psi

Document Sample
psi Powered By Docstoc
					      TRIP: A new facility for test of the
   Standard Model with radioactive isotopes

•Fundamental interactions and symmetries at low energies
       what does NUPECC say….

•Time-reversal violation and electric dipole moments

•Time-reversal violation and beta decay

•The TRIP facility                                             H.W. Wilschut
(Trapped Radioactive Isotopes lab‟s for fundamental Physics)

   LTP colloq 11-04-03
    Searches for „new physics‟ at low energy
Gravitation
                  Electro -
                                                           low energy
                 Magnetism
Magnetism                                                  physics
                 Maxwell
 Electricity                       Glashow,            ?
                                Salam, t'Hooft,
                              Veltman,Weinberg
    Weak
                                                           high energy
                               Electro - Weak
                              Standard Model               physics
   Strong                                           Grand
                                                    Grant
                                                  Unification
not yet known?

   NUPECC long-range report (fundamental interactions)
   contributions from “low energy physics”
   A general remark on TRV and CPV in the
               Standard Model
          __                                                    __
     K0  K0 degenerate                CP or T violation in K0 K0
     K1  K2 CP eigenstates
     KS  KL actual states CPV          d
                                                Vxd   u,c,t        s

  CKM matrix                                                           __
                                      K0       W             W       K0
                                           _          ___          _
                                           s          u,c,t        d
                                                        __
                                        Similar for B0 B0
                                        Now know CPV phase CKM
Additional sources CPV are expected …..
              matter – anti-matter asymmetry in the universe
    Time reversal violation and the
       Electric Dipole Moment
Why is EDM a TRV observable              •QM: J//d
                                         •any particle will do
    J                                        • dn  0.6 10-27 em
                                             • de < 1.6 10-29 em
     d                                       • de (SM) < 10-39 em
                                         •find suitable object
                                             • Schiff
                                         • need amplifier
                                             • atomic (Z3)
                                             • nuclear
                                         • suitable structure
         time     time                   Consider all nuclides
 EDM violates parity and time reversal
             Electric dipole moments exist !?
                          they are III chapter 9 will give
                     Feynman lectureslisted in handbooksthe answer     |1

                                 Energy
more?
               J1=J2                                        p
                 p                |I
|1
                                   split  tunnel probability

                                                                       
                             0
                                                      Electric field
 |2

                 p                |II
                                                            -p
 The definite energy eigenstates |I / |II = 1 (|1  |2)
                                               2                       |2
                                   have no dipole moment
               Adding a fundamental dipole
                                                                 Diagonalizing
                              11  0  2222
                    p
                                                                        E0  A
                                                                        A E 
                                                                H ij          
 |1 d                         12    12                    0 
       J
                                                                New states I and II
                                p  |ez|   |ez|       EI,II =  
 |2                                                          I  1  1 1 1 
           d
                                    pI  I|ez|I  0         
                                                              II   
                                                                       1 1 2 
                                                                             
                    p                                             2       

        E0    A         New states L and S          S   cosα sin α  I 
H ij  
        A                                             L    sin α cosα  II 
                                                                          
               E0   
                            ES,L=   (2 +                             
                              2)                   pS = S|ez|S = p sin 2 = p /A
                              p2
   Enhancement factor pS /d       105
                              Aa3
                   Nearly degenerate states with opposite parity allow to observe TRV
                                                        and also parity non-conservation
EDM: What Object to Choose ?

                         205Tl:   d = -585 de


                           199Hg:

                           d  nuclatom

                    Ra: Ra/Hg=(10>1)(10>3)

                   Theoretical input needed
      Enhancements in Radium
                                    some Ra nuclei




Nuclei with J=1/2 available
Atomic enhancement more important
  EDM Now and in the Future
                                    NUPECC list




                                                  1.610-27
              •
 199Hg        •
                                     Radium potential

Start TRIP       de (SM) < 10-37
              TRV in -decay:
          Correlation measurement




• R and D test both Time Reversal Violation
• D  most potential
• R  scalar and tensor (EDM, a)
• technique D measurements gives a, A, b, B
                                       But first something simple…………
    Weak interaction made simple
       -decay : 0+ 0+ ( Fermi)

        neutrino                               electron = 
1


                                               neutrino
2
                                               electron

Superallowed Fermi decay pure Vector: case 2
        a little case 1: means Scaler component = BSM
      “The Nucleus as micro laboratory”
 Fermi transitions 0+ 0+

               +
  N        N‟       e,
               +
 Gamow-Teller 1+ 0+




Decay probability  (phase space) (nuclear structure) (weak interact)
The role of (optical) trapping
                    Optical trap sample
                    • isotope selective, spin manipulation
                    • point source, no substrate
                    • recoil (ion) mass spectrometry
                 From KVI atomic physics: He2+ + Na
                                                     S. Knoop




                                                1 a.u.=15 AeV
Ideal environment for precision experiments
          Correlation experiments
Setup at TRIUMF (Behr et al.) for 38mK (t1/2=0.93 s; 0+  0+)
           Typical measured spectrum (Behr)



1.5 s 6 AeV




    Current value aF=0.992(8)(5)     other attempts: aGT
    improved statistics ? (3)(3)    6He at LPC/GANIL

    current limitation:  response   with Paul trap
2nd example MOT for 21Na
(LBL, P.Vetter)
               Far-off-resonance trap
         I
U
      L  0
           I
s 
     ( L   0 ) 2
Intrinsic polarization


                                     +V
Behr et al.
37K (t =1.23 s; 3/2+ 3/2+, (5/2+))
      1/2
(SM: A structure dependent)
add recoil measurement: TRV (D)
                                      -V
                  The effect of the FSI
   (Theory group/masters thesis Marc van Veenhuizen)




    D=0 if all formfactors are real

                                          FSI and TRV
                                          can be disentangled
finite D due to
weak magnetism
 Status and Future of D coefficient
•D in neutron (-0.61.7)10-3
                                     Theory         D  Im (CVCA*)
•D in 19Ne < (48)10-4
                                     CKM             10-12
Weak magnetism
                                         :               :
•DWM (19Ne) = 2.610-4 pe/pmax
•With measurement of D(pe)           Susy           10-7-10-6
momentum dependence two              LR sym         10-5-10-4
orders of magnitude to be            exotic ferm.   10-5-10-4
gained.                              lepto quark    present limit
•D in  =0.110.10

• KVI goes for
• 21Na (3/2+3/2+ ; t1/2=22.5 s)     19Ne(1/2+1/2+ ; t1/2=17.3 s)
• 20Na(2+ 2+ + / ; t1/2 =0.5 s)   23Mg (3/2+3/2+ ; t =11.3 s)
                                                        1/2
( Rate of in-trap decays 105/s)
           TRIP - Trapped Radioactive Isotopes:
           -laboratories for fundamental Physics




  Facility to
    • produce         AGOR
    • select          Separator

                   
    • collect
    • hold              Traps
    • manipulate
            radioactive nuclei,
                     to study physics beyond the Standard Model

TRIP
                   The double mode separator
                                     Target


                                   chamber 2
                     DD      QD                  QD       DD

          QD                   Gas-filled                              QD
                             recoil mode
                           Fragmentation mode
                                                                       Target
  Gas cooler,                                                          chamber 1
        RFQ
     Low                                 Gas-filled recoil separator
                                         Fragmentation separator        AGOR
   energy                                                               beam
                Beam rigidity B                   3.6 Tm
    beam        Product rigidity B                3.0 Tm
                Angle, vert., horiz.              30 mrad
                Momentum Acceptance                 2.5%
                Resolving Power                     1000
                                          2000 (no gas filling)*
     Traps      Dispersion                        2.0
                                                  3.8 cm/%

                   * In the gas-filled mode the resolving power
                  21Na, 20Na, 19Ne scattering in the gas
                   is limited by multiple
TRIP              typical reaction: 206Pb + 12C at 8 MeV/nucleon
             Production and separation in recoil mode
    Fusion reactions (Fr, Ra), gas filling                  Simulation program, M. Paul et al.
   (Ar)                                                       NIM A277 (1989) 418 (Argonne)
         Inverse reaction kinematics
   + Residue collection, 100% efficiency
   + Selective (few other products)
   – Beam power limit (1kW)
   – Neutron deficient reactions
   – Fission competition
   – Separation beam and product
     Talk on Ra production by A.Rogachevskiy,
                              Session 3, 15:35h
   Production example for Gas-filled separator:
   calculations for
   208Pb + 12C  213Ra + 7n (typical)

   Product    Beam      Energy    Target   residue     Rate     Separation grows from
                       [MeV/u]             [mb]       [pps/kW]    = 1.9% to 10.8%
                                            50
    213       208                  12
        Ra      Pb      7.0±0.7     C                    107       in 5 Torr of Argon

                     Inverse reaction favored, gas filling essential

TRIP
    Production and separation in fragmentation mode
              recoil separator vs. fragment separator = 1 step vs. 2 step separation




                  Fragmentation isotope on p or d
                     (Semi) direct reactions
                   + “large”
                 production cross sections
                      well targets
                   + thickfocused large yields
                   – wide range of fragments
                   + close to projectile
                   – non selective, small yields
  Example: Production via fragmentation
  Example: Beam
   Product  Production via (semi)direct reaction (A/Z) selection/
                     Energy     Target    [mbarn]                                 (Z2)
   Product       Beam         Energy
                             [MeV/u]       Target      [mbarn] Rate [pps/kW]
                                                                    total rate  B [%]
                                                                                selection
                             [MeV/u]                               [pps/kW]     factor(*)
    32
    20            36
                  20                         12               -3        3 8 7
       Ar
       Na           Ar
                    Ne          40
                               10-20        p C          2·10
                                                           5         10 /10
                                                                       10        > <10
                                                                                    10%
    32
    21           36
                 20                          12               -3       4 9 7
       Ar
       Na           Ar
                    Ne          70
                               10-20        d C          2·10
                                                           50       10 10
                                                                        /4·10     >~10
                                                                                     7%
     36          40                        12                 -3        3   7
     36
       Si
  Criterion
       Si
              for40Ar
                  target
                    Ar
                    2
                                40
                           thickness:
                                70
                                         B=1%
                                           12
                                              C
                                              C
                                                         6·10
                                                     differential stopping in target,
                                                         6·10 -3
                                                                     10 /10
                                                                        4
                                                                     10 /10 7
                                                                                  ~100
                                                                                  >100
  e.g. 3.5 mg/cm (D2) degrader
  * 50% typical loss after
  2nd separation for proton rich isotopes is poor

TRIP
                    Summary and outlook
                                          Fundamental
                                            Interactions




                               -decay                       condensates
Nuclear structure                         Atomic moments                     Atomic structure
 - and -decay                            Electric dipole                      chemistry


                     Nuclear                                       Atomic
                     physics             Nuclear moments           physics


                                         very rare isotope
                                            detection



                                             Applied
                                             physics
                     TRIP Group at KVI
   Scientists:                Research technicians:   collaborations:
   G.P. Berg                  L. Huisman              NIPNET
   U. Dammalapati             H. Kiewiet
                                                      IonCatcher
   P.G. Dendooven             M. Stokroos
   O. Dermois
   M.N. Harakeh
   K. Jungmann                                        KVI atomic phyisics
   A. Rogachevskiy                                    R. Hoekstra
   M. Sanchez-Vega                                    R. Morgenstern
   R. Timmermans, (theory)                            S. Knoop
   E. Traykov                                         S. Hoekstra
   L. Willmann
   H.W. Wilschut
   you? (Graduate students)
   you? (Post docs)




TRIP
   Catching the fast ions (ouch!)

• new RIB facilities
  propose gascatchers
• He gas stops products
  as 1+ ions (ionization
  potential difference)
• Does it work?
• It works in Argonne
• more input needed
          Applied physics: AlCatraz
             KVI atomic physics project
•   The abundance of 41Ca
•   4 stages
•   laser focusing                 410-5
•   Zeeman slower
•   optical molasses
•   MOT (ready)
•   10 orders of
    magnitude to go
   Importance of atomic traps
We start with:
Hot soup of fast moving atoms with random orientation
and end with:
Precisely defined single species (with orientation)

•ultra selective              isotopic and isomeric
•collect in one cold point    reduce phase space
•hold slightly                shallow potential
•manipulate position          polarization
        and orientation
Precision allows one to obtain (New) Physics:
        weak charge, anapoles, electric dipole moments,
        beta decay correlations
 Atomic Traps for -decay studies

• Why is atomic trapping important
               in nuclear and particle physics
• -decay correlations
               kinematical correlations
               +polarization
• Approaches to correlation measurements
    o MOT
    o TOP
    o FORT
                                           H.W. Wilschut
   Importance of atomic traps
We start with:
Hot soup of fast moving atoms with random orientation
and end with:
Precisely defined single species (with orientation)

•ultra selective              isotopic and isomeric
•collect in one cold point    reduce phase space
•hold slightly                shallow potential
•manipulate position          polarization
        and orientation
Precision allows one to obtain (New) Physics:
        weak charge, anapoles, electric dipole moments,
        beta decay correlations
    Weak interaction made simple
       -decay : 0+ 0+ ( Fermi)

        neutrino                               electron = 
1


                                               neutrino
2
                                               electron

Superallowed Fermi decay pure Vector: case 2
        a little case 1: means Scaler component = BSM
      “The Nucleus as micro laboratory”
 Fermi transitions 0+ 0+

               +
  N        N‟       e,
               +
 Gamow-Teller 1+ 0+




                                     E E

Decay probability  (phase space) (nuclear structure) (weak interact)
The role of (optical) trapping
                    Optical trap sample
                    • isotope selective
                    • point source, no substrate
                    • recoil (ion) mass spectrometry
                 From KVI atomic physics: He2+ + Na
                                                       S. Knoop




                                               1 a.u.=15 AeV
Ideal environment for precision experiments
              1 st   example MOT for K
   Setup at TRIUMF (Behr et al.) for 38mK (t1/2=0.93 s; 0+  0+)




Current value aF=0.992(8)(5)
improved statistics ? (3)(3)
current limitation:  response
           Typical measured spectrum (Behr)



1.5 s 6 AeV




    Current value aF=0.992(8)(5)     other attempts: aGT
    improved statistics ? (3)(3)    6He at LPC/GANIL

    current limitation:  response   with Paul trap
              Spin degrees of freedom
              Correlation measurement




• R and D test both Time Reversal Violation
• D  vector and axial vector most potential
• R  scalar and tensor (EDM, a)
   •see P. Herczeg Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics 46(2001)412
• technique D measurements gives a, A, b, B


                             How to add polarization ?
                       example TOP
                    spin degrees of freedom

Time orbiting potential
      
<J> vs 
measures A
“Wu experiment”

Vieira et al. (LANL)
82Rb (t =75 s; 1+ 0+, (2+) )
       1/2




   Appears to have been abandoned  FORT
       The physics aims of measuring Parity Non-
         Conserving (PNC) transitions in atom
PNC in atom indicates
1) weak interaction of electron with nucleus
                              measures nuclear weak charge
2) electromagnetic interaction PNC moment of nucleus
                              measures nuclear anapole moment
                                                               
                                           a                    a
                                           J




                                                                J
  QW and a have been measured for Cs
       Time Reversal Violation (TRV) in atoms
              (electric dipole moment)
                                       J
Dipole moment is both
TRV and PNC
                                       d



To see PNC or TRV need
atomic enhancement:
Near degenerate states with
opposite parity.
                                           time      time
Trapping facilitates the study of transitions in atoms with a
(radioactive) nucleus, chosen for its suitability (high Z, hyperfine
structure, anapole moment, e.g Cs and Fr).
 Structure of the weak interaction
Of all possible interactions only few are allowed

characterization by the Dirac matrices involved


1                S       Scalar              Structure is V - A=
                                             left handed interaction
5               P       Pseudo Scalar

               V       Vector (GV)         “beyond” =
                                             right handedness
 5            A       Axial Vector (GA)   new bosons
                                             more Higgs‟s or…..
        T       Tensor
                                                       =
                                             S, P or T
                   The double mode separator
                                      Target


                                    chamber 2
                     DD      QD                    QD       DD

          QD                   Gas-filled                               QD
                             recoil mode
                           Fragmentation mode
                                                                        Target
  Gas cooler,                                                           chamber 1
        RFQ
     Low                                  Gas-filled recoil separator
                                          Fragmentation separator        AGOR
   energy                                                                beam
                Beam rigidity B                    3.6 Tm
    beam        Product rigidity B                 3.0 Tm
                Angle, vert., horiz.               30 mrad
                Momentum Acceptance                  2.5%
                Resolving Power                      1000
                                           2000 (no gas filling)*
     Traps      Dispersion                         2.0
                                                   3.8 cm/%

                    * In the gas-filled mode the resolving power
                    is limited by multiple scattering in the gas
TRIP

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:15
posted:10/24/2011
language:English
pages:42