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01231r0P802-15_TG4-Nokia-PHY-Proposal.ppt - for IEEE 802 Powered By Docstoc
					     May 2001                                                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0
  Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: [Nokia PHY submission to Task Group 4]
Date Submitted: [07 May, 2001]
Source: [Jukka Reunamäki] Company [Nokia]
Address [Visiokatu 1, P.O.Box 100, FIN-33721 Tampere, Finland]
Voice:[+358 7180 35331], FAX: [+358 7180 35935], E-Mail:[jukka.reunamaki@nokia.com]
Re: [Original document]

Abstract: [Submission to Task Group 4 for consideration as the Low Rate PHY for 802.15.4]
Purpose: [IEEE 802.15.4 PHY proposal for evaluation]
Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for
discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this
document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right
to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.
Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE
and may be made publicly available by P802.15.




     Submission                                    Slide 1                           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0




       Nokia PHYsical layer submission to
          IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4

                    Presented by
                  Jukka Reunamäki
                       Nokia




Submission              Slide 2             Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                  Contents

 • Cost and power consumption requirements
 • Operation frequency band and channel
   structure
 • Bit rate, modulation and performance
 • Link budget
 • Susceptibility to interference
 • Implementation examples
 • Conclusions
 • Self-evaluation against criteria
Submission           Slide 3             Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             General PHY requirements

 •    Minimized RF and BB complexity
 •    Very low cost
 •    Strongly minimized power consumption
 •    Relaxed performance requirements
 •    Unlicensed operation frequency band
 •    FCC and ETSI compliance
 •    Mature, low risk approach


Submission               Slide 4            Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                     Cost requirements

 • Target applications necessitate sub-dollar solutions
       – Addition of WPAN capability should not increase total cost of
         the solution notably
 • Minimized number of components
       – Single-chip or dual-chip implementations
       – Only few external components
 • Mature, bulk RF and/or digital IC processes to be
   used
 • Cost optimum most probably differs from power
   consumption and size optima

Submission                         Slide 5                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
   May 2001                                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



        Power consumption and operation time
Battery type    Voltage Capacity Radio power    Approximate      Approximate       Approximate
                  [V]    [mAh] consumption in operation time    operation time    operation time
                                 active state (10% duty cycle) (1% duty cycle)   (0.1% duty cycle)
                                    [mW]
Button cell       1.5      42          1           26 days          239 days          3.6 years
(L = 2.7 mm,                          10            3 days            24 days         131 days
dia. = 9.5 mm)                       100          0.3 days             2 days          13 days
Button cell       1.5      170         1         105 days            2.6 years         15 years
(L = 5.4 mm,                          10           11 days            97 days         1.5 years
dia. = 11.6 mm)                      100            1 days            10 days          53 days
AAA               1.5     1175         1          2.0 years           18 years        101 years
                                      10           73 days           1.8 years         10 years
                                     100            7 days            67 days         1.0 years
AA                1.5     2700         1          4.6 years           42 years        231 years
                                      10         167 days            4.2 years         23 years
                                     100           17 days          154 days          2.3 years


    •    Idle time power consumption assumed to be 1/1000 of power
         consumption in active mode.
   Submission                                Slide 6                        Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0


        Implications of power consumption
                   requirements
 • Transceiver should consume about 10-25
   times less power than current Bluetooth
   approaches to be feasible for button batteries
       – It is possible with very low duty cycles (<< 1%)
       – In active mode the whole transceiver including
         digital processing should consume only ~4 mW
         with small button cell and ~12 mW with large
         button cell
       – Idle time dominates power consumption in case of
         low duty cycles
       – Synthesizer is also critical
Submission                   Slide 7               Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             Spread spectrum vs. narrowband

 • Basically, SS does not provide any benefit
   against interference in the 2.4 GHz ISM band
       – Though, SS enables higher TX powers and faster
         synchronization
 • Narrowband system is more seldom hit by
   Bluetooth transmission
       – Narrower signal bandwidths signify lower sampling
         rates and smaller power consumption
       – More non-overlapping channels in the system
         band
       – Less complex baseband
Submission                   Slide 8               Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



              Operation frequency band
 • Default is 2.45 GHz ISM band
       – Unlicensed, global and congested
       – Quite high frequency from minimum
         implementation and propagation point of view
       – Operation under FCC 15.249 (US) and ERC rec
         70-03 SRD (Europe)
 • Optional bands: 902-928 MHz in US and
   433.050 - 434.790 MHz in Europe
       – Smaller propagation loss, potentially less
         interference
 • Any band wide enough and available for
   short-range devices can be used
Submission                    Slide 9                 Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
 May 2001                                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



     Channel structure in 2400-2483.5 MHz
  • 83 channels, center frequencies at 2401 + k x
    1 MHz, where k = 0...82
              • Compatibility with Bluetooth
              • Outermost channels benefitially located
                     IEEE 802.11b channel        Bluetooth channels
 Channels of the     in North America and Europe                 IEEE 802.11b channel
 proposed system                                                 in Europe




2400          2401    2402       2403                2480   2481        2482         2483
 Submission                               Slide 10                         Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
 May 2001                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



    Device classes for different applications
Device        TX power Default TX Sensitivity TX/RX frequency         Default
class            range   power      [dBm]                             range
                 [dBm]   [dBm]                                          [m]
Mini            -15…-2     -10        -86     Variable (all channels)    10
Pico           -20...-10   -20        -86     Fixed (only 1 channel)      3
Beacon         -30...-20   -30        -86     Fixed (only 1 channel)      1

  • Smaller TX power => smaller operating space and
    power consumption
  • Fixed frequency => potentially simpler implementation
  • Generally, sensitivity is not the dominant item from
    power consumption point of view if the requirements
    are reasonable (i.e. NF  15)
  • Communication between different classes is possible
 Submission                            Slide 11                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                    Bit rate and modulation
• Maximum physical layer bit rate 200 kbps
             • Data rate scalability achieved with lower activity, shorter
               packets and possible repetition coding
             • Long symbol duration results in small ISI in indoor
               channels
             • 200 kbps aggregate capacity considered adequate from
               application point of view
• 2GFSK modulation with modulation index h =
  2...3 and BT = 0.5
             • Constant envelope for low power TX architecture
             • Spectrum efficiency sacrificed for minimum complexity
               and low power RX implementation
             • Relaxed requirements for phase noise, I/Q imperfections
               and frequency drift
Submission                             Slide 12                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                               Modulation spectrum
                         20
                                                           unfiltered
                         10                                Gaussian filtered (BT = 0.5)

                          0

                         -10

                         -20
              PSD [dB]




                         -30

                         -40

                         -50

                         -60

                         -70

                         -80
                               -6   -4   -2         0          2         4          6
                                              Frequency [Hz]                               5
                                                                                    x 10

        2GFSK modulation with modulation index h = 2.5, BT = 0.5
Submission                                     Slide 13                                        Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0


             Transmit spectrum with different
                   modulation indexes




Submission                 Slide 14           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             Performance in AWGN channel
                               0
                              10
                                                                              With RX HP filter
                                                                              Without RX HP filter

                               -1
                              10                                               C/NBER = 1e-3 = 13.5 dB
             Bit error rate




                               -2                                                                             C/NBER = 1e-4 = 15.0 dB
                              10



                               -3
                              10
                                                            C/NBER = 1e-3 = 13 dB



                               -4                                C/NBER = 1e-4 = 14.5 dB
                              10
                                   0                    5                      10                        15
                                                              C/N [dB]
                                       2GFSK, modulation index h = 2.5, BT = 0.5,
                                       f-3 dB, highpass = 50 kHz, f-3 dB, lowpass = 300 kHz
Submission                                                      Slide 15                                 Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



     Performance in multipath channel: ISI

 • The exponentially decaying fading channel
   model defined in criteria document:
       – Assumes at least four samples per symbol
       – Sufficient number of fading taps = 10*TRMS/Ts
 • For the 200 kbps data rate with 4 samples
   per symbol the channel is flat fading when the
   delay spread is smaller than 250 ns
             TRMS        250 ns
       –          *10          *10  2
              TS        1250 ns

Submission                            Slide 16           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



Performance in flat fading Rayleigh channel
                            0
                       10
                                                                   AWGN
                                                                   90%
                            -1                                     95%
                       10                                          97%


                            -2
                       10
             raw BER




                            -3
                       10


                            -4
                       10


                            -5
                       10


                            -6
                       10
                                 0   5   10   15        20   25   30      35
                                                C/N [dB]

X % signifies that raw BER is equal to or better than that indicated by the
curves at a corresponding C/N value in X % of flat fading Rayleigh channels.
Submission                                    Slide 17                         Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                         Channel coding

 • By default no channel coding of any kind
   utilized
             • Coding does not help much when the transmitted frame is
               overlapped by high power interference in both frequency
               and time
             • Increases baseband complexity
             • No need to extend range by means of coding
             • Real-time services are not in focus
 • Data reliability ensured by 32-bit CRC checks
   (providing error detection up to BER  1e-9)
   and upper layer retransmissions
 • If needed, repetition coding can be used
Submission                          Slide 18                 Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
  May 2001                                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                    Link budget at 2.45 GHz
Parameters                            Value         Value    Value      Value      Unit
TX power (incl. antenna gain)           -2.0         -10.0    -20.0      -30.0     dBm
Range                                   25.0          10.0     3.2        1.0      m
Path loss @ range                       68.1          60.2     50.3       40.2     dB
Antenna gain                            -3.0          -3.0     -3.0       -3.0     dBi
Received power (no fading)             -73.1         -73.2    -73.3      -73.2     dBm
Noise floor                           -174.0        -174.0   -174.0     -174.0     dBm/Hz
Noise figure + receiver degradation     15.5          15.5     15.5       15.5     dB
Filter noise bandwidth                600.0         600.0    600.0      600.0      kHz
C/N @ BER = 1e-4                        14.5          14.5     14.5       14.5     dB
Sensitivity                            -86.2         -86.2    -86.2      -86.2     dBm
Fading margin                           13.1          13.0     12.9       13.0     dB



  Fading margin of 13 dB ensures that C/N = 14.5 dB or better in > 95% of
  the channels at range of 25/10/3/1 m.
  Submission                             Slide 19                      Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0


  Example: link budget of unbalanced link
          with directive antenna
      Parameters                             Downlink   Uplink   Unit
      TX power (incl. antenna gain)            -10.0     -20.0   dBm
      Range                                     10.0      10.0   m
      Path loss @ range                         60.2      60.2   dB
      Antenna gain (RX)                         -3.0      3.0    dBi
      Received power (no fading)               -73.2     -77.2   dBm
      Noise floor                             -174.0    -174.0   dBm/Hz
      Noise figure + receiver degradation       15.5      11.5   dB
      Filter noise bandwidth                  600.0     600.0    kHz
      C/N @ BER = 1e-4                          14.5      14.5   dB
      Sensitivity                              -86.2     -90.2   dBm
      Fading margin                             13.0      13.0   dB
      Probability of C/N > 14.5 dB               95        95    %

 • A link formed between devices with different capabilities e.g.
   based on power supply constraints
Submission                            Slide 20                    Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                               Scalability
 • Range
       – More range can be achieved by means of higher TX power
         (only -10 dBm proposed)
       – FCC 15.249 addresses average power!
             • Low duty cycles => high TX powers possible
 • Data rate
       – Scalability implemented through packet sizing and duty
         cycles
 • Frequency band of operation
       – Narrow transmit bandwidth basically allows usage of a
         number of different frequency bands, e.g. 433 MHz
         (Europe), 868 MHz (Europe), 915 (US), 2.4 GHz (global)


Submission                            Slide 21                      Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



               Susceptibility to interference

 • 2.45 GHz ISM band will be congested
 • Low power system cannot compete with TX power
 • Relaxation in interference susceptibility accepted to
   alleviate RX linearity requirements
             • RX linearity requirements similar to Bluetooth (IIP3 =
               -15...-20 dBm) would not result in low-power RX, since
               RX linearity directly affects power consumption
             • In case of co-channel interference, strong adjacent
               channel interference, blocking or intermodulation, packets
               are retransmitted



Submission                           Slide 22                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0


             Co-channel and adjacent channel
                      interference




Submission                 Slide 23           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                        CW interference




 •    Note: CW interferer @ 0 Hz offset does not deteriorate performance
      due to highpass filtering in zero-IF RX!
Submission                           Slide 24                   Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                                                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                     Intermodulation resistance
 • Values                                                                               -44




                                        Maximum CW interferer power in RX input [dBm]
       – IIP3 = -30                                                                     -46
         dBm
                                                                                        -48
       – C/IBER = 1e-4,
             sensitivity + 3 dB                                                         -50
             = 10 dB
                                                                                        -52
 • PCW interferer =
   -51 dBm                                                                              -54


                                                                                        -56

                      IMD                                                               -58
                                                                                          -40              -35        -30          -25           -20
                                  C/I                                                                            RX IIP3 [dBm]



Submission                                                                                      Slide 25                           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
   May 2001                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0


         Intermodulation resistance – a strong
                  function of IIP3
Bluetooth TX           Bluetooth TX




                RX




      TX


                 IMD
                          C/N




   Submission                         Slide 26           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



         RX IIP3 vs. relative supply current
                           -26.0


                           -27.0


                           -28.0
              IIP3 (dBm)




                           -29.0


                           -30.0


                           -31.0


                           -32.0
                              1.0000   1.5000          2.0000   2.5000
                                          Relative current


Submission                                 Slide 27                      Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             Bluetooth interference




Submission            Slide 28           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             802.11 DS WLAN interference




Submission               Slide 29           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
   May 2001                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



           Blocking when RX IIP3  -30 dBm
    • How far away should a simultaneous transmission
      occur not to block the receiver?
    • Assumption: P1dB  IIP3 - 10 dB
                TX
                                                              IEEE 802.11b
                Another TX of the                             WLAN TX
                proposed system        Bluetooth TX           transmitting
RX (IIP3       transmitting                                  at 20 dBm
                                       transmitting
-30 dBm)        at -10 dBm             at 0 dBm




     0m         0.3 m                1m                                 10 m
   Submission                       Slide 30                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



     Frame structure and signal acquisition

 • Preamble should be long enough to assist
   frequency and symbol synchronization
        – Preferably zero DC
 • Sync word indicates the start of the header
        – 3 consecutive Barker codes of length 7
 • Header and payload left to be defined in the
   MAC layer
                Sync
   Preamble               Header + payload + strong CRC's etc.
                word
    32 bits                     (defined by MAC layer)
               21 bits
Submission                     Slide 31                 Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



              TX implementation example

                 LOWPASS       UP-
                 FILTER    CONVERSION


        DAC
                                                   POWER      CHANNEL
                                                  AMPLIFIER   FILTER


                 LO           0º
                                   90º        +


        DAC




Submission                         Slide 32                    Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             RX implementation example
                     I-branch
                                                   Limiting
                                                  amplifiers




                                                      D   Q
                                                      CLK       Data
                      90 deg
               LNA                    LO             D-type
                                                    flip-flop


                                           Bandpass filters for
                     Q-branch              channel filtering and
                                            DC offset removal

Submission                 Slide 33                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



         Effect of finite I/Q image rejection
                        -1
                   10
                                                       Ideal
                                                       IR = 35 dB
                                                       IR = 30 dB
                                                       IR = 25 dB
                                                       IR = 20 dB
                        -2                             IR = 15 dB
                   10
                                                       IR = 10 dB
             BER




                        -3
                   10




                        -4
                   10
                        10   11   12      13      14    15          16
                                       C/N [dB]

Submission                             Slide 34                     Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             Power consumption estimates

 • RX analog/digital parts (active peak) 9.5 mW /
   2.0 mW
       – Assuming NF = 15 dB, IIP3 = -30 dBm
 • TX analog/digital parts (active peak) 10.5 mW
   / 1.5 mW
       – Assuming Pout = -20 dBm
 • Total idle time power consumption (analog &
   digital) 22 W
 • Average consumption (based on 0.34% duty
   cycle) 60 W
Submission                  Slide 35             Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



             Size and cost estimates

 • Total IC area ~ 6 mm2
 • Package size (W x L x H) 6 x 6 x 1 mm3
 • IC cost ~ $1
 • External component count (SMD passives)
   5...10 pcs
 • Size of SMD passives 0.5 x 1.0 x 0.5 mm3/pc
 • Module size (without antenna) 1 cm2 with
   components on both sides of PWB

Submission             Slide 36           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                      Conclusions
 • Nokia IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer proposal
   comprising
       – Primarily operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band, 1
         MHz channel separation
       – 200 kbps maximum data rate, scalability achieved
         by means of packet sizing
       – Operation range from 1 to 10 meters
       – 2GFSK modulation with large modulation index
 • Spectrum efficiency, link performance and
   interference tolerance sacrificed for minimum
   power, minimum complexity PHY
   implementation
Submission                   Slide 37              Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0




     Self-evaluation against IEEE 802.15.4
         criteria document (revision 4)




Submission            Slide 38           Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                      General solution criteria 1/3
 CRITERIA             REF.    VALUE
 Unit Manufacturing   2.1     N/A, open work item
 Cost ($)

 Interference and     2.2.2   See slides "Co-channel and adjacent channel interference" and "CW interference".
 Susceptibility               Observe that the system band filter attenuates out-of-band interferers.
                              Interferer level x = -86.2 dBm + 3 dB – C/I dB + possible filter rejection [dB]
 Intermodulation      2.2.3   Result: y = 32 dB => same as comparison value ('o')
 Resistance                   Assumptions: IIP3 = -30 dBm, sensitivity = -86.2 dBm, C/I (BER = 1e-4) = 10 dB


 Jamming              2.2.4   Source 1: Transmissions in pico and beacon frequencies are unaffected. In the worst
 Resistance                   case, 7 unicast channels out of 75 are lost during the active period of a microwave
                              oven.(Actually, an interferer of 100 mW at the distance of 3 m blocks the receiver of the
                              proposed system if RX P1dB < -30 dBm.)
                              Source 2: Bluetooth transmission in the same channel or in the adjacent ones results in
                              packet loss (see slide "Bluetooth interference"). Pico device (pico channel does not
                              overlap with Bluetooth channels): Throughput degradation of 1/79 = 1.3%. Mini device:
                              Throughput degradation 3/79 = 3.8%.
                              Source 3: With WLAN output power of 20 dBm and distance of 3 m the receiver of the
                              proposed system is blocked if P1dB < -30 dBm.
                              Source 4: Limited duty cycle in the Pico frequency and 75 non-overlapping unicast
                              channels for Mini devices ensures that there won't be any problems.


Submission                                               Slide 39                                     Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                    General solution criteria 2/3
     CRITERIA             REF.    VALUE
     Multiple Access      2.2.5   Scenario 1, Scenario 2 and Scenario 3:
                                  Pico devices: The maximum duty cycle limits the maximum channel utilization
                                  of a single system to 27%. CSMA enables multiple access of three systems.
                                  Mini devices: 75 non-overlapping channels allow multiple access without
                                  performance degradation.
     Coexistence          2.2.6   N/A, open work item


     Interoperability     2.3     TRUE
                                                                                                                 x
                                  FALSE,
                                  but device sharing 802.15.1 and the proposed system can have a common RF
                                  due to modulation schemes close to each other and similar channel center
                                  frequencies.
     Manufactureability   2.4.1   Regarding RF and BB the system shares and relaxes ideas already implemented
                                  in 802.15.1 and various paging systems.
                                  MAC is a simple bit-pipe with carrier sensing already implemented in 802.11.


     Time to Market       2.4.2   Limited by the availability of the final standard.




Submission                                               Slide 40                                  Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                   General solution criteria 3/3
    Regulatory Impact   2.4.3   TRUE                                                                            x
                                FALSE

    Maturity of         2.4.4   None of the approaches used in the proposed system are more complex than
    Solution                    in currently available 802 products.


    Scalability         2.5     Power consumption: Different TX power levels and duty cycles for different
                                device classes.
                                Data rate: Packet length and duty cycles results in different maximal data
                                rates for different device classes (see "Data delivery – bit rates" @ Nokia's
                                MAC presentation).
                                Frequency band of operation: Narrow transmit bandwidth allows usage of a
                                number of frequency bands, e.g. 433 MHz (Europe), 868 MHz (Europe), 915
                                (US), 2.4 GHz (global).
                                Cost: Device classes potentially provide possibility for cost optimization.
                                Function: See Nokia's MAC and PHY presentations.
    Location Awareness 2.6      N/A (mainly an upper layer issue, but point-to-any-point topology enables
                                determining of location relative to other devices)
                                Resolution:


Submission                                              Slide 41                                     Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia
May 2001                                                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-01/231r0



                            PHY Protocol Criteria
CRITERIA             REF.   VALUE
Size and Form        4.1    Rough estimate: 10 x 10 x 3 mm3 (components on both sides of PWB)
Factor

Frequency Band       4.2    Default frequency band 2.45 GHz ISM band. In principle, other bands, such as 433 MHz and
                            868 MHz (Europe) and 915 MHz (US), can be used.
Number of            4.3    Blocking not considered!
Simultaneously
                            Before any filtering C/I = 0 dB, but ACI suppression is 15 dB (see slide "Co-channel and
Operating Full-             adjacent channel interference") and hence transmission with BER = 1e-4 is ensured in other
Throughput PANs
                            than in the co-located channel.
Signal Acquisition   4.4    Preamble is provided for frequency and symbol synchronization, sync word is used to establish
Method                      frame synchronization (see slide "Frame structure and signal acquisition").
Range                4.5    10 meter connection for 95% of time in the exponentially decaying Rayleigh fading channel.
Sensitivity          4.6    Power level: -86.2 dBm
                            PER: 0.8% (10 byte packet)
                            BER: 1e-4
Delay Spread         4.7    TRUE                                                                                            x
Tolerance                   FALSE
Power                4.8    See slide "Power consumption estimates".
Consumption

Submission                                               Slide 42                                     Jukka Reunamäki, Nokia

				
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