren placed in the beach is sure to convey its message to the people.

       However, there are many issues in the establishment of siren based notification
systems. First, the tone to be used for expressing the threat has to be decided and people have
to be taught to decode what the different tones mean. For the tourists, it may be a problem to
learn the meaning of the tones as they move from one place to the other where the tones may
mean different things. Similarly, the number of sirens to be used has to be decided. In
addition, how the sirens to be activated are has to be worked on. Establishing a siren system
and making the people conscious of it may entail a lot of effort and resources.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                    Page 27
e) Mobile Announcer Systems

       Trucks, cars etc. can be used to convey the message of danger. Once an area is under
the threat of being damaged by tsunami, these vehicles can be sent with the loudspeakers.
However, this method is useful only if all the portions of the area are accessible with the
trucks, cars. Moreover, the warning issuing vehicle is on the move so not all people in the
area may properly get the message. Similarly, in an area with very high buildings the
loudspeaker may not be heard on the upper floors or inner portions of the area. In a
metropolis with a heavy traffic and big buildings this method is certainly not useful.

f) Aircrafts and Helicopters

       Aircrafts and helicopters can also be used to notify the affected population. Once a
threat is perceived, the crafts can be flown. The message can be given through the voice or
text delivery. For voice, the aircraft or the helicopter has to be equipped with the public
address system. For the text delivery, the leaflets containing the message have to be designed
and stored in advance. For the flying vehicles, it has to be planned that which agency will
provide the crafts that will fly it and similar things. Similarly, the speed, the height to be
flown and the tracks to be followed has to be planned in advance. This system can cover
isolated areas and can cover a large area.

       However, once again, as it is in move, it might not be possible that all people get the
message. The sound of the engine itself may make the voice low. Similarly, in throwing the
text messages on presupposes that the people will pick up them and read them but it may not
be effective as in night. Moreover, the text messages once dropped, have to be recovered
quickly otherwise a false alarm may be perceived by the public. Collection of the text
messages also poses some problem.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 28
g) Pagers/ Mobile Phones

       The notification of the threat can also be broadcasted over the pager or mobile phones.
People, under normal condition, move with these equipments so wherever they are and
whatever they are doing they are bound to get the warning. In developed countries where
mobile phones have become one of the basic necessities, this method is quite feasible.
However, in the developing countries or in poor communities near the coastline for which the
mobile phones are still luxury, it may not be quite feasible.

h) Internet Technology

       With more and more people using the email facility, emails and Internet can be used
to let the people know of the threats too. However, this method cannot be used by its own
because it is never clear that when the people will read their emails or check the internet.
Thus, both for the local and distant tsunami, it cannot work by itself. However, it can be used
to augment the other methods. For example, local authorities can keep a watch on the email
or the Internet and once a warning is received they can use other methods to disseminate it to
the users.

i) Amateur Radio

       Amateur radios can also be used for letting the people know of the tsunami. However,
this method can only warn people who are operators themselves and the people in the close
vicinity to them.

j) Aerial Flares or Explosive Reports

       These techniques were used in distant past for communication. These too can be used
for tsunami notification. They are useful for the people in the areas where the conventional
means of information. They are useful for both the distant tsunami and the local tsunami.
However, there are a few issues with this system. First, the aerial flares and explosive reports
rather than driving the people away from the source may attract towards the source.
Moreover, these signals may have other meanings too and their use with the tsunami may
result in conflict and hence the problem.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                   Page 29

Awareness of People about Tsunami

        It is important we be aware of tsunami facts. This knowledge could save our life and
we must share this knowledge to our friends and relatives. There are several ways that can
save our lives when we are at different public place such as school, home, near the ocean or
beach, high or multi-story reinforced concrete hotels and the open ocean. For example, when
we are in school and hear there is a tsunami warning, the entire student should follow the
advice of teachers and other school personnel.

        However, if we are stay at home and hear there is a tsunami warning, we should make
sure our entire family is aware of the warning. Our family member should evacuate house if
live in a tsunami evacuation zone. We should move in an orderly, calm and safe manner to
the evacuation site or to any safe place outside our evacuation zone. Then, we need to follow
the advice of local emergency and law enforcement authorities.

        If we are at the beach or near the ocean and feel the earth shake, move immediately to
higher ground, and do not wait for a tsunami warning to be announced. We should stay away
from rivers and streams that lead to the ocean as we would stay away from the beach and
ocean if there is a tsunami. A regional tsunami from a local earthquake could strike some
areas before a tsunami warning could be announced. Tsunamis generated in distant locations
will generally give people enough time to move to higher ground. For locally-generated
tsunamis, where we might feel the ground
shake, we may only have a few minutes to
move to higher ground. Offshore reefs and
shallow areas may help break the force of
tsunami waves, but large and dangerous wave
can still be a threat to coastal residents in these
areas. We shall stay away from all low-lying
areas are the safest advice when there is a
tsunami warning.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                 Page 30
       High, multi-story, reinforced concrete hotels are located in many low-lying coastal
areas. The upper floors of these hotels can provide a safe place to find refuge should there be
a tsunami warning and you cannot move quickly inland to higher ground. Homes and small
buildings located in low-lying coastal areas are not designed to withstand tsunami impacts.
Hence, we do not stay in these structures should there be a tsunami warning.

       Since tsunami wave activity is imperceptible in the open ocean, do not return to port if
we are at sea and a tsunami warning has been issued for our area. Tsunamis can cause rapid
changes in water level and unpredictable dangerous currents in harbours and ports. Most
large harbours and ports are under the control of a harbour authority and a vessel traffic
system. These authorities direct operations during periods of increased readiness including
the forced movement of vessels if deemed necessary. We should keep in contact with the
authorities should a forced movement of vessel be directed.

       Smaller ports may not be under the control of a harbour authority. If we are aware
there is a tsunami warning and have time to move your vessel to deep water, then we may
want to do so in an orderly manner, in consideration of other vessels. Owners of small boats
may find it safest to leave their boat at the pier and physically move to higher ground,
particularly in the event of a locally-generated tsunami. Concurrent severe weather conditions
could present a greater hazardous situation to small boats, so physically moving ourselves to
higher ground may be the only option.

       Damaging wave activity and unpredictable currents can affect harbours for a period of
time following the initial tsunami impact on the coast. We need to contact the harbour
authority before returning to port making sure to verify that conditions in the harbour are safe
for navigation and berthing.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                     Page 31

       A tsunami is a natural disaster occurring after a large earthquake. It is a series of long
waves moving at great speed over the ocean. At the coast they can be as high as 30 meters,
causing damage to cities and people. When a tsunami occurs, waves travelling at great speed,
which can travel great distances through the oceans, change their course due to sphericity of
the earth, depth differences in the ocean, marine currents moving obliquely and costal
features. Tsunamis most of the
times are caused by the sources
over which we have no control
whatsoever. To ensure human
well being we have to think of
the ways that allow us to detect
their arrival in advance and let the people know of the danger so that they can move to safer
places. There are many methods that can be used to do this. For the detection earthquake data,
tide gauge readings, readings of the sea-bottom pressure sensors are routinely used to detect
the tsunami. However, there are many techniques such as floating buoy systems, high
frequency radars, microwave satellite imageries, GPS signal monitoring or ionosphere
monitoring under investigation that seem to be promising for the tsunami detection and may
well be incorporated in the future tsunami warning systems.

       In the reconstruction project, lack of information in all stages of development is the
main problem that needs to be addressed. This study presents some critical factors that can be
utilized to improve the situation. It is found that coordination and collaboration are essential
in tsunami disaster management. The study has investigated tsunami disaster management in
the project level coordination and collaboration which can be utilized to improve the existing
practice. In addition, the study also gave possible coordination and collaboration in other
levels as well. For notification, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts, dedicated radio
systems, sirens, bells, mobile announcer systems, amateur radios, telephone networks, mobile
phones, pagers, email, the Internet and others technique are being used. With the advent of
information and communication technologies, some innovative and more effective techniques
may well become part of the new tsunami warning systems.

BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                    Page 32
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BEC 403 ENGINEER & SOCIETY- MARCH 2011                                                       Page 33

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