Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders by xiuliliaofz


									     Chapter 16
Psychological Disorders

          16.1 Notes
What are Psychological Disorders
I. Defining and Identifying
Psychological Disorders
A. Deviation from normality
   1. Abnormal – deviation
   from the average or the
   2. Majority is not always
   right or best
      a. Abnormality is not
   always an accurate
   standard for determining
   a disorder is present
B. Adjustment
1. “Normal People” get
   along in the world
   physically, emotionally
   and socially
2. Abnormal people fail to
   a. Refuse to eat
   b. Can’t hold job
   c. Avoid people and
C. Psychological Health
1.   Many psychological feel that mental illness is different from
     physical illness
     a. Believe a normal or healthy person is one functioning ideally or
     who is at least striving towards ideal function
        1.) Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow call this self actualization
                  a. Normal or healthy involves full acceptance and
                  expression of one’s own individuality and humanness
     III. The Problem of Classification
A.    Diagnostic and Statistical manual of
      Mental Disorders (DSM)
      1. 1952
      2. American Psychiatric Association
      3. DSM – II (1968)
          a. Classified as neurosis and
      4. DSM – III
          a. Began to classify as anxiety,
      somatoform, dissociative, mood
      disorders and schizophrenia
      5. DSM – III Revised (1987)
      6. DSM – IV (1994)
          a. DSM IV – TR (2000)
                    1.) Minor text revision
B.     DSM – IV New Ways to Categorize Mental
1.   Essential Features
     a. Characteristics that define the disorder
2.   Associated Features
     a. Additional features that are usually present
3.   Information on different diagnosis
     a. How to distinguish one disorder from another
4.   Diagnostic Criteria
     a. A list of symptoms, taken from the lists of essential and associated features, that
     must be present for the patient to be given a particular diagnostic label
C. DSM Axis
1.   Axis 1
     a. Classify correct symptoms into explicitly defined categories
2.   Axis 2
     a. Used to describe development disorders and long standing
     personality disorders
     b. Ex. – compulsiveness, over – dependency
     c. Ex. – Language disorders, reading or writing difficulties, mental
     retardation, autism and speech problems
3.   Axis 3
     a. Physical disorders or general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to
     understanding or caring for the person
     b. Ex. – Brain damage, chemical imbalance
•    Axis 4
     a. Measure of the person’s current stress level
     b. Rating of the stress
         1.) Death of a spouse or loss of a job
5.   Axis 5
     a. Describes the highest level of adaptive functioning within the past year
         1.) 3 Areas
                    a.) Social relations
                    b.) Occupational functioning
                    c.) Person’s use of leisure time

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