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					Graphic Design
•   Broadly defined, graphic designers (sometimes referred to as “communication
    designers”) are the visual ambassadors of ideas: their role is to translate, communicate
    — and occasionally even agitate — by rendering thinking as form, process and
    experience. *

•   * ["experience" is a widow (also called an orphan), a word or fragment appearing alone
    at the end of a paragraph. No good graphic designer would have let this go to press in
    print or online it's an obvious mistake.]

•   Graphic design is an international language composed of signs and symbols, marks and

    and logos, banners and billboards, pictures and words.
In addition to their role in the visual engineering of most printed matter, graphic
designers today lend their expertise to a host of related disciplines including, but
not limited to:
•strategy and consulting,
•information and experience design,
•branding and broadcast design,
•signage and wayfinding systems.
They are groomed to acquire a certain classic set of skills (which today demand a
facility with software) including :
•drawing,
•photography,
•composition
•typography — the design and structural characteristics of letterforms, graphic
design’s lingua franca.
Icons of Graphic Design
I Love NY Logo: Designed by the grandfather of graphic design, Milton Glaser, in
the 1970s, this rebus combines a red heart with the rounded slab-serif typeface
American Typewriter.



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If, in the business of
communications, "image is king,"
the essence of this image, the
logo, is a jewel in its crown.
"Logos, Flags and Escutcheons"
By Paul Rand
UPS Pictograph: The UPS logo was designed in 1961 by Paul Rand as a sort of
heraldic pictogram. Rand said he gauged his success when he showed the
work to his daughter. ("Why, it looks just like a present, Daddy," she said.)




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UPS 1920s-61
United Parcel Service developed its first shield in the 1920s,
using the bold image of an eagle carrying a package labeled
"Safe, Swift, Sure." This was simplified in 1937 to a shield
outline containing the company initials, with a new message to
appeal to the retail trade. In 1961, the current logo was born,
the work of Paul Rand. He abbreviated the shield, added a
rectangular package, and clarified the lettering. The key to
good design, he explained, was "taking the essence of
something that is already there and enhancing its meaning by
putting it into a form everyone can identify with."




1920                           1937                 1961
The role of the logo is
to point, to designate -

in as simple a manner as possible.
Nike
The Nike logo is a classic case of a company gradually
simplifying its corporate identity as its frame increases. The
company's first logo appeared in 1971, when the word "Nike,"
the Greek goddess of victory, was printed in orange over the
outline of a checkmark, the sign of positivity. Used as a motif
on sports shoes since the 1970s, this checkmark is now so
recognizable that the company name itself has became
superfluous. The solid, orange check was registered as a
trademark in 1995.




1978                            1995
McDonald's
The McDonald's Golden Arches logo was introduced in 1962.
It was created by Jim Schindler to resemble new arch shaped
signs on the sides of the restaurants. He merged the two
golden arches together to form the famous 'M' now
recognized throughout the world. Schindler's work was a
development of the stylized 'v' logo sketched by Fred Turner,
which was conceived as a more stylish corporate symbol than
the Speedee chef character that had previously been used.
The McDonald's name was added to the logo in 1968.




1968
A logo is a flag, a signature



A logo doesn't sell (directly), it identifies.

A logo is rarely a description of a business.


A logo derives its meaning from the quality of the thing it symbolizes, not the other
way around.


A logo is less important than the product it si gnifies; what it means is more
important than what it looks like.
Apple
The, now well-known, American company Apple was the first
computer firm not to use its name as its corporate identity.
The idea of selling a computer under the name and image of a
fruit was conceived by Californian Steve Jobs and his
collegues (even the word "Macintosh" is the name of an apple
variety). The motif of a multicolored apple with a bite taken out
of it is a reference to the Bible story of Adam and Eve, in
which the apple represents the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge.




1984
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Design, good or bad, is a vehicle of memory.


Good design adds value of some kind and, incidentally, could
be sheer pleasure; it respects the viewer - his sensibilities -
and rewards the entrepreneur.


It is easier to remember a well designed image than one
that is muddled.


A well designed logo, in the end, is a reflection of the
business it symbolizes.



PLAY THE RETAIL ALPHABET GAME
http://www.joeykatzen.com/alpha/ver2/
Graphic Recognition
Saks Fifth Avenue
A good identity is simple, but never boring; flexible, but never
chaotic; playful and iterative — and always supremely recognizable.
Seen on everything from shopping bags to shipping vessels, print collateral to web and motion
graphics, an identity program balances variety with specificity. Often accompanied by “bibles” —
detailed style guides outlining the proper procedures for implementing a logo or trademark.
While infinitely scalable, a good identity program is grounded in a kind of basic formal system:
color palettes, font choices and grids (the underlying armature upon which most printed
materials are placed) all help to solidify a brand’s visual recognition.




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THE POSTER AS A GRAPHIC MEDIUM
From nineteenth century broadsides to twentieth century propaganda posters, the poster
is to graphic design what the building is to the street.

Posters have always existed in that tension-filled space between culture and commerce,
situated somewhat precariously between the fine and applied arts.

                                                                       Russian Constructivist
                                                                       film poster designed by
                                                                       Georgi and Vladmiar
                                                                       Stenberg, 1929 and
                                                                       Obama Hope poster,
                                                                       designed by Shepard
                                                                       Fairey, 2008




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Partial GLOSSARY

•AIGA: The largest professional design association in the U.S.
•Bleed: When an image or color extends beyond the trimmed edge of a page.
•CMYK: A color system used for printing — usually referred to as four-color process; An abbreviation for cyan, magenta,
yellow, and black, which, in varying combinations, produce most colors.
•Font: A specific size and style of type within a given typeface. All characters that make up 10 point Helvetica italic
comprise a font. (Not to be confused with typeface.)
•Grid: Underlying structure of columns, rows, margins, and lines, information organized on a page.
•Kerning: Adjusting the space between individual characters in a font.
•Lorem ipsum: Used as placeholder text because it approximates a typical distribution of characters in English.
•Point: A unit of measurement for fonts and line-spacing: 72pts = 1“. (There are 12 points in a Pica.)
•Serif: The small horizontal lines on the ends of each stroke of a typeface, e.g. Times Roman.
•Sans Serif: Typefaces without horizontal lines on the ends of each stroke, e.g. Helvetica.
•Widow: The final word of a paragraph that stands alone, or the last line of a paragraph from the previous page flowing
onto the top of the following page.
•WYSIWYG: Acronym for What You See Is What You Get; screen representation of how a final image will look.

				
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posted:10/24/2011
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