Day Two

A number of documents from the SAPERE Level One Training Handbook have
been included in this pack with permission from SAPERE. The copyright for
these documents remains with SAPERE


                 Day Two

9.00    Welcome to Day 2

9.05    ‗Reporting in‘
         Making links from Day One
         Stimulus Material

9.40    Facilitation

10.10   Assessing and Evaluating

10.40   BREAK

11.00   Developing questions/philosophical questions

11.30   Preparing Enquiry Three

12.00   Enquiry Three

12.30   LUNCH

1.15    Debrief Enquiry Three

1.45    Developing Thinking

2.15    Involving Parents

2.45    Resources/SAPERE

2.55    Additional Items

3.10    Next Steps : Using P4C in your setting

3.40    Last Words and Evaluation

4.00    Close


1 Socrates

In the Theaetetus, Plato has Socrates describe his art to a young student named

And like the mid-wives, I am barren, and the reproach which is often made
against me, that I ask questions of others and have not the wit to answer them
myself, is very just-the reason is, that the gods compel me to be a midwife, but
do not allow me to bring forth. And therefore I am not myself at all wise, nor
have I anything to show which is the invention or birth of my own soul, but
those who converse with me profit.

Some of them appear dull enough at first, but afterwards, as our acquaintance
ripens, if the god is gracious to them, they all make astonishing progress; and
this in the opinion of others as well as in their own. It is quite clear that they
never learned anything from me; the many fine discoveries to which they cling
are of their own making.

2 Galileo

‗You cannot teach others anything, you can only help them find it within
                            - Galileo (Italian astronomer and mathematician 1564 – 1642)


The title ‗facilitator‘ is used to try to differentiate the role from the traditional
one of the teacher as the fount of knowledge. Although it will always be some
part of a teacher‘s role to impart knowledge, it will increasingly be their
responsibility to assist others in processing the information they receive. The
role of ‗facilitator‘ has the literal sense of easing others into appropriate
practices such as questioning, reasoning, evaluating and generating alternative

A prime step in this is to cultivate the social and emotional security that will
enable members of the group to contribute their best to the enquiry. This almost
always involves giving primacy to others, their ideas and their feelings. In that
sense, the role is similar to that of a chair or referee who is charged with seeing
‗fair play‘.

There is also the responsibility though, especially with children, to guide the
group towards better ways of thinking together. This may involve such
interventions as calling for clarification of examples, or for reasons or
conclusions etc. It may also, occasionally involve putting a question to the
group that is designed to deepen or widen their thinking. It does not, however,
give a facilitator license to push the enquiry into a particular direction just
because it suits their own particular interest. It is the interests of the community
that counts, though there is often a difficult balance to be achieved here in
managing that with the needs of the particular group with those of the context
and the curriculum.

Sometimes a problem arises in the discussion and here it is important to ask the
group how best to overcome that problem, thus gradually moving them to self

                            Key Points of Facilitation

A story can be interrogated in different ways. eg through questions that focus
attention on:
 Thinking about the story; exploring, understanding; critical and creative
    thinking around the story.
 Thinking about a key theme or issue of the story; exploring, understanding,
    and critical and creative thinking around a concept.

Thinking includes a number of important elements that a leader can model and
encourage to provide forward movement in a discussion. The leader is there to
provide positive cognitive interventions that help take the discussion forward.
During the discussion the leader needs to be aware of opportunities to focus
attention on the key elements of thinking. These include …

Questioning: asking good questions to provide a focus for the enquiry.
Reasoning: requesting reasons or evidence to support arguments and
Defining: clarifying concepts through making connections, distinctions, and
Speculating: generating ideas and alternative viewpoints through imaginative
Testing for truth: gathering information, evaluating evidence, examples and
counter examples
Expanding ideas: sustaining and extending lines of thought and argument.
Summarizing: abstracting key points or general rules from a number of ideas or

Strategies to extend and develop student thinking include:

 Thinking time - encourage pauses for thought or some moments of quiet
  meditation on a topic. Remember to provide at least 3 seconds thinking time
  after you have asked a question and 3 seconds thinking time after a child
  gives an answer
 Think – pair/share/allow individual thinking time about a question, invite
  discussion of the question with a partner, then open up for class discussion
 Ask follow-ups - ask children to extend or qualify what they said by asking
  questions that challenge their thinking such as ‘Why?‘ ‗Do you agree or
  disagree?‘ ‗Can you say more?‘
  ‗Can you give an example?‘ ‗Describe how you arrived at that answer‘.
  (See Questioning Techniques)

 Withhold judgement … respond to student answers in a non-evaluative way
  eg a positive but neutral response such as ‗Thank you‘, ‗Ok‘, ‗That‘s
  interesting‘, ‗A-ha‘, ‗I see‘.

 Invite the whole group to respond –encourage a response from the whole
  group by saying things such as; ‗How many people agree/disagree with that
  point of view?‘

   (Hands/thumbs up, down or to side). You can also ask questions such as
   ‗Having heard that what questions might we ask?‘

 Ask for a summary - promote active listening by asking for a summary of
  what has been said eg ‗Could you summarize Kim‘s point?‘, ‗Can you
  explain what Jane has just said?‘, ‗Can you tell me the arguments so far?‘
 Play devil‘s advocate—challenge students to give reasons for their views by
  presenting opposing points of view, or by asking students to be devil‘s
  advocates, ‗Who can think of a different point of view/an argument against

 Invite a range of responses - model open mindedness by inviting student to
  consider different viewpoints: ‗There is no single correct answer to this
  question. I want you to consider alternatives‘.

 Encourage student questioning—invite students to ask their own questions
  before/during and/or after discussion. ‘Has anyone a question about what has
  been said?‘ etc
                         (See Fisher R ―Teaching Thinking‖ Cassell 1998)

Troubleshooting Advice for Successful Facilitation

 Are the concepts involved problematical?
  Are the pupils finding them relevant or meaningful? If not you could suggest
  dilemmas, challenge concepts and identify any inconsistencies.

 Are too many facts being stated or too many authorities being referred

   Try to encourage the pupils to question all statements of fact, or you pose
   questions or counter arguments for these yourself to model this.

 Are the pupils listening to each other to enable them to build upon and
  question each others‟ ideas?

   Introduce the language of connections and building upon them and reinforce
   this by saying ‗How does that connect/link to what X has said?‘. Model
   questioning and build questioning games into the thinking circle. You can

   tell them that you have been talking too much and are now going to opt out
   so they need to question each other. You could have a pupil in place as a
   ‗recorder‘ to record questions asked in the session.

 Are too many ideas being introduced that the focus of the discussion is
  becoming lost?

   Track the discussion with key points on the board, possibly asking a pupil to
   do this.
   Keep referring pupils to the original question e.g. How does that point help
   us to understand the question?

 Are the pupils making sure that they understand the points that others
  are making?

   Ask others in group to explain what someone else may mean by what they
   have said. Try and encourage them to retain eye contact with the person
   speaking. Ask for connections or other examples of what has been said.
   Possibly introduce the use of cards (An arrow, and a question mark), when a
   pupil holds up an arrow the facilitator knows who intends to continue the
   last point. A question mark would indicate that they want to ask the last
   person a question.

 Are you contributing too much? Are the pupils talking to you rather
  than to each other?

   This may be likely to happen at the beginning but try to decrease the amount
   you contribute to the discussion and make them more responsible for it. Flip
   any questions back to the group to answer. Don‘t act as an authority. Move
   your place in the circle each time. Stay silent so they have to speak—but
   associate silence with thinking time.
   Use friendship groups during the discussion for short clarification tasks. As
   a facilitator try to encourage pupils to develop eye contact with each other
   rather than with you. (A useful exercise here is for everyone to stand up and
   make eye contact with someone opposite in the circle. The challenge is to
   both sit down at the same time by agreeing, with eye contact signals only).

 Are rules clearly established or are the pupils being disrespectful or
  fearful of contributing?

   Discuss ‗what makes a good discussion‘ (a meta-discussion). Re-establish
   rules positively by emphasising and praising those who are following them

 Do certain pupils fidget a great deal?

   Sit in a circle, making sure all pupils can see and be seen by each other.
   Make sure the room is suitable (large enough, comfortable etc). Break into
   groups more frequently.

 Too many anecdotes or personal stories that can go off on their own

   Don‘t let these escalate. Have a few then make comparisons, contrasts,
   analyse motives, responses, reactions, consequences within the stories. Ask
   for generalisations ‗Does that always happen?‘ ‗Would that always be the

 Is the group/class too large and not all can or will contribute?

   Split them into groups: pairs, threes, fours can help in many ways, not least
   because it means the pupils can move about and form a constructive break.
   Use a method such as ‗thumbs up‘ if you want to speak and encourage
   pupils to give others a chance to contribute if they see their thumb up. One
   possibility is to give everyone three cards.
   Each contribution ―costs‖ one card.

   Remember that it is the quality of thought that is important and it is as
   equally valuable to be listening as it is speaking.

Facilitating Group Discussion

Whole group discussion is a common feature of work in the classroom on
Citizenship. It is important, for this to be productive, for it to be well
managed by the teacher. The role of the teacher is to facilitate the
discussion and to maximise the participation of pupils.

There are a number of key elements in carrying out this role which include:

      ensuring all pupils participate and the discussion is not dominated by a
       vocal minority;
      showing that contributions are valued;
      confirming what has been said and seeking further clarification;
      ensuring that a variety of viewpoints/experiences are expressed and
      summarising what has been said and drawing out key messages from the
Examples of phrases, prompts, questions which can be used to ―oil the wheels‖
of the discussion are given below:

Affirming contributions

That‘s a really good/interesting point/idea
That‘s a very helpful suggestion
Thank you. I think it‘s really important to understand ........
You‘ve expressed that idea really well
You‘ve put that really well
You‘ve made your point very well

Affirming and

That‟s very interesting ....
That‘s an interesting idea/thought ........
I (think I) understand what you‘re saying ........
I think I‘ve got your idea ........
I am very interested in what you‘re saying .........

Inviting further explanation

Could you add to that?
Could you say a little bit more?
Could you expand on that?
Could you explain that idea a little more?
Can you take that a bit further?
Can you build on that?
Go on ...........
Say a little more
Add to that
Give me an example of what you mean
      I don‘t want to put pressure/the spotlight on you but ...........
      I don‘t want to pick on you but ...........

Confirming/Checking Out

You‟re saying that ..........
You feel that ...........
You‘re point is ........
So, what I understand you to be saying is ..............
Can I just check that I‘ve followed this ............
If I understand you correctly ............
Am I right in thinking ........


       So, what we‘ve said so far is ............
       It seems that most people feel .............
       Some people feel ........... while others feel .........

Drawing in other contributions: Inviting Argument

Would anyone else like to add to that?
Would anyone like to support that view?
Who agrees with that? Can you say why?
What do others think?

Drawing in other Contributions: Exploring Different Viewpoints

Does everyone agree with that idea? Can you say why not?

Does anyone have a different viewpoint/idea/experience?
Is there any other way of thinking about this?
Would anyone like to put an opposing view/a counter argument?

Probing reasons and evidence

Why do you think that .........?
How do we know that ........?
What are your reasons ........?
Do you have any evidence ..........?
Can you give me an example/counter example?

Drawing things together

What are the implications of this?
What follows from what we have been saying?
What have we learnt from this?
What can we summarise from this?
How does this connect with what we said earlier?

NB Seating arrangements have an important part to play in encouraging open
discussion and maximising contributions. Wherever possible, pupils should sit
in a circle (or similar configuration) so that everyone has eye contact with one


What do we want to evaluate?

There are many aspects and aims to P4C; a few are mentioned below (do add to
them!). Therefore it may be worth selecting a few specific areas for evaluation
before an enquiry. Furthermore these areas could be shared with participants
explicitly (e.g ‗We might keep in mind how we are co-operating with each
other in particular today, and watch for people who want to contribute but
aren‘t getting the chance…‘)

Evaluating ..

1. Both content and process of an enquiry
2. The community and the individual
3. Thinking skills: Creative, critical, logical, relevant, independent, clearly
   expressed thinking (+ others?)
4. Attitudes: Caring, empathetic, co-operative, reasonable, confident, attentive
   dispositions (+ others?)

These four areas might be evaluated by ..

a.   Self evaluation by participants (written, reported, drawn?)
b.   Self evaluation by facilitator
c.   Evaluation of participants by facilitator
d.   Evaluation of facilitator by participants

Using ..

1.   Written / drawn / ‗diary‘ feedback
2.   Video – reflections / transcription / analysis
3.   Discussion in groups / community
4.   Long and short term evaluation
5.   Inviting external views (moderating written work?)
6.   Creative tasks (video / poster about P4C?)

                    EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT – 12 IDEAS
1. Use ‗roles‘ in the community of enquiry. Ask one or two volunteers to keep a
   check on chosen areas for assessment (e.g listening, reasoning, fairness etc). Ask
   them to give feedback and suggestions during or after the enquiry
2. Mystic Marge Saw It All. Mystic Marge has been floating above the community
   during the enquiry. What advice would she give the community for improving the
   next enquiry?

3. Use cartoons with speech bubbles for participants to fill out; one might reflect on
   the content of the enquiry (the question topic), and another on the process (the
   enquiry itself)

4. Long and short term assessment. Invite the Head or a colleague in to observe the
   class, and then again weeks or months later. What changes did they observe?
   (Give them a score sheet?)

5. Pick three participants to focus on in particular (one quiet, one average, one
   noisy?) and chart their progress

6. Where possible, involve the participants in finding solutions to difficulties in the
   enquiry. For example, what do they think would improve listening to each other?

7. Target just a few things to assess in each enquiry (there's so much going on!), and
   consider sharing them with the community before you start. Perhaps one skill, and
   one content aim?

8. Have a "Community Evolution" time chart on the wall; a displayed record of how
   well they think they are advancing as a community with good skills, atmosphere,
   enquiry discoveries & questions they chose

9. Use video, transcripts, audio tapes to record part of an enquiry process. You might
   ask participants to evaluate specific things on them. (Transcripts take time but are
   very revealing!)

10. Ask participants to keep a Thought Diary (not to be marked with grades) that they
    could jot their ideas in. (Useful long term evaluation).

11. Check whether there has been a change in pupil's writing abilities in your or
    colleagues' subjects (better? longer? more reasons given?)

12. Celebrate the good stuff! Ask participants to stand next to or point at someone
    who really listened well / gave good reasons / etc. in the enquiry. Or use
    certificates to recognise good P4C skills.

Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the
classroom, Network Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.

Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the classroom, Network
Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.

      Philosophy For Children
                                                 Working Together : How well am I doing?

      Name ________________________________________________

Give yourself a score of 1  5 – 1 is the highest!              19/2    26/2     5/3       12/3   19/3   20/3   Final

Share your ideas and join in

Give a reason for what you say

Don‘t be afraid to change your mind

Listen to each other

Try to understand other people‘s point of view

Respect other people‘s ideas

Work together

Persevere – don‘t give up

When I Speak …

 I make sure people are ready to listen

 I look at the people I am talking to

 I speak clearly so that everyone can hear

 I let others have a turn and join in

                         When I listen…

 I sit quietly and look at the person who is talking

 I listen carefully to make sure that I understand

 I wait until the other person has finished before I speak

 I ask a question if I don‘t understand
From ‗Talking Partners


In philosophy we ….

I have enjoyed ….

Philosophy would be even better if...
I have got better at…

        Things about Philosophy I would like to share with people I know…

                            (TICK ONE FACE)

Name of school and class___________________________________

                                      P4C Enquiry Planning and Review

Group: ________________ Stimulus: __________________________ Date: ________________
                       Planning                                         Review
     Lesson Objective: Skills Focus

 1   Preparation:

 2   Presentation (the stimulus):

 3   Thinking time (private reflection):

 4   Conversation (shared reflection):

5-6   Formulation and airing the questions:

  7   Selection (voting):

  8   First words

  9   Building

 10   Last words

 11   What went well/even better if (www.ebi)

                              Questions, Questions, Questions

                                     Teacher Questioning

A        The average teacher asks c. 400 questions a day, allowing less than a second for an
         answer, before throwing the next question to someone else, or answering it

B        The optimum ‗wait time‘ for answers to ‗lower order‘ – recall – questions is
         around 3 seconds)

         Studies in 1912, 1935 and 1970 all showed at least 60% of teacher questions were
         ‗lower order‘.

             (At least 30% of teacher questions are reckoned to be ‗procedural‘)

C        A 1989 Lincoln University study found only 4% of secondary teacher questions
         were ‗higher order‘

         (Ted Wragg‘s more extensive research in primary schools came up with a figure of

D        A review of 37 projects in 1988 suggested that increasing the proportion of higher-
         order questions to 50% brought significant improvement in student attitude and

                                                  Source: Steven Hastings TES 04/07/2003

                              Open and Shut (up?) Questions

Which of these questions are open?
    1.   What country is north of England?
    2.   What is a nation?
    3.   Do you know what a horse is?
    4.   Does a horse know it‘s a horse
    5.   What‘s your story then?
    6.   What story are you reading?
    7.   Is the Mona Lisa the greatest portrait ever?
    8.   Should the coalition forces have invaded Iraq?

                                         THE QUESTION

        Is the season summer or winter?                     Where are Pooh and Piglet
        Who is dressed more warmly,
        Pooh or Piglet?                                     Why isn‘t Pooh dressed more

                COMPREHENSION                                        SPECULATION
 CLOSED                                                                                        OPEN
QUESTIONS                                                                                    QUESTIONS
                 KNOWLEDGE                                           INQUIRY

      Who wrote the stories about Pooh                    Is it important to have lifelong
      and Piglet?                                         friendships?

      What are the names of other                         Can something last even longer
      characters in those stories?                        than forever?


    Philip Cam, Twenty Thinking Tools
    (Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research, 2006)


               ―Look and see‖                                   ―Use your imagination‖
                 questions                                            questions

                                                                                     There may be
There is one                                                                             many
right answer                                                                          possibilities

            ―Ask an expert‖                                          Questions for
              questions                                                thinking

    Philip Cam, Twenty Thinking Tools
    (Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research, 2006)

Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the
classroom, Network Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.

The framework comprises six groups of skills that, together with the functional skills of
English, mathematics and ICT, are essential to success in learning, life and work. In
essence the framework captures the essential skills of: managing self; managing
relationships with others; and managing own learning, performance and work. It is these
skills that will enable young people to enter work and adult life confident and capable.

The titles of the six groups of skills are set out below.

           Team workers                                       Self-managers

           Reflective learners                              Creative thinkers

                                 Effective participators

For each group there is a focus statement that sums up the range of skills. This is
followed by a set of outcome statements that are indicative of the skills, behaviours and
personal qualities associated with each group.

Each group is distinctive and coherent. The groups are also inter-connected. Young
people are likely to encounter skills from several groups in any one learning experience.
For example an Independent enquirer would set goals for their research with clear
success criteria (Reflective learner) and organise and manage their time and resources
effectively to achieve these (Self-manager). In order to acquire and develop fundamental
concepts such as organizing oneself, managing change, taking responsibility and
perseverance, learners will need to apply skills from all six groups in a wide range of
learning contexts 11-19.

The Skills
                                    Independent enquirers
Young people process and evaluate information in their investigations, planning what to do
and how to go about it. They take informed and well-reasoned decisions, recognising that
others have different beliefs and attitudes.

Young people:
 identify questions to answer and problems to resolve
 plan and carry out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions
 explore issues, events or problems from different perspectives
 analyse and evaluate information, judging its relevance and value
 consider the influence of circumstances, beliefs and feelings on decisions and events
 support conclusions, using reasoned arguments and evidence

                                     Creative Thinkers
Young people think creatively by generating and exploring ideas, making original
connections. They try different ways to tackle a problem, working with others to find
imaginative solutions and outcomes that are of value.

Young people:
 generate ideas and explore possibilities
 ask questions to extend their thinking
 connect their own and others‘ ideas and experiences in inventive ways
 question their own and others‘ assumptions
 try out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through
 adapt ideas as circumstances change

                                     Reflective learners
Young people evaluate their strengths and limitations, setting themselves realistic goals with
criteria for success. They monitor their own performance and progress, inviting feedback
from others and making changes to further their learning.

Young people:
 assess themselves and others, identifying opportunities and achievements
 set goals with success criteria for their development and work
 review progress, acting on the outcomes
 invite feedback and deal positively with praise, setbacks and criticism
 evaluate experiences and learning to inform future progress
 communicate their learning in relevant ways for different audiences

                                         Team workers
Young people work confidently with others, adapting to different contexts and taking
responsibility for their own part. They listen to and take account of different views. They
form collaborative relationships, resolving issues to reach agreed outcomes.

Young people:
 collaborate with others to work towards common goals
 reach agreements, managing discussions to achieve results
 adapt behaviour to suit different roles and situations
 show fairness and consideration to others
 take responsibility, showing confidence in themselves and their contribution
 provide constructive support and feedback to others

Young people organise themselves, showing personal responsibility, initiative, creativity and
enterprise with a commitment to learning and self- improvement. They actively embrace
change, responding positively to new priorities, coping with challenges and looking for

Young people:
 seek out challenges or new responsibilities and show flexibility when priorities change
 work towards goals, showing initiative, commitment and perseverance
 organise time and resources, prioritising actions
 anticipate, take and manage risks
 deal with competing pressures, including personal and work-related demands
 respond positively to change, seeking advice and support when needed

                                   Effective participators
Young people actively engage with issues that affect them and those around them. They play
a full part in the life of their school, college, workplace or wider community by taking
responsible action to bring improvements for others as well as themselves.

Young people:
 discuss issues of concern, seeking resolution where needed
 present a persuasive case for action
 propose practical ways forward, breaking these down into manageable steps
 identify improvements that would benefit others as well as themselves
 try to influence others, negotiating and balancing diverse views to reach workable solutions
 act as an advocate for views and beliefs that may differ from their own


Some differences are unfair while others are not. Are the following examples of
differences that are unfair? If so, why is that?

                                                    FAIR          UNFAIR?

1. Since Sally‘s brother is older than she is,
   he is allowed to stay up later than her. Is
   that unfair?

2. John is a much better runner than his
   classmates and always wins at races.
   Is that unfair?

3. If some people have lots of friends while
   other people have few friends, is that

4. If some people have swimming pools
   at home and other people do not, is
   that unfair?

5. If a few countries are wealthy while
   many are poor, is that unfair?

6. In some societies women are required to
   wear veils over their faces. Is that unfair?


                          Exercise: “The Same but Different”

Can you state some respect in which the following pairs are the same and some
other respect in which they are different? For example, a brother and his sister
might be said to have the same parents, but to be of the opposite sex.

    1. A mother and father                     8. An entrance and an exit
    2. Slippers and shoes                       9. A rifle and a cannon
    3. A lake and an ocean                     10. A fort and a prison
    4. Pushing and pulling                     11. A door and a gate
    5. A hill and a mountain                   12. A nail and a screw
    6. A pebble and a boulder                  13. A planet and a moon
    7. A tunnel and a cave                     14. A reason and an excuse

      Philip Cam, Twenty Thinking Tools
      (Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research, 2006

                                 „TOWER OF HANOI‟ TEACHING NOTES

   1. Ensure that before the session, a copy is made of the game – on card if possible.

   2. Practice the focusing exercise.

   3. Working in pairs, the task is to cut out pieces 1 to 5 from the first sheet. These are then placed in
      order of size (largest on the bottom) on point ‗A‘ on sheet two. Initially, children should only
      use two or three pieces and put the others to one side.

   4. The object of the game is to move the pieces from point ‗A‘ to point ‗B‘ or point ‗C‘. That is, to
      move the pile, in the same order, to another point

       Rules: Only one piece can be moved at a time.
              A smaller piece cannot be placed on a larger piece
              Each piece may sit at ‗A‘, ‗B‘, or ‗C‘ during the process.

   5. Once each child has tried it with two pieces, they should describe to their partner what strategy
      (strategies) they used. If a child or pair cannot do even two pieces, the teacher should help them
      get started by suggesting a starting strategy.

   6. The pupils then move to trying to use three, four then five pieces. They may well not get to five,
      or even four, but they should try it. It is important that at each stage the children should tell their
      partner what they are doing. Each pair can try to work out a successful strategy between them.
      If stuck, pupils should revert to the last successful effort (perhaps with three pieces) then try to
      see how that might be taken to the next level.

   7. Finish the session by having a report back on the difficulties encountered, and the strategies used
      to try to overcome them.

From ―Thinking Through Philosophy‖ by Paul Cleghorn,
2004 Educational Printing Services Limited



    Cut out these shapes




Would you rather be chosen to:                     Would you rather live with:
a) go into space                                   a) the big bad wolf?
b) captain the national football team?             b) Goldilocks
c) have your own TV show?                          c) Peter Pan
d) be the winner of Pop Idol?                      d) the seven dwarfs?

                                                   Would you rather live without:
Would you rather be lost:
                                                   a) Your hands?
a) at sea ?
                                                   b) Your feet?
b) in space?
                                                   c) Your eyes?
c) on a desert island?
                                                   d) Your ears?
d) in a crowded city?

                                                   If there was only one rule in the world, would
Would you rather win:                              you rather it was:
a) a million pounds?                               a) everybody must only ever wear school
b) eternal youth?                                       uniform?
c) happiness for the rest of your life?            b) everybody must smile at all times?
d) free sweets every day of your life?             c) nobody is allowed to spend any money?
                                                   d) nobody is allowed to tell any kind of lie?

Would you rather have:                             Would you rather people were not allowed to be:
a) a long lonely life?                             a) angry?
b) a short, happy life?                            b) sad?
c) a short life with endless money?                c) scared?
d) a long life with no money?                      d) silly?

Would you rather meet:                             Would you rather look like:
a) God?                                            a) a kitten?
b) your great, great, great, great grandparents?   b) a monkey?
c) the cleverest person in the world?              c) a frog?
d) your favourite football player?                 d) a tiger?

                                                   Would you rather live:
Would you rather find:                             a) on the moon?
a) a living dinosaur?                              b) under the sea
b) a real fairy?                                   c) in a jungle?
c) a purse that never empties?                     d) underground?
d) a doorway into as different world
                                                   Would you rather be:
Would you rather be born again as:                 a) as small as an ant?
a) a bird?                                         b) as big as a giant?
b) a tortoise?                                     c) as beautiful as a princess?
c) a fish?                                         d) as scary as a monster?
d) a lion?

Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the
classroom, Network Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.   37
Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the
classroom, Network Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.

             I don’t think animals feel sorry
                                                         Mum thinks.. I don’t think an
             because they don’t talk. But
             they sometimes feel sad because             animal would be sorry as they
                                                         don’t learn what the word sorry
             they get hurt when they fight.
                                                         means like we humans do. I do
             Sometimes they feel lonely as
             they don’t always have others to            think though that every living
                                                         thing has emotions. They must
             play with
                                                         feel sad sometimes and anger
                                                         when things don’t go right for
                                                         them (e.g when they can’t get the
                                                         food they work hard to get). They
                                                         feel pain when they are hurt or ill
                                                         or when humans hurt them. Some
                                                         animals which are hunted must
                                                         hate humans but probably not in
                                                         the way we hate. It is probably
                                                         more a scared hate.

Taken from Sara Stanley with Steve Bowkett, But Why?: Developing philosophical thinking in the
classroom, Network Educational Press, 2004, p.140.
This page has been included in the pack by kind permission of Continuum International Publishing Group.

Please note: A few of the books cited below are currently out of print. Happily, most out of print books can be
purchased through

           Author                           Title                            Theme                       ISBN
Alborough, Jez                   Some Dogs Do                 Self-belief/aiming high                0-7445-8339-X
Allen, Pamela                    Mr Archimedes‘ Bath          Displacement of water                  0-14-050162-2
Baker, Jeannie                   Home in the Sky              Home/security                          0-7445-7585-0
Browne, Anthony                  Changes                      Arrival of a new sibling               0-7445-5428-4
Browne, Anthony                  Gorilla                      Busy parents/unexpected friend         0-7445-9997-0
Browne, Anthony                  The Shape Game               Art                                    0-552-54696-8
Browne, Anthony                  The Tunnel                   Support/risk                           0-7445-5239-7
Browne, Anthony                  Zoo                          Man/animal relationship                0-09-921901-8
Browne, Anthony                  Voices in the Park           Seeing the same event differently      0-552-54564-3
Burningham, John                 Whadayamean                  Children‘s power/environment           0-09-926668-7
Burningham, John                 Would you rather …           Choices                                0-09-920041-4
Bush, John & Paul, Korky         The Fish Who Could Wish      Greed/wisdom                           0-19-272240-9
Causley, Charles & Firth,        ‗Quack!‘ Said the Billy-     Language/subverting expectations       0-7445-0479-1
Barbara                          Goat
Cave, Kathryn & Riddell,         Something Else               Identity//friendship                   0-14-054907-2
Cole, Babette                    Mummy Never Told Me          Awkward Qs                             0-224-04736-1
Deacon, Alexis                   Slow Loris                   Hidden depths/secret life              0-09-941426-0
Donaldson, Julia & Scheffler,    The Gruffalo                 Mind over matter                       0-333-71093-2
Fajerman, Deborah                How to Speak Moo!            Language                               0-09-941793-6
Foreman, Michael                 Land of Dreams               Finding one‘s dream                    0-86264-022-9
Foreman, Michael                 War & Peas                   War and peace                          1-84270-083-9
Gerstein, Mordicai               The Mountains of Tibet       Life and death                         1-898000-54-9
Graham, Bob                      Rose Meets Mr                Challenging perceptions                0-7445-9829-X
Gray, Nigel & Foreman,           I‘ll Take You to Mrs Cole!   Challenging perceptions                0-86264-407-0
Heide, Florence Parry,           The House of Wisdom          Wisdom/ideas/the power of words        0-7513-7217-X
Gilliland, Judith Heide &
Grandpre, Mary
Heine, Helme                     The Most Wonderful Egg in    Beauty/perfection                      0-689-71117-4
                                 the World
Hutchins, Pat                    The Very Worst Monster       Being ignored in the family            0-370-30869-7
Hutchins, Pat                    Tom and Sam                  Envy/rivalry                           0-370-01509-6
Hutchins, Pat                    Clocks and More Clocks       Nature of time                         0-370-01540-1
Joosse, Barbara & Lavallee,      Mama, Do You Love Me?        Independence/unconditional love        0-87701-759-X
Kroll, Jeri & James, Ann         A Coat of Cats               Treatment of the elderly/death         1-899248-63-3
Lupton, Hugh & Sharkey,          Tales of Wisdom & Wonder     Wisdom/wonder (multicultural)          1-84148-191-2
Marsden, John & Tan, Shaun       The Rabbits                  Historical ‗voice‘/immigration         0-7344-0221-X
McKee, David                     Not Now, Bernard             Being noticed                          0-09-924050-5
McNaughton, Colin &              Once Upon an Ordinary        Imagination/thinking the               1-84270-309-9
Kitamura, Satoshi                School Day                   impossible
Oram, Hiawyn & Kitamura,         In the Attic                 Perception/possibilities/imagination   1-84270-358-7

Perry, Sarah                   If …                           Imagination/possibilities             0-89236-321-5
Phillips, Christopher          The Philosophers‘ Club         Thinking ‗big‘                        1-58246-039-6
Radunsky, Vladimir             Manneken Pis – A Simple        War                                   0-7445-9683-1
                               Story of a Boy Who Peed on a
Sendak, Maurice                Where the Wild Things Are      Wild/tame                             0-09-940839-2
Seuss, Dr                      Horton Hatches the Egg         Faithfulness/ownership                0-00-195740-6
Seuss, Dr                      Oh, the Places You‘ll Go!      Life‘s journey/possibilities          0-00-715852-1
Sheldon, Dyan & Blythe, Gary   The Garden                     Links with the past/stewardship       0-09-176141-7
Shilson-Thomas, Annabel &      Stories From World             Meaning/origins (multicultural)       0-14-055477-7
Smith, Barry                   Religions
Silverstein, Shel              The Giving Tree                Giving/love                           0-06-058675-3
Stimson, Joan & Rutherford,    Oscar Needs a Friend           Friendship                            0-590-11326-7
Tan, Shaun                     The Red Tree                   Hope/coping with adversities          0-7344-0539-1
Tan, Shaun                     The Lost Thing                 Belonging/fitting in                  0-7344-0388-7
Thompson, Colin                The Tower to the Sun           The environment/stewardship           0-09-960911-8
Thompson, Colin                Falling Angels                 Dreams/possibilities/death            0-09-176817-9
Thompson, Colin                How to Live Forever            Wisdom/search for meaning             0-09-946181-1
Trivizas, Eugene & Oxenbury,   The Three Little Wolves        Subverting conventions                0-7497-2505-2
Helen                          and the Big Bad Pig
Ungerer, Tomi                  Moon Man                       Difference/‘strangers‘                1-57098-207-4
Ungerer, Tomi                  The Three Robbers              Atonement/rehabilitation              1-57098-206-6
Van Allsburg, Chris            The Mysteries of Harris        Mystery/creative writing stimulus     0-395-35393-9
Velthuijs, Max                 Frog is Frog                   Envy/acceptance of one‘s own          0-86264-812-2
Wagner, Jenny & Brooks, Ron    John Brown, Rose & the         Jealousy/death/need/motives           0-14-050306-4
                               Midnight Cat
Ward, Nick                     Into the Woods                 Sense of place/time                   0-09-176706-7
Wiesner, David                 Tuesday                        Beneath the surface …                 0-395-55113-7
Wild, Margaret & Brooks,       Fox                            Betrayal/deceit/friendship/ambition   1-90301-213-9
Wormell, Chris                 Two Frogs                      Probability/chance                    0-09-943862-3
Zolotow, Charlotte & Vitale,   When the Wind Stops            Infinity/circle of life/‘big‘ Qs      0-06-025425-4
                                             Copyright Barry Hymer, 2005


   Anthony Browne              John             David McKee         Max Velthuijs
Zoo                        Cloudland           Not now Bernard    Frog in love

Voices in the park         Whadyamean          Tusk tusk          Frog finds a friend

Through the magic          Would you           The hill and the   Frog and the
mirror                     rather?             rock               birdsong

                           Aldo                The conquerors

   Maurice Sendak           Jill Murphy        Satoshi Kitamura       Tony Ross
Where the wild things      The last Noo-       Angry Arthur       Oscar got the blame
are                        Noo                 Me and my cat?

  Michael Foreman           Jon Scieszka         Sara Fanelli      Colin Thompson
Dinosaurs and all that     The true story of    Wolf!             The paradise garden
rubbish                    the three little
                           pigs                                   The paperbag prince
War and peas
                                                                  How to live forever
 Colin McNaughton
Good news bad news

More about resources
A full SAPERE Resource Guide is available on its webpage ( which
gives full details of recommended resources, and of where to find them. Here we point to
some of the most popular and well-tried resources.

The original Lipman stories and teachers‘ manuals are not widely available in the UK,
but may be purchased from the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children,
Upper Montclair, New Jersey 07043.

There is a series of resources produced by Professor Robert Fisher of Brunel
University, the first of which was ‗Stories for Thinking‘. The series is published by Nash
Pollock and covers the range from reception to lower secondary.

One of the most innovative resources is ‗Storywise‘ by Dr. Karin Murris. This shows
how classic picture books (up to 42 altogether) may be used as stimuli for enquiry at any
age. Though available through bookshops (ISBN 1 903804 00 0) it is most easily
accessed through

A series of books, similar to Fisher‘s but with separate support material, comes from
Australia under the title ‗Thinking Stories‘. These are targeted at upper primary and may
be purchased from Bookstall Forum, Abbey Street, Derby DE22 3HQ (tel: 01332 368

In the UK, facilitators are encouraged to develop their own materials. Among those
published recently ‗Let‘s think‘ (1-900818-13-2) by Stephanie Baudet and Paul
Cleghorn, a collection of assembly stories for primary schools, and ‗The Philosophy
Club‘, by Roger Sutcliffe and Steve Williams, which is targeted at KS3, but may equally
be used by upper primary.

‗Newswise‘, a current affairs resource delivered by email 6 times a year, has the same
target group as ‗The Philosophy Club‘, but has also been used by students preparing for
the Critical Thinking A/S level. Both these resources are available through
Dialogueworks (see above).

There is a number of excellent introductions to the theory and practice of communities of
enquiry, all available from Bookstall Forum. A good short book is ‗Thinking Together‘
by Professor Philip Cam. ‗Children as Philosophers‘, published recently in the UK by
Joanna Haynes, has been well-received. The most wide-ranging text is ‗Teaching for
Better Thinking‘, by Ann Sharp and Laurence Splitter, and the classic work is
‗Philosophy in the Classroom‘ by Lipman himself.


SAPERE Teacher Educator – one who has passed the assignment after attending a Level
3 course. This qualifies one to offer Level 1 courses to all-comers, and to co-direct on
Level 2 courses. It is not a qualification as a Teacher Educator at H.E., nor does it
approve one to conduct P4C courses outside of the UK. Anyone wishing such approval
would be advised to train at, or under the aegis of, the IAPC (Institute for the
Advancement of Philosophy for Children) at Montclair University in New Jersey.

SAPERE Teacher Coach – one who has passed the assignment after attending a Level 2
course. This qualifies one to offer (closed) Level 1 courses within their own institution,
and to co-direct open Level 1 courses with a SAPERE Teacher Educator. It also, of
course, enables and encourages one to offer support/coaching to individuals within or
without one‘s institution.

The aim of the structure has always been to enable a ‗cascading‘ effect, whereby an
appreciation of the principles of P4C could be spread efficiently, and with integrity,
through the teaching profession. The efficiency has been achieved by tailoring courses to
the INSET format (2 INSET days = 1 Level 1) and by focusing the Level 1 and 2 courses
on practice. The integrity has been achieved particularly by the insistence that Level 2
and 3 courses are always co-directed.

Registration of Educators and Coaches
With a growing number of people passing through Level 1 and onto Level 2, there has
grown a need to ensure that courses are administered carefully and transparently.
Accordingly, all participants on courses will now be registered with the SAPERE
administrator by the course director; and there is a list of registered educators and
coaches published on the SAPERE website.

SAPERE Courses
SAPERE offers 3 courses. Level 1, run over 2 days is an introduction to P4C, and aims to
provide delegates with sufficient understanding of P4C to enable them to start practising
it in their own schools, colleges, homes, clubs etc. Level 2 and 3 courses, run over 4 days
respectively, provide delegates with an opportunity to deepen their understanding and
practice of P4C.

Level 1: Introduction to Philosophical Enquiry in Communities
Aim: To give teachers, parents, governors, citizens, etc., sufficient understanding of
philosophical enquiry in communities (especially with children) to enable them to start
practising it in their own colleges, schools, homes, clubs, etc.
Hours: Minimum 10 tutored hours, spread over as many days as convenient. Ideally,15
hours, and perhaps normally 12 hours. Certification is dependent upon subsequent
running of an enquiry (see Outcomes below).

Content: The course contains at least 3 philosophical enquiries, and addresses the
following four questions:
1. What makes questioning philosophical – and how can such questioning improve
teaching and learning?
2. What is a Community of (Philosophical) Enquiry?
3. How to facilitate enquiry and dialogue?
5. How to develop a Community of Enquiry / Thinking Classroom, including evaluating

Level 2: Developing the Practice of Philosophical Enquiry in Communities
Aim (and Pre-requisites): To give further tutoring in the practice and theory of
communities of philosophical enquiry. It is required that delegates have a Level 1
Hours: 24 tutored hours plus 12 hours of prior reading.
Content: The course contains at least (i) 10 hours of practical philosophical enquiry and
group review (ii) 10 hours of 'theory' and review. The 'theory' will deal with the following
1. How can we best facilitate enquiry to be philosophical? - practice
2. What stories and stimuli are suitable for philosophical enquiry? - resources
3. What are the philosophical and educational roots of P4C? – educational perspective
4. (How) can philosophical enquiry help develop critical and creative thinking and
   learning? – the cognitive dimension
5. (How) can philosophical enquiry help contribute to emotional and social
6. development? – the affective dimension
7. (How) can phil. enquiry help to educate for citizenship in a pluralist society? – the
   moral/political context
8. How are we to evaluate philosophical enquiries and their facilitation? – practice
9. What are the principles and practices of SAPERE and its courses? – principles and

SAPERE Level 3 "The Theory and Practice of Philosophical Enquiry in Education”
Aim (and Pre-requisites): To critically engage SAPERE Teacher-Coaches (who will
have satisfactorily completed Level 2 assignments) with key theoretical perspectives
underpinning P4C, and to develop their practice as educators so that they might become
registered as SAPERE Level 1 Tutors and, with appropriate further development, Level 2
and 3 Tutors.
More precisely, participants could expect to finish the course with:
A good grasp of the body of knowledge that informs current practice in P4C
A deepening and development of their practical skills as educators in this field, including
the ability to effectively organise and lead courses

Encouragement, and a greater capacity, to become active in the wider community of P4C

Hours: 24 tutored hours, spread over as many days as convenient, plus 36 hours of
prior reading

Content: The course will focus on key questions and concepts related to the following
broad areas (connected with some traditional categories of philosophy, as shown in
a. Language and Learning (Philosophy of Language and Education) – including
reasoning and reflection
b. Knowledge and Belief (Epistemology) – including curriculum
c. Identity and Community (Ethics and Politics) – including moral development,
citizenship, democracy and pluralism
d. Childhood and Philosophy (Philosophy of Education) – including child development
e. Experience and the Aesthetic response (Aesthetics) – including stimuli for
philosophical and aesthetical enquiry
Time will be will be set aside for preparing to run level 1 courses, and to reflect on the
practice and tutoring of facilitation. Candidates will also be helped in this time to plan
presentations for other professionals, that they will rehearse to members of the concurrent
Level 2 course, aiming to articulate clearly and competently the principles and practices
of philosophical enquiry.
To gain certification at Level 3 and for teachers seeking M Level credits (20 – validated
by Oxford Brookes University) there is a further requirement to reflect on their own
understanding of philosophical enquiry. This reflection must result in written presentation
of 2,000 words which outlines how the candidate might explain to an enquirer the nature
and value of philosophical enquiry as s/he sees it (especially in regard to children),
including a short account of how their own interest was aroused.

A Resource Guide detailing recommended learning resources, books and journals is
available form SAPERE

Membership Form
Registered Charity No. 1037019
Membership is open to all – teachers (practising or not), governors, parents, philosophers (professional orrecreational), well-
wishers, etc. Membership is for 12 months and includes:
 4 newsletters a year
 preferential rates for SAPERE events
 a 16-page Resource Guide
 a 12- page Information Pack
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Tel: 01865 488340 Email:

Your name

Contact Phone
Name of your school or workplace
Stage/age of your class/group
Your appointment/role
Name of Level 1 Tutor                      Date of Course (month/year)           Place of course
What did you appreciate most about the
Level 1 course?

Do you have any suggestions as to
how SAPERE could improve its Level 1
How useful was the handbook for the
course itself?

How useful has the handbook been since
the course?

Would you like to be contacted about Level 2 courses in future?   Yes ( )       No ( )
Do you have any wishes or hopes as to
how SAPERE could continue to support
you in practising or developing your skills
as a facilitator?



Main question

Did the enquiry exceed your
expectations, or not live up to them?
Please identify/comment on at least one
aspect that was positive.

Please return to SAPERE, Westminster Institute of Education, Oxford Brookes University, Harcourt Hill,
Oxford OX2 9AT

To attend a SAPERE Level 2 Course you need a SAPERE Level 1 certificate and SAPERE Membership
Date and location of the
Level 2 course you wish to attend

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Stimulus 4

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Stimulus 6

What have been the most pleasing aspects
of your P4C practice so far?

How would you like to develop your P4C

Any other useful information for Level 2

Please return to SAPERE: Westminster Institute of Education, Oxford Brookes University,
Harcourt Hill Campus, Oxford OX2 9AT

                              P4C LEVEL ONE TRAINING : NEXT STEPS

1.Actions to take in the short term

2.Actions to take in the longer term

3.Key colleagues to involve

4.Training and support needed and from whom

5.Any other thoughts


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