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					          Christine Moriarty
Chemical Reactions in Our Environment
         11th grade Chemistry
Subject Area description:
      This chemical reactions unit is designed for an 11th grade chemistry class in a
middle class suburban school in the Shoreline school district. The class is somewhat
diverse in ethnicity and socio-economic status, although the majority of students are
Caucasian middle class. There is a possibility there will be advanced ESL or IEP
students.
      The majority of students will have had at least one science class in the ninth grade.
The ninth grade integrated physical science class has an emphasis on projects and
inquiry-based experiences. At the beginning of this school year students will have had a
review in naming and the proper use of equipment. This is essentially the first unit of
instruction.

Essential Question:
         How did there get to be so many types of materials in our environment?
Students will need to have a basic understanding of matter and ways in which to describe
its properties. They will need to be able to break down and build up, understanding the
atomic and macroscopic scales. States of matter as well as the structure of matter will
need to be considered. Students will need to understand there are different types of
chemical reactions. To understand these concepts students will need to have the skills
necessary to interpret the periodic table, solubility table and an activity series.

Goals and Objectives:

Goal 1:Students will utilize the following themes: systems, changes, and models
throughout their studies.(Related to EALR 1.2)
   1.1 Students will use and analyze a variety of models (periodic table, classes of
       reactions, balloon orbitals etc.)
   1.2 Students will understand how matter is conserved in a closed system.
   1.3 Students will analyze and use the knowledge of patterns in chemistry.
Goal 2: Students will develop communication strategies and skills to work effectively
with others.
   2.1 Students will work cooperatively as a member of a group.
   2.2 Students will interpret and apply the language of chemistry.
   2.3 Students will be able to communicate effectively in their written and spoken
       language.
   2.4 Students will seek agreement and solutions through discussion.

Goal 3: Students will develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry.(EALR 2.1)
   3.1 Students will design, conduct and evaluate systematic and complex scientific
       investigations using appropriate technology, multiple measures, and safe
       practices.
   3.2 Students will understand the benefits of collaborating with one another in
       scientific inquiry.
   3.3 Students will defend scientific investigations, conclusions, or arguments; using
       data, logic, and analytical thinking as investigative tools.

Goal 4: Students will gain a deeper understanding of matter.
   4.1 Students will explain the structure of an atom.
   4.2 Students will predict and support their predictions of chemical reactions.
   4.3   Students will know how to balance chemical equations.
   4.4   Students will understand endothermic and exothermic reactions.
   4.5   Students will understand the states of matter.
   4.6   Students will understand physical and chemical change.

Goal 5: Students will appreciate the process of science.(EALR 3.2)
   5.1 Students will value scientific knowledge and technology, which has been
        discovered and developed by individual and communities in all cultures of the
        world.
   5.2 Students will value and evaluate a variety of opinions and explanations.

                                        Unit Matrix

                                    Day 1- 45 minutes
1) What will students do?
                                    Matter brainstorm-
Students will discuss in small groups what they think is matter. Then they will share their
group’s thoughts with the class making a big list on the overhead. There will be a variety
of objects/props for students to use in the class.
Then back in their groups they will decide what they think qualifies as matter- answering
what makes something qualify as matter? And are there different types of matter? Then
students meet as a class to share their group’s answers. Students will then whittle down
their lists to something they can all agree on. Referring back to student’s original list they
will contemplate: How did there get to be so many types of materials in our environment?
(Done as a class.)
2) Learning objectives for the class?        2.1-Students will work cooperatively as a
                                             member of a group.
                                             2.4-Students will seek agreement and solutions
                                             through discussion.
                                             5.1-Students will value and evaluate a variety
                                             of opinions and explanations.
3) Reasons for content and                   Beginning of a unit, new topic for most
instructional strategy:                      students I want them to have an understanding
a) Why introduce idea at this time?          of matter they can see before discussing
                                             microscopic entities. Allows a student to
                                             organize his or her own thoughts and
                                             definitions of matter.
b) Why this instructional strategy?          It is the beginning of a somewhat abstract unit;
                                             students have not been introduced to atoms,
                                             compounds, etc. before I want to assess how
                                             they think of the make up of matter.
                                             (Elicit student’s ideas) I want students to be
                                             comfortable sharing their ideas.
4) Evidence of understanding:                Teacher notes from class discussion. Students
What evidence of student                     reasoning for how they make and downsize
learning/understanding will you              their lists.
collect?
5) Resources?                                Overhead, questions
                                      Day 2- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
Begin with quick recap discussion of matter. Recall: How did there get to be so many
types of materials?
-Students listen to chemical reactions introduction: Teacher begins class discussion on
chemical reactions, students respond to questions: what are some of your ideas on
chemical reactions? What is a chemical? Are chemicals matter? Move on to do a
chemical reaction- chemistry in a baggie. Students put test tube filled will liquid in a
baggie with white powder, mix chemicals and observe. Lab groups will answer questions
that will be discussed (as a class): Is this a chemical reaction? How do you know? A
member of each lab group will share one observation they made(will be written on board)
-Listen to teacher talk: about physical and chemical change. As a class students identify
which of their observations are physical & chemical changes. Teacher talks: chemical
change indicates chemical reaction. (Answers lab q’s) Chemicals are matter and are made
up of elements. Students are introduced to the periodic table of elements and types of
matter- atom, compound, element, molecule.
-Model posters: Students will read a handout on different models of the atom and its
components. In groups students will make a diagram on poster paper of one of the
models-Bohr, Dalton, etc. Present to class and post on walls. Students will compare and
contrast models.
-Homework question: List examples from your home/yard of physical changes and
chemical changes.
2) Learning objectives for the class?         1.1-Students will use and analyze a variety of
                                              atomic models.
                                              2.3-Students will be able to communicate
                                              effectively in their written and spoken
                                              language.
                                              4.1-Students will explain the structure of an
                                              atom.
                                              4.6-Students will understand physical and
                                              chemical change.
3) Reasons for content and                    Continued discussion of matter giving students
instructional strategy:                       more scientific knowledge to match or adapt or
a) Why introduce idea at this time?           add to their previous knowledge. I introduced
                                              chemical reactions & the activity so students
                                              could see rxns first hand before we write
                                              chemical reaction equations. This experiment
                                              will be referenced many times in the days to
                                              come. Atoms were presented now because I
                                              want students to first break down to the atomic
                                              level then they will reconstruct to the
                                              macroscopic level.
b) Why this instructional strategy?           These ideas are new to most students, they may
                                              have heard of atoms etc. but the details are
                                              unknown to them. Because these concepts are
                                              microscopic I am trying to make them as
                                              tangible as possible (they do a chem. rxn, make
                                              posters)
4) Evidence of understanding:               Atomic diagrams on posters will help me to
What evidence of student                    see that they interpreted the articles correctly.
learning/understanding will you             As well as the student’s ability to
collect?                                    compare/contrast models-take notes. I will be
                                            able to assess their homework to see if they
                                            met objective 4.6.
5) Resources?                               Model kits (ball and stick models of
                                            molecules), poster paper, markers, materials
                                            for “chemistry in a baggie” activity

                                    Day 3- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
-Students will begin class with “People can be protons too” activity. Volunteers will act
out parts of the atom-paying attention to the “opposites attract” and “like repels like”
rule.
-Students listen to a history of the periodic table & are shown how to read the periodic
table-chemical symbols, atomic number, groups & periods, liquids/gases, trends? etc. As
a class students practice identifying elements and its properties.
Project: Human periodic table- Students will collect several pieces of information from
all students in their class (or more) and build a table with trends, groups, and periods, etc.
This period students will create a small survey for their classmates.
Students will each choose a different element to make a brochure about-including history,
uses, etc.-will begin design in class & homework
-Students are introduced to compounds- how to write chemical formulas for compounds.
Each student is given a practice problem on the board (i.e. one atom of phosphorus plus +
five atoms react to produce PCl5) Teacher talks about how to write reaction equations.
(1 P + 5 Cl  PCl5), talks about what symbols mean, reactants products and coefficients.
Analogy: Recipe for cooking
Homework: practice problems (include cooking recipe problem.)
2) Learning objectives for the class?        1.1-Students will use and analyze the periodic
                                             table-model
                                             1.3-Students will analyze and use the
                                             knowledge of patterns in chemistry (trends in
                                             the periodic table & classmates.)
                                             2.2-Students will interpret and apply the
                                             language of chemistry (chemical formulas and
                                             chemical reaction equations)
                                             5.1-Students will value scientific knowledge
                                             and technology, which has been discovered
                                             and developed by individual and communities
                                             in all cultures of the world.
3) Reasons for content and                   Continue use of models in the classroom.
instructional strategy:                      Working towards writing chemical equations
a) Why introduce idea at this time?          and understanding scientific language so I
                                             began with the alphabet (periodic table
                                             chemical symbols).
b) Why this instructional strategy?          Acting out an atom will help students get a
                                             more tangible experience with atoms. Human
                                             periodic table will help students understand
                                           trends and how to organized things in a way
                                           similar to the periodic table.
4) Evidence of understanding:              Observations and notes, I will not collect
What evidence of student                   anything at this time from today’s work.
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                              Model kits, large periodic table poster, paper
                                           for brochures, articles on different elements,
                                           markers/colored pencils

                                   Day 4- 45 minutes
1) What will students do?
-Students give the periodic survey.
-Students ask questions from their homework. Students listen how to name compounds
(phosphorus 5 chloride = phosphorus pentachloride), IUPAC naming system and origin
of system. In small groups students practice naming compounds. In small groups read a
scientific article-Each student will read a paragraph and share (jigsaw) and each will
identify a couple chemical names and break down (sulfur hexaflourine = SF6). Each
group will write the chemical names broken down on one sheet of paper- students are
color-coded.
-Students can work on their element brochures and human periodic table.
2) Learning objectives for the class?        2.2-Students will interpret and apply the
                                             language of chemistry.
                                             5.1-Students will value scientific knowledge
                                             and technology, which has been discovered
                                             and developed by individual and communities
                                             in all cultures of the world.
3) Reasons for content and                   Continue to learn language- building and
instructional strategy:                      breaking down words
a) Why introduce idea at this time?
b) Why this instructional strategy?          Once students are introduced to this naming
                                             system it just takes some practice using it to
                                             understand. So I just introduced the info.
                                             quickly and students can help each other to
                                             become more familiar working with the new
                                             jargon.
4) Evidence of understanding:                I will collect a paper from each group with
What evidence of student                     each person’s words that they have broken
learning/understanding will you              down.
collect?
5) Resources?                                Scientific article, markers/colored pencils
                                    Day 5- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
-Element brochures due
-Energy-Students answer warm-up questions: What is energy? Give some examples.
Students listen: definition of energy, talks about types of energy, students give examples
and discusses the role of energy in chemical reactions. Analogies: eating and exercising,
running up a hill. Introduces kinetic and potential energy and endo/exothermic reactions.
Students recall observations from “chemistry in a baggie.” Students watch teacher do
demo of that lab, students can come to front and feel the heat gained/released. Students
can work through/observe energy simulation on computer.
-Balancing equations:
Students will answer question on overhead: This afternoon when you go home and look
for a snack you decide to make an ice cream sundae. You decide to put chocolate syrup,
rainbow sprinkles, chopped nuts, whipped cream and 3 cherries on top of 2 scoops of
your favorite kind ice cream. When you are preparing your ice cream masterpiece you
pay close attention to what the proper serving size is for each ingredient. What is the
mass of your ice cream sundae?
1 scoop of ice cream =1/2 cup = 85 grams
Chocolate syrup = 2 tbsp. Convert to grams
Chopped nuts = 1 tbsp. Convert to grams
Whipped cream = 2 tbsp. Convert to grams
1 cherry = 5 grams
Rainbow sprinkles = 2 tsp Convert to grams
Does each of your ingredients together have the same mass of your final sundae?
-Students listen to introduction on conservation of mass. Students will have balances on
their lab tables with several objects- they are able to test out the theory of mass
conservation for themselves. Students then listen to introduction on balancing equations.
Begin to work sample problems on the board. Students will be able to use model kits or
objects to signify molecules to help visualize the reaction process.
-Students will finish human periodic table attached will a legend describing trends. Post
in class.-Students will do a few practice problems for homework.
2) Learning objectives for the class?        1.2-Students will understand how matter is
                                             conserved in a closed system.
                                             4.3-Students will balance chemical equations.
                                             4.4-Students will understand endothermic and
                                             exothermic reactions.
3) Reasons for content and                   Energy, mass conservation and balancing
instructional strategy:                      equations are introduced at this point because I
a) Why introduce idea at this time?          am giving them some background knowledge
                                             for their inquiry project.
b) Why this instructional strategy?          Energy is a topic that they have heard of but it
                                             is not something they understand at this level-
                                             therefore I will give them the scientific
                                             information and they can use familiar instances
                                             and the simulation to better understand.
                                             Students are allowed to explore conservation of
                                             mass for themselves instead of me just telling
                                             them.
4) Evidence of understanding:                I will observe students during energy
What evidence of student                   simulation at that point I will ask students if
learning/understanding will you            they have remaining questions. They will have
collect?                                   practice problems to turn in. Human periodic
                                           table.
5) Resources?                              Model kits, computer simulation, overhead,
                                           hand outs of ice cream problem.

                                      Day 6- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
Warm-up:
Students will answer warm-up question on paper, turn in: Describe in your own words an
exothermic and endothermic chemical reaction and the conservation of mass. Students
ask questions on previous days homework assignment. Students share their descriptions
of endo/exothermic reactions and conservation of mass.
Begin inquiry project:
Students will jigsaw several articles on three different topics: balancing reactions,
conservation of mass and endo/exothermic reactions. (Phase 1-build knowledge base)
Students will split into three groups that will read information on one of the three topics.
Groups of three will each read a different piece on the same topic, then share the main
point of the article. Each student will record in their notebook the main points of each
article on their topic, as well as questions they have.
Within the groups of three students will brainstorm the ideas a person would need to
know in order to understand this topic (Know about) Then all students within one topic
will meet to ask each other their questions and share and compile the lists of left over
questions and essential info. into Know about/Wonder charts.
(Phase 2-questions) Each group of three will be given a question on their topic.
(Phase 3-design investigation) Student groups will now begin to design an investigation
to answer their question-write draft
If time-students will then be asked to become a “skeptic” of their investigative design.
Students will answer questions asked by the teacher based on their design- students are to
determine if the design will actually answer their question. Students will write the
decided on procedure and materials list in their lab notebooks.
2) Learning objectives for the class?         1.2-Students will understand how matter is
                                              conserved in a closed system.
                                              3.1 Students will design and evaluate a
                                              complex scientific investigation using
                                              appropriate materials, multiple measures, and
                                              safe practices.
                                              3.2-Students will understand the benefits of
                                              collaborating with one another in scientific
                                              inquiry
                                              4.1-Students will understand endothermic and
                                              exothermic reactions.
                                              4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                              chemical equations.
3) Reasons for content and                    Students have been given some knowledge of
instructional strategy:                       objectives 1.2, 4.1, 4.3 now they will need to
a) Why introduce idea at this time?           explore these themselves. I want to begin
                                              developing student’s inquiry skills.
b) Why this instructional strategy?        Students may not have done in inquiry project
                                           before so I will need to structure this process.
4) Evidence of understanding:              Students will have turned in their own
What evidence of student                   explanations of endo/exothermic rxns & mass
learning/understanding will you            conservation.
collect?                                   Know about/Wonder charts
5) Resources?                              Poster paper, markers, jigsaw articles


                                   Day 7- 45 minutes
1) What will students do?
Continue inquiry project:
If needed students will evaluate the design of their investigation (see end of day 6)
(Phase 3 conduct investigation) – Students will conduct their investigation and collect
data.
-Students will be given handouts of the essential information from the other two topics
for homework (so they will understand the next days presentations.)
2) Learning objectives for the class?      1.2-Students will understand how matter is
                                           conserved in a closed system.
                                           3.1 Students will conduct a complex scientific
                                           investigation using appropriate materials,
                                           multiple measures, and safe practices.
                                           3.2-Students will understand the benefits of
                                           collaborating with one another in scientific
                                           inquiry
                                           4.1-Students will understand endothermic and
                                           exothermic reactions.
                                           4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                           chemical equations.
3) Reasons for content and                 Students have been given some knowledge of
instructional strategy:                    objectives 1.2, 4.1, 4.3 now they will need to
a) Why introduce idea at this time?        explore these themselves. I want to continue
                                           developing student’s inquiry skills.
b) Why this instructional strategy?        Students may not have done in inquiry project
                                           before so I will need to structure this process.
4) Evidence of understanding:              I will observe students conducting their
What evidence of student                   experiments.
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                              Materials for project
                                    Day 8- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
                                        -Warm-up-
Students will answer warm-up questions on chemical formulas, nomenclature.
                               -Continue inquiry project-
(Phase 4 and 5)-Students will analyze data and evaluate their investigation. Again
considering the match of their design to the question. Students will answer questions
from the teacher about their investigation as a whole. Students will have analysis and
results including an evaluation of their investigation in their notebook. Each group will
have a short presentation. Students will evaluate their group work.
-Introduction to major types of chemical rxns: Students consider the question: Are there
different types of chemical reactions? Students listen to a short preface on major classes
of reactions. Students watch teacher do a demo and give examples of different types:
synthesis, combustion, single & double replacement and decomposition reactions.
-Single Replacement lab:
Students will perform several single replacement reactions and record observations and
chemicals combined in their notebooks.
-Students will receive assignments for culminating project.
-Homework- students are asked to reflect on what they have learned on their topic and
the other two after doing this project and listening to presentations.
2) Learning objectives for the class?       2.3-Students will be able to communicate
                                            effectively in their written and spoken
                                            language.
                                            3.2-Students will understand the benefits of
                                            collaborating with one another in scientific
                                            inquiry
                                            3.3-Students will defend scientific
                                            investigations, conclusions, or arguments;
                                            using data, logic, and analytical thinking as
                                            investigative tools.
                                            1.2-Students will understand how matter is
                                            conserved in a closed system.
                                            4.1-Students will understand endothermic and
                                            exothermic reactions.
                                            4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                            chemical equations.
3) Reasons for content and                  Finished inquiry project: share and reviews
instructional strategy:                     concepts of the baggie reaction.(objectives 1.2,
a) Why introduce idea at this time?         4.1, 4.3) Introduce classes of reactions to give
                                            students a framework when predicting
                                            reactions.
                                            Introduced single replacement so students
                                            would gain experience doing and identifying
                                            chemical reactions.
b) Why this instructional strategy?         Students need to observe reactions themselves
                                            to reinforce understanding of physical/
                                            chemical changes and chemical reactions.
4) Evidence of understanding:               Presentations, notebooks, peer evaluations
What evidence of student
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                             Model kits, materials for single replacement
                                          lab

                                    Day 9- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
Warm-up- practice questions on balancing equations and elements
Continue single replacement lab- Students will write chemical reaction equations for
each chemical reaction they observed. And produce an activity series based on that data.
Begin double replacement lab- Students listen to brief description of double
replacement reactions. Students will perform double replacement reactions recording
their observations. Using the solubility table and their notes students will identify
products. Students will again write chemical reaction equations for each chemical
reaction they observe.
Begin in-class work with culminating project- Students will pair up and pick a
demonstration that they will perform in front of the class. Students will begin working on
the project.
2) Learning objectives for the class?       1.1-Students will use and analyze two of the
                                            classes of reactions- single and double
                                            replacement.(models)
                                            3.1-Students will conduct a scientific
                                            investigation using appropriate technology,
                                            multiple measures, and safe practices.
                                            4.2-Students will predict and support their
                                            predictions of chemical reactions.
                                            4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                            chemical equations.
                                            4.5-Students will understand the states of
                                            matter.
3) Reasons for content and                  Continue experiencing the process of making
instructional strategy:                     and identifying chemical reactions. Begin
a) Why introduce idea at this time?         culminating project because all students now
                                            have to tools to implement their understanding
                                            each concept covered.
b) Why this instructional strategy?         Students need to observe reactions themselves
                                            to reinforce understanding of physical/
                                            chemical changes and chemical reactions.
                                            Students are given a choice of which
                                            experiment they will do for the culminating
                                            project. Giving them the freedom to be creative
                                            and do something different from other
                                            students.
4) Evidence of understanding:               Lab notebooks
What evidence of student
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                               Model kits, materials for double replacement
                                            lab, computer (to look up info. for culminating
                                          project), poster paper, markers/colored pencils

                                    Day 10- 45min
1) What will students do?
Warm-up- practice questions
Work on culminating project:
Students will be given time to work on their culminating project.
2) Learning objectives for the class?     1.1-Students will use and analyze a variety of
                                          models (periodic table, classes of reactions,
                                          model kits, etc.)
                                          2.1-Students will work cooperatively as a
                                          member of a group.
                                          3.1-Students will conduct a systematic and
                                          complex scientific investigation using
                                          appropriate technology, multiple measures, and
                                          safe practices.
3) Reasons for content and                Students are able to use the skills that are
instructional strategy:                   necessary for the experiment they have chosen
a) Why introduce idea at this time?       and should be able to incorporate all of the
                                          knowledge from this unit into their project.
b) Why this instructional strategy?       Students need to be given the chance to be
                                          creative and have choice in activities that they
                                          perform.
4) Evidence of understanding:             Teacher notes and observations.
What evidence of student
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                             Materials necessary for culminating projects.

                                  Day 11- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
Warm-up- practice questions
Presentations of culminating projects.
Review for test- students will make a concept map/diagram considering the transition
from the atomic level to the macroscopic level. (protons, electrons, neutrons atom(s)
compounds/molecules many, many molecules(macroscopic) and can make a chemistry
“alphabet soup”- with chemical symbols, formulas, etc.
2) Learning objectives for the class?     2.2-Students will interpret and apply the
                                          language of chemistry.
                                          2.3-Students will be able to communicate
                                          effectively in their written and spoken
                                          language.
                                          4.1-Students will explain the structure of an
                                          atom.
                                          4.2-Students will predict and support their
                                          predictions of chemical reactions.
                                          4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                          chemical equations.
                                          4.4-Students will understand endothermic and
                                            exothermic reactions.
                                            4.5-Students will understand the states of
                                            matter.
                                            4.6-Students will understand physical and
                                            chemical change.
3) Reasons for content and                  Prepares students for exam, ties together and
instructional strategy:                     organizes concepts they have learned so they
a) Why introduce idea at this time?         will be able to answer the essential question.
b) Why this instructional strategy?         Presentations are used because students have
                                            learned quite a bit of information and skills,
                                            this allows them to share their knowledge with
                                            the class and learn from each other. Concept
                                            maps etc. are used to help students organize the
                                            information learned.
4) Evidence of understanding:               Presentations- written portions, may video tape
What evidence of student                    presentations
learning/understanding will you             Concept maps, alphabet soup, diagrams (what
collect?                                    ever they chose)

5) Resources?                               Poster paper, markers

Day 12- 1hr 45min
1) What will students do?
Students will review and take an exam, which will address: How did there get to be so
many types of materials in our environment?
Lab portion of the test- students will be asked to identify physical and chemical changes,
as well as perform specified chemical reactions.
                                       Start next unit!
2) Learning objectives for the class?       Students will understand the process of
                                            “making” a variety of materials.(answer
                                            essential question
                                            2.3-Students will be able to communicate
                                            effectively in their written and spoken
                                            language.
                                            4.1-Students will explain the structure of an
                                            atom.
                                            4.2-Students will predict and support their
                                            predictions of chemical reactions.
                                            4.3-Students will know how to balance
                                            chemical equations.
                                            4.4-Students will understand endothermic and
                                            exothermic reactions.
                                            4.5-Students will understand the states of
                                            matter.
                                            4.6-Students will understand physical and
                                            chemical change.
3) Reasons for content and                  It is the end of the unit, students should be able
instructional strategy:                     to synthesize and analyze the concepts that we
a) Why introduce idea at this time?         have covered up to this point. Culminating
                                      assessment for this unit.
b) Why this instructional strategy?   I include the lab portion because that is how
                                      they learned appropriate skills; I am matching
                                      assessment to how they were taught.
4) Evidence of understanding:         Exams
What evidence of student
learning/understanding will you
collect?
5) Resources?                         Experiment materials for exam

				
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