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									                                         CHAPTER I


Background of the Study

        Soap is an essential cleaning agent, helping people to keep themselves and their
surroundings clean. When soap is mixed with water, it forms a lather that washes out dirt and
grease for better than water alone.

       Soap can be made on a small scale in the home or village cheaply and easily. The main
ingredients are fats and lye both of which can be made from materials found through out the
world. Making soap at home is practical when there is waste fat or oil and when there is no cheap
source of soap.

        Because of this, the researchers though of finding ways in utilizing guava in making
home made soap that can substitute commercial soap. Instead of buying anti-bacterial
commercial soap we can use home made guava soap.

        The guava was chosen as a substitute ingredient for anti-bacterial commercial soap
because it is cheaper not like the commercial anti-bacterial soap. Guava can just gather in the
backyard and it is easy to make.

General Objective
        To be able to utilize guava as a natural soap this is more environment-friendly, less
harmful and is affordable by any customer.

Specific Objective
       To determine if guava soap is effective as an anti-bacterial soap.

   1. Guava leaves decoction is an effective ingredient for anti-bacterial soap as those
       commercialized ingredient.
   2. Guava soap is harder than commercial soap when talking about durability.
   3. Guava soap has the same texture as the commercial soap.


        Through this study, the guava leaves can be utilized as an ingredient in making anti-
bacterial soap.


       This project was conducted during the month of February at Arnap Cabugao, Ilocos Sur.
       This study only focused on the effectiveness of guava soap in killing germs in our body,
especially as antiseptic for wounds.


Lye – is a corrosive poison. It can cause serious burns.
Artificial Perfumes – for the resultant odor of the soap.
                                           CHAPTER III


1 glass caustic soda (NaOH) a lye solution
3 glasses guava decoction, cooled
1 glass cooking oil
Artificial perfume
2 containers
Bamboo stick


B.1. Preparation of Guava Decoction
B.1.1. wash the leaves thoroughly and chop or cut into small pieces.
B.1.2. measure one glass of chopped fresh guava leaves and two glasses of water.
B.1.3. let it boil for 15 minutes. (Start timing when the water start to boil)
B.1.4 after 15 minutes, remove from the fire and strain in a cheesecloth. Sit aside and let it cool.

B.2 Preparation of Lye Solution
B.2.1 add 1 tablespoon of lye to 1 glass of water.
B.2.2 stir the water as it is added.

B.3 Making Anti-bacterial Guava Soap
B.3.1 prepare all the materials needed.
B.3.2 measure 1 glass of caustic soda and 3 glasses of guava decoction and pour into a plastic
B.3.3 mix well by stirring continuously using a bamboo stick. Use only one direction in mixing
the mixture. And then stir the caustic soda until it is dissolved.
B.3.4 pour one glass cooking oil into the mixture
B.3.5 Continue stirring until a consistency of a condensed milk is achieved.
B.3.6 Pour the soap mixture into desired plastic molders.
B.3.7 After 4-5 hours, remove the soap from the molder.

B.4 Application
        In order to determine if guava soap is effective in cleansing germs, it must be applied to
find out its affectivity.


                        Schematic diagram of the Procedure in Guava Soap

   Preparation or
    processing of
  the raw material

               Preparation of
              guava decoction

                            Preparation of
                             Lye Solution


                      Test on guava soap as compared to a commercial soap

       Guava soap is then compared to a commercial soap (safeguard) into their affectivity in
fighting germs, smell, color, texture and durability. There were five respondents acted as
evaluators. They were asked to rate which of the soap is effective in fighting germs on the scale
of 1-10, where 1 is the lowest and 10 is the highest.
                                           CHAPTER IV

                                    DATA AND RESULTS

                                             Table A

      Comparison between Guava Soap from Safeguard in Terms of Fighting Germs

     Evaluator              1          2          3          4          5       Average

Fighting      Guava         8          8          8          8          8          8

 Germs         Soap

  Rate      Safeguard       9          9          9          9          8         8.8

         The ratings given by 5 evaluators on the terms of fighting germs produced out of Guava

decoction and Safeguard are shown in Table A. The mean rating for experimental set-up is 8.

Safeguard is higher than Guava soap with mean rating of 8.8. It is evident from the table that

Safeguard are more effective in fighting germs than the Guava soap.

                                             Table B

Comparison between Guava Soap from Safeguard in Terms of Smell

     Evaluator              1          2          3          4          5       Average

 Smell        Guava         9          9          9          8          8         8.6

  Rate         Soap

            Safeguard       9          9          9          8          9         8.8

         The ratings given by 5 evaluators on the terms of fighting germs produced out of Guava

decoction and Safeguard are shown in Table B. The mean rating for experimental set-up is 8.6.
But the control set-up higher on the experiment set-up with a mean rating of 8.8. It is evident

from the table that the smell of the soap produced by Safeguard is more preferred by the

evaluator over the Guava soap.

                                             Table C

Comparison between Guava Soap from Safeguard in Terms of Color

      Evaluator             1           2          3           4           5       Average

 Color       Guava          8           8          8           7           8         7.8

  Rate        Soap

           Safeguard        8           7          7           8           8         7.6

               The mean of the ratings given by 5 evaluators on the color of soap produced by

Guava decoction from Safeguard is 7.8. It is higher than the mean rating of 7.6 in the color of the

Safeguard soap.

                                             Table D

Comparison between Guava Soap from Safeguard in Terms of Texture

      Evaluator             1           2          3           4           5       Average

Texture      Guava          8           8          8           7           8         7.8

  Rate        Soap

           Safeguard        9           8          7           8           8          8
         The ratings given by the 5 evaluators on the texture of the soap produced by Guava

decoction from Safeguard is 7.8. Safeguard is higher than the Guava soap with a rating of 8.0.

         It is evident from the table that the texture of Safeguard is more preferred by the

evaluators over the Guava soap.

                                              Table E

Comparison between Guava Soap from Safeguard in Terms of Durability

      Evaluator               1           2           3           4           5       Average

Durability     Guava          8           8           8           7           7         7.6

  Rate          Soap

              Safeguard       8           8           8           8           8          8

         The rating given by 5 evaluators on the durability of soap produced of Guava soap from

Safeguard is 7.6. Safeguard is higher the Guava soap with a rating of 8.0.

         It is evident from the table the durability of Safeguard is more preferred by the evaluators

over the Guava soap.
                                          CHAPTER V



        This study was conducted to find out the possibility of utilizing Guava decoction as home

made anti-bacterial soap.

        It aimed to utilize Guava as a soap which is cheaper than commercial soap and can be

affordable by any costumers. And to know whether Guava soap is very effective anti-bacterial

soap it was applied to the selected respondents. They used Guava soap to cleanse their hands and

also if they taking a bath.

        Results of the study show that Guava soap is effective cleaning agent but the power of

Safeguard in fighting germs is more effective than Guava soap.


        Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn:

     Soap made by Guava leaves decoction is effective anti-bacterial soap as those

        commercial anti-bacterial soap despite the fact that it is much cheaper.

     Commercial soaps are harder then the soap made with Guava leaves decoction when

        talking durability.

     In texture, commercial soap are softer than the soap made by Guava leaves decoction.

     Too much lye solution is not good. It can destroy our skin.

       It is recommended that this anti-bacterial soap made with Guava leaves decoction should

undergo into another study in order to improve its effectiveness. Do not put lye solution because

it can destroy the skin and your skin may burn.
                                         CHAPTER II

                          REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

       One of the most gregarious of fruit trees, the guava, Psidium guajava L., of the myrtle

family (Myrtaceae), is almost universally known by its common English name or its equivalent

in other languages. In Spanish, the tree is guayabo, or guayavo, the fruit guayaba or guyava. The

French call it goyave or goyavier; the Dutch, guyaba, goeajaaba; the Surinamese, guave or

goejaba; and the Portuguese, goiaba or goaibeira. Hawaiians call it guava or kuawa. In Guam it

is abas. In Malaya, it is generally known either as guava or jambu batu, but has also numerous

dialectal names as it does in India, tropical Africa and the Philippines where the corruption,

bayabas, is often applied. Various tribal names–pichi, posh, enandi, etc.–are employed among

the Indians of Mexico and Central and South



A small tree to 33 ft (10 in) high, with spreading branches, the guava is easy to recognize

because of its smooth, thin, copper-colored bark that flakes off, showing the greenish layer

beneath; and also because of the attractive, "bony" aspect of its trunk which may in time attain a

diameter of 10 in (25 cm). Young twigs are quadrangular and downy. The leaves, aromatic when

crushed, are evergreen, opposite, short-petioled, oval or oblong-elliptic, somewhat irregular in

outline; 2 3/4 to 6 in (7-15 cm) long, I 'A to 2 in (3-5 cm) wide, leathery, with conspicuous

parallel veins, and more or less downy on the underside. Faintly fragrant, the white flowers,
borne singly or in small clusters in the leaf axils, are 1 in (2.5 cm) wide, with 4 or 5 white petals

which are quickly shed, and a prominent tuft of perhaps 250 white stamens tipped with pale-

yellow anthers.

The fruit, exuding a strong, sweet, musky odor when ripe, may be round, ovoid, or pear-shaped,

2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) long, with 4 or 5 protruding floral remnants (sepals) at the apex; and thin,

light-yellow skin, frequently blushed with pink. Next to the skin is a layer of somewhat granular

flesh, 1/8 to 1/2 in (3-12.5 mm) thick, white, yellowish, light- or dark-pink, or near-red, juicy,

acid, subacid, or sweet and flavorful. The central pulp, concolorous or slightly darker in tone, is

juicy and normally filled with very hard, yellowish seeds, 1/8 in (3 min) long, though some rare

types have soft, chewable seeds. Actual seed counts have ranged from 112 to 535 but some

guavas are seedless or nearly so.

When immature and until a very short time before ripening, the fruit is green, hard, gummy

within and very astringent.


Food Uses

Raw guavas are eaten out-of-hand, but are preferred seeded and served sliced as dessert or in

salads. More commonly, the fruit is cooked and cooking eliminates the strong odor. A standard

dessert throughout Latin America and the Spanish-speaking islands of the West Indies is stewed

guava shells (cascos de guayaba), that is, guava halves with the central seed pulp removed,

strained and added to the shells while cooking to enrich the sirup. The canned product is widely
sold and the shells can also be quick-frozen. They are often served with cream cheese.

Sometimes guavas are canned whole or cut in half without seed removal.

Bars of thick, rich guava paste and guava cheese are staple sweets, and guava jelly is almost

universally marketed. Guava juice, made by boiling sliced, unseeded guavas and straining, is

much used in Hawaii in punch and ice cream sodas. A clear guava juice with all the ascorbic acid

and other properties undamaged by excessive heat, is made in South Africa by trimming and

mincing guavas, mixing with a natural fungal enzyme (now available under various trade

names), letting stand for 18 hours at 120º to 130º F (49º-54º C) and filtering. It is made into sirup

for use on waffles, ice cream, puddings and in milkshakes. Guava juice and nectar are among the

numerous popular canned or bottled fruit beverages of the Caribbean area. After washing and

trimming of the floral remnants, whole guavas in sirup or merely sprinkled with sugar can be put

into plastic bags and quick-frozen.

There are innumerable recipes for utilizing guavas in pies, cakes, puddings, sauce, ice cream,

jam, butter, marmalade, chutney, relish, catsup, and other products. In India, discoloration in

canned guavas has been overcome by adding 0.06% citric acid and 0.125% ascorbic acid to the

sirup. For pink sherbet, French researchers recommend 2 parts of the cultivar 'Acid Speer' and 6

parts 'Stone'. For white or pale-yellow sherbet, 2 parts 'Supreme' and 4 parts 'Large White'. In

South Africa, a baby-food manufacturer markets a guava-tapioca product, and a guava extract

prepared from small and overripe fruits is used as an ascorbic-acid enrichment for soft drinks and

various foods.

Dehydrated guavas may be reduced to a powder which can be used to flavor ice cream,

confections and fruit juices, or boiled with sugar to make jelly, or utilized as pectin to make jelly
of low-pectin fruits. India finds it practical to dehydrate guavas during the seasonal glut for jelly-

manufacture in the off-season. In 1947, Hawaii began sea shipment of frozen guava juice and

puree in 5-gallon cans to processors on the mainland of the United States. Since 1975, Brazil has

been exporting large quantities of guava paste, concentrated guava pulp, and guava shells not

only to the United States but to Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Japan.

Canned, frozen guava nectar is an important product in Hawaii and Puerto Rico but may be

excessively gritty unless stone cells from the outer flesh and skin are reduced by use of a stone

mill or removed by centrifuging.

In South Africa, guavas are mixed with cornmeal and other ingredients to make breakfast-food


Green mature guavas can be utilized as a source of pectin, yielding somewhat more and higher

quality pectin than ripe fruits.

Other Uses

Wood: The wood is yellow to reddish, fine-grained, compact, moderately strong, weighs 650-

750 kg per cubic meter; is durable indoors; used in carpentry and turnery. Though it may warp

on seasoning, it is much in demand in Malaya for handles; in India, it is valued for engravings.

Guatemalans use guava wood to make spinning tops, and in El Salvador it is fashioned into hair

combs which are perishable when wet. It is good fuelwood. and also a source of charcoal.

Leaves and bark: The leaves and bark are rich in tannin (10% in the leaves on a dry weight

basis, 11-30% in the bark). The bark is used in Central America for tanning hides. Malayans use
the leaves with other plant materials to make a black dye for silk. In southeast Asia, the leaves

are employed to give a black color to cotton; and in Indonesia, they serve to dye matting.

Wood flowers: In Mexico, the tree may be parasitized by the mistletoe, Psittacanthus

calyculatus Don, producing the rosette-like malformations called "wood flowers" which are sold

as ornamental curiosities.

Medicinal Uses: The roots, bark, leaves and immature fruits, because of their astringency, are

commonly employed to halt gastroenteritis, diarrhea and dysentery, throughout the tropics.

Crushed leaves are applied on wounds, ulcers and rheumatic places, and leaves are chewed to

relieve toothache. The leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for coughs, throat and chest ailments,

gargled to relieve oral ulcers and inflamed gums; and also taken as an emmenagogue and

vermifuge, and treatment for leucorrhea. It has been effective in halting vomiting and diarrhea in

cholera patients. It is also applied on skin diseases. A decoction of the new shoots is taken as a

febrifuge. The leaf infusion is prescribed in India in cerebral ailments, nephritis and cachexia. An

extract is given in epilepsy and chorea and a tincture is rubbed on the spine of children in

convulsions. A combined decoction of leaves and bark is given to expel the placenta after


The leaves, in addition to tannin, possess essential oil containing the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons

caryophyllene, -bisabolene, aromadendrene, -selinene, nerolidiol, caryophyllene oxide and

sel-11-en-4x -ol, also some triterpenoids and -sitosterol. The bark contains tannin, crystals of

calcium oxalate, ellagic acid and starch. The young fruits are rich in tannin.

                     BACTERIAL SOAP


                       CONDUCTED BY:

                        ALVIN TABULA

                       WILMA PAULINO

                      REGINE PADAONG

                    EDWARD HENRY CAOILE

                  [BSE II-PHYSICAL SCIENCES]

                      MR. RICKY BOSQUE

                     RESEARCH ADVISER

                        Second Semester


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