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Adolescence

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					        Chapter 11 Adolescence
I   What is Adolescence?
     A. The years between childhood +
      adulthood
        1.Ages are between 11/12 – 18/19

        2. Must be 21 for all legal rights of an
         adult
        3. Based on physical + psychological

         issues
B. Early Adolescence 11-14
 years
C. Middle Adolescence 14-16

 years
D. Later Adolescence 16-19

 years
 IISexual Development
   A. puberty- accounts for 90% of sexual

      maturation
   B. hormones- Chemicals that control body

     growth, emotions, physical changes.
   C. pituitary gland- releases growth

     hormones that signal the adrenal gland
     to produce hormones and stimulates
     gonads.
 D. gonads- contains sex hormones &
  are sex glands
 E. adrenal gland- contain hormone
  called adrenaline
 F. adolescent emotional state
     1. early on they are moodier than

        adults
     2. having emotional responses to

        hormones
    Physical Growth
 III
  A. Growth spurt-

    1. Development is rapid and not

     orderly
    2. Look gangly but have great

     coordination.
  B. Maximum physical growth occurs

     during middle adolescence for both
      girls and boys.
    C. Girl’s growth spurt is earlier
       than boys from 9-16 years
    D. Boys are later from 11-15

       years
   IV Rates of Maturation
     A. Girls mature earlier, but by late

        adolescence most differences
        from boys have disappeared.
         1. This causes problems for girls
            and boys in relating to one
            another.
B. early maturer- 1 ½ years a
  head of average
C. later maturer- 1 ½ years later

  than average.
D. Boys who are early maturers

  1. have good self esteem.
   E. Boys who are late maturers
     1. Have low self esteem.

   F. Girls who are early maturers
     1. have low self esteem.
G. Girls who are late maturers
    1.have high self esteem.

H. Most feelings that occur from
   late or early maturation
  disappear after adolescence.
V. Weight: Too much too little?
 A. Food is like a sedative to relieve

   loneliness.
 B. Women have more trouble with

   body image
   1. ¾ of women think they are fat.

   2. Only 25% are overweight.
C. Excessive Dieting


   • 1. anorexia nervosa
         a. avoid food altogether
            to control weight
         b. appearance affects
            their self worth.
    •
   2. Bulimia nervosa effects- (binge
       purge)
     a. erosion of teeth enamel.

     b. digestive problems

     c. irritation of mouth and throat.
 VI.   Psychological issues
       A. Rite of Passage
          1. Ceremony that marks a
             person’s adult status
          2. USA does not have such
             ceremonies

 B.   Adolescent subcultures
      1. Appear because they are not
         sure where they fit in
         mainstream society
 C.   Conformity
      1. Because adolescents fend for
         themselves they create
         exclusive groups which they
         conform to.
         a. Conformity is the strongest
            during adolescence
 Identity   vs. Role Confusion
 D.   Group identity – Erikson
      a. Adolescence is a time of
         group alienation
 E.   Individual identity – Erikson
      1. If adolescents do not
         develop group identity they
         will not have an
         individual identity

 2.   Erikson’s family background
      affected his group identity.
          a. Felt abandoned, had no
             acceptance from class
             mates, different physical
             appearance
 3.   Erikson’s fidelity
      a. refers to the decision to be
         faithful to one’s values and ideas
      b. Primary adolescent conflict
          1. identity versus role
             confusion
      c. Moratorium
          1. delaying major adult
             commitments
    VII. Intellectual and Moral changes
         A. Family influence on
             adolescence
             1. According to a survey
                a. Parents and
                   adolescents agree
                    on drugs and education.
                b. But agree less on sex and
                   clothes
    
B. Typical arguments between
   parents and adolescents
    1. early adolescence –
       intense bickering
    2. middle adolescence –
       eases up
    3. late adolescence –
       almost over
 C.   Adolescence (the label) has only
      existed since the 1920s.
       1. Because girls married at
          sexual maturity
       2. Because boys left home to
          begin working.
 D.    Animal studies show that
      conflicts between adolescents
       and parents occur
      during puberty.
VIII.   Juvenile Delinquency
         A. In 1990 1.75 million teenagers were
             arrested in the U.S.
         B A juvenile delinquent
            1. is a minor with repeated violations
               of the law
            2. Some continue well into their 20s
C. Factors associated with Delinquency
   1. Income alone is not a factor
   2. Father’s contribute to children’s
      antisocial behavior more than
      mothers.
a. If father is aggressive, irresponsible,
   detached and unaffectionate
   1) children have an increased risk
      of delinquency
       b. If he has a criminal or substance
          abuse history the chances are
          also high
 3.   Delinquency and Aggression
      increase
      a. When there is chaos and
         conflict in families
      b. Poor communication
      c. Abusive relationships and little
         support from parents
      d. Underachievement in school
         and delinquency are related
 4.    Prevention
       a. Parenting classes and group
          meetings
       b. In home visits with problem
          solving
       c. Quality day care
      d. Parent participation in school

				
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posted:10/24/2011
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