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Anomie and Strain _Cont._

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Anomie and Strain _Cont._ Powered By Docstoc
					The Brain and
Crime

   Dr. Matt Robinson
   CJ 3400
   “Theories of Crime”
   Appalachian State University
Recall that …

   The parts most important for criminal
    behavior are frontal lobes and
    temporal lobes

   Thus, overactive temporal lobe or
    underactive frontal lobe can result in
    “bad” behavior …
   What can produce underactive frontal
    lobes?
Brain dysfunction …
   Means some interference with normal
    brain function …
   Can occur in the womb …
   For example, alcohol, cigarettes, illicit
    drugs, poor diet, stress, toxins …
   Occurs regularly in youth and adults:
   1.4 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI)
    each year … 50,000 die …
   235,000 to hospital … 70,000-90,000 long-
    term brain dysfunction …
Brain dysfunction …
   Causes include:
   Accidents, falls
   Violence victimization
   Sport injuries
   (head injuries)
   Most common in young males (15-
    24 years old)
   15,000 children suffer TBI each year
Brain dysfunction …
   Outcomes include:
   Language / cognition problems
   Learning / school problems
   Emotional problems
   Relationship problems
   Work problems
Brain dysfunction …
   Outcomes include:
   Difficulty solving problems
   Difficulty planning for future
   Difficulty organizing
   Difficulty controlling violent
    impulses
   Crime, suicide, divorce,
    unemployment, substance abuse …
The case of Phineas Gage …
 The case of Phineas Gage …




                http://www.epub.org.br/cm/n02/historia/phineas.htm
http://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2006/12/04/the-incredible-case-of-phineas-gage/
                            (frontal lobe)




   These functions threatened by frontal lobe dysfunction
   What can produce overactive temporal
    lobes?
Key Structure of Temporal Lobe
(Limbic System)




http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa042205a.htm
http://www.healing-arts.org/n-r-limbic.htm
Key Structure of Temporal Lobe
(Limbic System)
Tumors of Temporal Lobe
Tumors of Temporal Lobe
The case of Charles Whitman …
The case of Charles Whitman …




http://www.popsubculture.com/pop/bio_project/charles_whitman.html
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,842584,00.html
But NORMAL brain process also
involved in criminality …
   Neurotransmitters

   Enzymes
Neurotransmitters
   Neurons are nerve cells in brain (100 bil.)
   Transmit info. from cell to cell through
    electrical impulse …
   over trillions of connections (synapses) …
   Impulse causes release of
    neurotransmitters (naturally occurring
    brain chemicals) …
   Released into synapse of neuron and …
   received by other neurons (or not)…
   Stimulate or inhibit brain function
Neurotransmitters
   Levels affected by genes and
    environmental factors
   (such as social status, diet, drugs,
    stress, toxins)
   Those related to aggression include:
   Serotonin (low levels)
   Dopamine (high levels)
Neurotransmitters




http://depts.washington.edu/opchild/acute.html
http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-paper2/Sabo2.html
http://masscases.com/cases/sjc/399/399mass304.html
Enzymes
   Enzymes are substances in the brain that
    …
   Build neurotransmitters from foods we
    eat …
   and break them down …
   For example, monoamine oxidase (MAO)
   … metabolizes serotonin, dopamine,
    norepinephrine …
   Low levels of MAO found in antisocial
    populations
In summary, we know the brain
…
   Controls behaviors, including crime,
    through:
   Brain chemistry (i.e., neurotransmitter
    and enzyme levels)
   Abnormal influences (e.g., brain
    dysfunction and injury)
   Emotion (e.g., anger, sadness,
    vengeance)
   Lack of self-control (i.e., inability to
    control urges)
   Learning (i.e., association)

				
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posted:10/25/2011
language:English
pages:25