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					                                        BURN HALL SCHOOL
           th
Class: 8                                         Subject: Social Studies                       Unit:III & Term: II

                                                   (Unit – III - History)

LESSON NO 07 – CHANGE IN ECONOMIC LIFE.

Long Answer Type:
   1. Discuss the causes of poverty of the Indian people?
       Ans. The basic feature of economic conditions of the Indian people during the period of British rule was their
       extreme poverty. The average annual income per head usually given an indication of the general economic
       condition of a country of India. Such an income has been estimated as Rs 228 in 1947, which works out to be
       less than one rupee per day.
       The rural population was continuously plagued by indebtedness, famine and division of land holdings.
       Throughout the period of British rule, there was a continuous flow of India’s wealth to Britain. Heavy
       expenditure on military and administration was the cause of poverty of Indian people.
       The other important causes for the backwardness and poverty of the Indian people were:
       a) India’s agricultural backwardness.
       b) The government’s revenue and defective policies.
       c) Exploitation of peasants by Zamindars.
       d) Governments disinterest in the development of industries in India.
   2. What were the causes of backwardness of Indian agriculture and decline of production of food grains?
       Ans. The main causes for the backwardness of Indian agriculture are:
       a) The growth of population, which led to the pressure on land gradually increased. Holdings were
            continuously divided due to prevailing laws of inheritance. Thus the small size of the holdings became one of
            the factors of backwardness of Indian agriculture.
       b) The shift in favour of commercial crops like cotton, jute and oilseeds resulted in the decline of food grains
            production.
       c) Government and Zamindars did not play any important role in agricultural production.
       d) The irrigation facilities were inadequate. The agricultural mostly depended on rains which were uncertain.
       e) There was lack of modern manures, seeds etc. Also illiteracy and poverty was the causes of backwardness of
            Indian agriculture.
            The decline in the production of food grains was the result of shift in favour of producing commercial crops
            like cotton, jute and oilseeds.
            The government promoted their production while doing little to meet the shortage of food. In some parts of
            country, peasants were forced by the British planters to cultivate and sell it to them at prices fixed by them.
   3. What were the reasons of India’s Industrial backwardness and increase in the foreign trade in the 20th century?
       Ans. The reason for the increase of India’s industrial backwardness was that the industries set up were confined
       only to few places in India. Many industries were owned by the British and the profit also. The government did
       not extended facilities to the Indian industrialists in the promotion of their industries. Also government favoured
       European industrialists at the cost of Indian Industrialists. Besides the policy of government was in favour of
       British industrialists and to keep the India industrially backward and sub ordinate to her economy.
       Following were the reasons for the increase in India’s foreign trade in
       a) The introduction of railways and advance in ship building in India, better, quicker and cheaper transport
            facilities were available for the expansion in the trade.
       b) The opening of Suez Canal shortened the distance between India and Europe. So the movement of good
            between India and Britain increased further.
       c) The development of India’s trade relations with the US, Japan, Germany etc. enhanced the India’s foreign
            trade.
       d) The increased demand of raw material in other countries also led to the increase in India’s foreign trade.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What were the causes of frequent occurrence of famines in India?
       Ans. There were frequent occurrences of famines in India. The major reason for this was the absolute
       dependence of the agriculturalists on the monsoons. Even when the harvest was good, they could never store
       anything to live on during a drought. Failure of the monsoons in any year brought them face to face with
       famines. The small cultivators and labourers lived absolutely hand to mouth. Failure of monsoon means failure
       of crops and it means famines.
    2. What were the steps taken by the British Govt. to meet the problems of famines?
       Ans. The frequency of famines made the Govt. appoint famine commission. On their recommendations the govt.
       decided in 1883 to allocate 15 million rupees every year for famine, relief and insurance. Famine code was also
       framed to provide guidelines to the administrators, remission of land revenue, extension of irrigation works and
       monetary relief to the affected people were main items of this code. All the famine commissions especially
       recommend expansion of irrigation facilities and to develop canals.
    3. How were the economy of the country and the general life of the people affected by the introduction of
       railways?
       Ans. There was a deep effect of the railways on the economy and the general life of the people. It made the
       movement of people possible and made goods quicker, cheaper and more secure. The goods produced in one
       part of country could reach the other part of country and outside the country. It made danger of famines
       possible to eliminate and reach of food grains from other parts to the affected area. It led to the creation of new
       group of people in the society who were unskilled and casual labourers who were required for the lying of the
       railway line. Thus a new section of people in society were not dependant on land for their livelihood came into
       being.
    4. Complete the sentence:
       a) Ryotwari areas.
       b) Money lenders.
       c) Famine commissions.
       d) 1943.
       e) Transport systems.
       f) Bombay and thana.
       g) 19th century.
       h) Jamshedpur.
       i) Economic development.
       j) 1920.

LESSON NO 10 – STRUGGLE FOR SWARAJ

Long Answer Type:
   1. Who were the revolutionaries? What were the methods adopted by them to overthrow the British rule?
       Ans. Besides the ‘moderates’ and the ‘extreemists’ who worked for reforms and for Swaraj through appeals to
       mass agitations, there were small groups of revolutionaries who believed in using force to overthrow the British.
       They were organized into secret societies and gave training to their members in making explosives and using fire
       arms. Most of their members were young people who were active in Maharashtra and Bengal.
       In 1908, in Muzaffarpur, Khudiram Bose and Profulla Chaki threw a bomb into a carriage in which they thought a
       British judge, who had imposed severe punishments on Swedeshi workers, was travelling. Actually two British
       women were travelling in the carriage and they were killed. Chaki Killed himself and Khudiram Bose was hanged.
                The revolutionaries were brave and fearless and worked with full determination and made great
       sacrifices. They used violent means to overthrow the British. Indian revolutionaries were active in other parts of
       world also. Some of them had contacts with European revolutionary organizations.
   2. Write short notes on:
       Lucknow pact, Khilafat and Non-cooperation movement and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
       Ans. Lucknow Pact: The Lucknow Pact was signed in 1916. According to this pact the congress and the Muslim
       League agreed to work together in their demands for reforms in the councils and Swaraj at an early date. The
       coming together of the congress and the Muslim league to jointly fight for common cause was an important
       political event.
       Jallian Wala Bagh Massacre: The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre is in Amritsar. The govt. passed a repressive act
       known as the Rowaltt Act. The Punjab, along with other parts of India, launched a strong protest against this Act.
       In the meanwhile the govt. imposed military rule in Amritsar on the people who gathered at Jallianwal Bagh to
       protest against the British policy of suppression. General Dyer reached Jallianwala Bagh with his soldiers and
        started shooting unarmed people with machine guns. Hundreds of men, women and children were killed as the
        result of the Massacre.
        Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement: The growing discontent against the British led to the launching of
        the Khilafat Movement in 1919 and Non-Cooperation in 1920 under the leadership of Gandhi.
        Khilafat Movement: Turkey which fought against the British during the First World War was defeated and had to
        suffer injustice at the hands of British. In 1919, a movement was organized under the leadership o f Ali Brothers
        to force the British govt. to undo these injustices done on Turkey.
        Non Cooperation Movement: In 1920, Gandhi advised people not to cooperate with the British and make it
        impossible for them to run administration. The people in great number gave up the govt. posts. This movement
        produced for reaching results. It inspired them with a new confidence to fight for freedom.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What was the British policy in India immediately after the First World War?
        Ans. The British policy after the First World War was marked both by reforms and repression. Many Indian
        leaders had believed that after the War the British would give them Swaraj, but the British govt. announced only
        some reforms in the system of the govt. These reforms were called Montagone Chelmsford Reforms. He
        prepared a scheme of constitutional reform. On the basis of this scheme, the British parliament passed the govt.
        of India act of 1919. It introduced various changes in central and provisional govt. in India.
        A new system known as Dyarchy was introduced in the provinces. Under this system, the provisional subjects
        were divided into two parts reserved and transformed subjects.
        The right to vote was confined only to few to the men who owned property. In March govt. passed the Rounlett
        Act which empowered to put people in jail without trial. Any person held under this act had no right to appeal,
        vakil, and dalil. This act created great unrest in the country. There was a revolt like situation in many parts which
        was suppressed by the govt. by lathi charge and firing.
   2. What were the main differences in the outlook and methods of the Moderates and the Extremists?
        Ans. Towards the end of the 19th century, new trend began to emerge in the nationalist movement and the
        Indian National Congress was divided into two groups:
        a) Moderates: The leaders of moderates had faith in the British sense of justices. The important leaders of this
             movement are Gopak Khrishna, Gokhale, Feroz Shah Mehta, Surender nath Banerjee etc. They all believe
             one day their demands would be accepted by the British govt.
        b) Extremists: They do not like British policy of requests and submissions. They wanted Indians to be up with
             self-confidence. They adopted the methods of hartals and boycotts. They had no faith in the British govt.
   3. Match the following:
        a) Formation of the Muslim league                                           Aga Khan
        b) Khilafat and Non-cooperation                                             Ali Brothers
        c) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre                                                Gereral Dyer
        d) Partition of Bengal                                                      Lord Curzon
        e) Congress session of 1906                                                 Dadabhai Naoroje
   4. Fill in the blanks:
        a) Hindus and Muslims.
        b) Swaraj.
        c) 1921, Hakim Ajmal Khan.
        d) Bande Mataram.
        e) 1906

LESSON NO 11 – NATIONALIST MOVEMENT

Long Answer Type:
   1. What were the main features of the Govt. of India Act of 1935? What was the attitude of Congress towards it?
       Ans. The British Parliament passed the Govt. of India Act 1935 to solve the Constitutional problems of India. This
       Act provided for a federation of the Indian provinces and princely states at the Centre. The reserved subjects like
       Defence, Foreign Affairs, Tribal Areas etc. were to be administered by the Governor General and the remaining
       subjects were to be administered by the Governor General on the advice of the ministers who were responsible
       to the central legislature. The central legislature consists of two houses – The council of states and the Federal
       Assembly.
       Dyarchy was however abolished in the provinces and provincial autonomy was introduced.
        Attitude of Congress towards it:
        The Act of 1935 did not satisfy the leaders of the Nationalist Movement because both the Governor –General at
        the Centre and Governors at the provinces were still all powerful. They could reject any proposal put by the
        ministers. That is why Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru once said, “We are provided with a car with all breaks and no
        engine”.

    2. What was the Simon Commission? Why did the Indian people oppose it and what was the role of the Communal
       parties in the struggle for independence?
       Ans. In 1927, the British Govt. appoint ted a commission to enquire the working of the Govt. of India Act of 1919
       and to suggest further reforms in the system of administration. This commission is known as the Simon
       Commission after the Sir John who headed it. All the parties, groups and the people boycotted it because there
       was no Indian member in it. Moreover the clause of this Commission did not contain any hope of Swaraj for the
       Indians. The Commission met with strong opposition wherever it went. The people greeted with black flags and
       shouted slogans like “Simon go back”.
       Role of communal parties in the struggle for independence:
       Those parties which work exclusively for the benefit of their own communities without caring for the greater
       interests of the country are called communal parties. These parties played a very important role in the struggle
       for independence though they professed to serve the interest of their communities; they actually served the
       interest of British during the freedom struggle. The Muslim League was the major communal party which was
       formed by the Pro-British upper class of Muslims in 1906. They did not join the congress and weakened the
       struggle for Independence. Subsequently the Muslim League raised hurdles in the way of independence by
       demanding a separate country for the Muslims.

Short Answer Type:
   1. How did the ideas of socialism spread in India? What was their impact on the movement for freedom?
        Ans. The ideas of Socialism and Socialist movement were international in their outlook. The young leaders of the
        nationalist movement were deeply influenced by socialist ideas and by the Russian Revolution. The anti –
        imperialist foreign policy of the USSR and the progress made by the Asian parts appealed to them. The new
        leaders helped in popularizing socialist ideas and strengthened the nationalist movement by making the
        establishment of society based on equality of the people as its own.
        The impact on the movement for freedom:
        The struggle for freedom became the movement of the people because of the spread of the socialistic ideas. A
        large no. of farmers, labourers joined the struggle for freedom. The congress made socialism its mission and
        made its policies with regard to the social and economic objectives of the freedom struggle.
   2. Why was the Civil Disobedience Movement launched?
        Ans. As was decided in the Lahore session of the congress, the Civil Disobedience Movement was started by
        Mahatma Gandhi in March 1930.
        There were many reasons for starting the same.
        a) All other methods of meetings, forwarding resolutions to the Govt. peaceful-demonstrations, hartals etc.
             had failed.
        b) The British Govt. did not accept the eleven points which Gandhiji had sent to the Viceroy in his letter on 2nd
             March 1930.
        c) The The British govt. continued the policy of repression.
        d) The Ideal of complete independence could be achieved without challenging the British Govt.
             Mahatma Gandhi started the Civil Disobedience Movement by violation the Salt law in 1930. There were
             hartals, all over the country. The people boycotted the foreign goods and refused to pay tax. Soon this
             movement gained strength.
   3. What were the Round Table Conferences and what was the attitude of the congress towards them?
        Ans. In November, 1930 the British Govt. convened the first Round Table Conference in London to consider the
        reforms purposed by the Simon Commission. Nothing came out because the congress did not take part in it. The
        Govt. tried to come to an agreement with the congress. As a result a pact was signed between Lor Irwin and
        Gandhiji in 1931 known as Gandhi-Irwin Pact. According to this pact Gandhiji agreed to stop the Civil
        Disobedience Movement and to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in September 1931. It
        failed because it could not come to any conclusion. Gandhiji came back and once again started Civil
        Disobedience Movement. Then third Round Table Conference was held in London in 1932. It also failed because
        the Congress did not take any part in it.
    4. Match the following:
       a) Muslim League demanded the creation of Pakistan                                        1940.
       b) Congress passes resolution demanding the complete independence                         1929.
       c) British Govt. appoints the Simon Commission                                            1927.
       d) The Nationalist Movement decided to celebrate 26 January from this year
          as Independence day                                                                    1930.
       e) The Congress forms minister in provinces                                               1937.

    5. Fill in the blanks:
       a) China
       b) Lahore, Pakistan
       c) Non-Cooperation Movement



                                                  (Term – II - History)

LESSON NO 08 – RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL REFORM MOVEMENT AND CULTURAL AWAKENING.

Long Answer Type:
   1. Who was the founder of Arya Samaj? What were his teachings and discuss contribution of Arya Samaj to the
       spread of education in India?
       Ans. Swami Dayanand was the founder of Arya Samaj. He founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 to revive Hinduism
       and reorganize the Hindu society. He believed in the worship of one God. He was against Idol-worship. He
       opposed rituals, superstitions, sacrifices etc. He condemned the caste system and priesthood. His immortal work
       “The Satyarth Prakash” is still guiding the people with his teachings.
       Swami Dayanand discarded the caste system and preached social equality. He condemned untouchability. He
       was against child marriage and the purdah system. He was in favour of widow re-marriage and female
       education. He advocated equal rights for men and women. The Arya Samaj played a great role in uplifting
       women and untouchables.
       Contribution of Arya Samaj in the field of Eduation:
       The Arya Samaj opened many DAV schools and colleges both for boys and girls. Gurukul kangri at Haridwar tried
       to revive the Gurukul system of education as was prevailing in Ancient India.
       Arya Samaj did useful work in the religious, social and educational fields. Arya Samaj played an important role in
       spreading education. It favoured English education and western sciences.
   2. What was contribution of Syed Ahmad Khan in the spread of education and awakening of the Muslims?
       Ans. The most important reformer among the Muslims was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. He was a great scholar of
       Persian and Arabic. He worked as a Munsif in UP. After the Great Rising 1857, the Muslims were found relatively
       backward in education, trade and industry. He did his best to reform the Muslim society and changes their social
       and political outlook.
       Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was in favour of reforming in the Muslim society. He wanted to raise the status of women
       in society. He advocated the removal of Purdah and spread of education among women. He condemned the
       customs of polygamy and easy divorce.
       He advised the Muslims to receive English education and learn western sciences and culture and adopt modern
       ways and ideas. For the promotion of modern education among the Muslims, he founded MAO College at
       Aligarh in 1875, it developed into a university later on. He had many western books translated into Urdu for the
       benefit of the Muslims.
       Through his reforms and stress on modern education, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan awakened the Muslims and
       prepared them to meet the challenges.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What was the impact of British rule on the thinking of the Indian people towards their own society?
        Ans. The British rule in India brought a growing awareness in all the parts of the country of the backwardness of
        Indian society. The British Govt. made efforts to introduce social reforms and to do away with the social evil
        practices before 1857. The introduction of western education and English language along with social and
       religious reform movement led to cultural awakening in India in the 19th century like art, science, literature etc.
       where greatly affected. The national awakening in the country also inspired some Indians to take steps and
       launch campaigns for social reforms.
   2. What were the new features of modern Indian literature?
       Ans. The modern Indian literature was much different from the earlier literature both in content and style. It had
       the following new features:
       a) It revealed that the educated Indians were curious to know more about the new developments in the world.
       b) It was mostly composed in prose style against the verse compositions which were common previously.
       c) Themes were picked from the common life of the people instead of religion and mythology which previously
            dominated the Indian literature.
       d) Various forms of literacy expression such as Novel, Short story, drama, essay etc. developed very fast during
            this period.
       e) The new literature tried to reconcile the ideas and wisdom of the east and the west.
   3. Describe major landmarks in the growth of modern science in India.
       Ans. Both the social reformers and the national leaders were interested in the upliftment of the common people
       and the advancement of their country. But this was impossible without the teaching of science, so they laid
       emphasis on the teachings of science with their efforts departments of science were set up in different
       universities.
       It was regarded sinful to disect corpses or dead human bodies, but student – doctors courageously faced all such
       difficulties. Mahendralal Sarkar was the first Indian student-doctors who courageously faced all such difficulties
       and disect the human body. He founded the Indian Association for the cultivation of science in 1876.
       Indian produced a large number of scientists in every branch like CV Raman who won world acclaim. He was
       awarded Noble Prize in 1930.
       S. Vishesvarayya (1861-1962) contributed a lot to the field of engineering technology, building of dams and
       sericulture etc.
  4. Complete the sentences:
       a) 1772
       b) Abolition of Sati in 1829.
       c) Debendranath Tagore and Keshab.
       d) Chandra Sen.
       e) National Social Conference.
       f) Ten Principles.
       g) Nawab Abdul latief.
       h) 19th Century.
       i) Aligarh Muslim University.
       j) 1930
       k) Shantiniketan.



LESSON NO 09 – RISE OF INDIAN NATIONALISM

Long Answer Type:
   1. What were the changes in Economic life that helped to bring the people of India together and how?
       Ans. The changes in economic life brought about by British rule led to growing interdependence between
       different parts of the country and growth of a common economic life. Improvement in the means of transport,
       particularly the building of railways made the movement of goods and people from one part of the country to
       another much easier and faster than the before. Many of these changes were forced on the people by the
       British and caused much suffering. However, the growth of interdependence was an important factor in uniting
       the people and developing in them common aspirations.
       Modern trade and industries are great unifying forces. They bring different parts of a country in close contact.
       Even if an Industry is situated in isolated part of the country, the raw material for it may be produced in areas
       away from there. Similarly, the goods that a factory produces are not all consumed by people living near the
       place of their production. Thus different areas of the country became interdependent and were brought closer
       to one another.
       Modern industries also lead to the growth of big industrial town where large numbers of people work together.
       People working in industries come from many different parts of the country and belong to different castes and
       creed work together in factories creates a sense of solidarity among the people.
    2. When was the Indian National Congress formed? What were its main demands in the first twenty years of its
       existence and describe the attitude of British rulers towards the demands of the Indian National Congress.
       Ans. The Indian National Congress was formed in December 1885 by A O Hume, a retired British official of the
       company in Indian.
       The first 20 years of the Congress (1885 – 1905) are generally described as being its moderate phase. During this
       period the congress asked for gradual introduction of reforms and for the increased say of the Indians in the
       govt. and administration of the country. It demanded more powers for the legislative councils and to make these
       councils representative bodies by having elections for the membership of the councils. It also demanded the
       creation of the legislative councils in provinces, where they did not exist. It demanded that Indians should be
       recruited to higher posts in the govt. and that the civil service examination should be held in India also so that
       capable Indian were able compete for their services. It also demanded reduction in land revenue and changes in
       govt’s economic policies to facilitate the growth of Indian Industries. Other major demands were freedom of
       speech, expansion of welfare programmes and promotion of education.
       Attitude of the British govts. to the demands of the Indian National Congress:
       The British govt. did not pay much attention to the demands of Congress as:
       a) Govt. officials were debarred from attending the congress sessions.
       b) The congress was referred to as a microscopic minority.
       c) The British began propogating that India was not one nation but many nations with diverse interest.
       d) They tried to divide India on the basis of religion.
       e) British Parliament showed no interest to consider the demands of the Congress.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What were the Wahabi and Kuku movements? What were their aims?
        Ans. Even after 1857 there were many other armed revolts in different parts of the country which insulled love
        for freedom and feelings of hostility to the British rule among the Indian people. Two of them deserve a special
        mention:
        a) Wahabi Movement led by Syed Ahmed Barelavi : They carried raids in the British territories. Their rebellion
             was suppressed by the British in 1870 after long and continuous military efforts. The main aim of Wahabis
             was to overthrow the British rule in India and to install love for freedom through education. For this purpose
             they opened a school at Deoband near Sharanpur.
        b) The Kuku movement led by Guru Ram Singh whose followers are called the Kukas. This movement broke out
             in the Punjab where the Kukas tried to capture the treasury. The revolt was finally suppressed in 1872. They
             were armed revolutionaries who aimed to overthrow the British.
   2. How did the National movement differ from earlier revolts against the British rule?
        Ans. In India the National movement grew gradually expressing the aspirations of the Indian people as a nation.
        It was wide spread than any of the previous revolts and movements and represented the demands not of one
        section or community or region but of the entire nation. With this the struggle for independence became
        national in character. It united the Indian people into one entity as nothing else had done before.
   3. What is meant by the policy of “Divide and Rule”? Describe the major features of the British policy of Divide and
        Rule.
        Ans. The policy of Divide and Rule means to create difference among the people on the basis of caste, region,
        religion etc.
        The major features of the British policy of Divide and Rule are:
        a) British began to favour the Zamindars in order to alienate them from the other categories of Indian society.
        b) They knowingly gave step motherly treatment to educated category. They provided opportunity of
             employment to the sons of Zamindars and landlords. It created unrest among the middle class people.
        c) They practiced the Divide and Rule policy in military administration. The troops were organized on the basis
             on region, caste, tribe etc.
        d) They followed a systematic policy of dividing the Hindus and Muslims.
   4. Fill in the blanks:
        a) 1870’s
        b) Guru Ram Singh.
        c) Political units.
       d) Modern education
       e) Nationalistic
       f) 19th Century
    5. Match the following:
       a) The founder of Indian Association                                     Surendranath Banerjee.
       b) The first president of the Indian National Congress                   W. C. Banerjee.
       c) He was the president of the congress at its second session            Dadabai Naroji.
       d) He raised the slogan “Swaraj is my birth right and I must have it.    Bal Gangadhar Tilak.


LESSON NO 12 – ACHIEVEMENT OF INDEPENDENCE

Long Answer Type:
   1. What is meant by the Quit India Movement? When was it started? What is its importance in the history of the
       Indian Struggle for Independence?
       Ans. Quit India Movement was a great massive movement of Indian people who made great sacrifices for the
       liberation of their motherland. In April 1942 the Cripps mission failed. Within less than four months, the third
       great mass struggle of the Indian people for freedom started. This struggle is known as the Quit India
       Movement.
       On 8th August, 1942 the All India Congress Committee, at a meeting in Bombay passed a resolution. This
       resolution declared that the immediate ending of the British rule in India was an urgent necessity for the success
       of the cause of freedom and democracy. The resolution approved the starting of mass struggle on non-violent
       lines on the widest possible scale for the Independence of the country. After the resolution well passed Gandhiji
       in his speech said’ “We shall either be free or die the attempts”. “Quit India” and “Do or Die” became the battle
       cries of the Indian people during the Quit India Movement. On the 9th August, 1942 most of the leaders of the
       Congress were arrested. The Congress was banned. There were hartals in every part of the country. Govt. let
       loose a reign of terror. Angry people became violent. They attacked and destroyed govt. buildings and property.
       About 60000 people were jailed and hundreds were killed.
       It proved to be a massive movement against British rule in India. It shook the very foundation of the British rule
       in India.
   2. Under what circumstances did India gain Independence? What were the problems faced by the Indian people
       immediately after Independence?
       Ans. There were a number of internal and external pressures that made British to grant freedom to India. The
       Muslim League was pressing demand for a separate Pakistan. As the elections to the Constituent Assembly took
       place in July 1946 the Congress gained majority in it. The Muslim League boy-cotted it and observed Direct
       Action Day on 16th August, 1946 to achieve Pakistan. There were Hindu / Muslim riots all over the country,
       especially in Bengal. It was a black chapter in the history of India. Hundreds of lines were lost.
       The political condition in India had taken a serious turn when lord Mount batten arrived in India in March 1947
       as the new viceroy. He handled the situation with great skill. He held discussions with Indian leaders and came
       to the conclusion that partition alone could solve the Indian problem. On June 03 1947, Lord Mount Batten
       announced his plan. It was based on the division of India into two parts i.e. India and Pakistan.
       The Congress leaders accepted this plan with a heavy heart to avoid large scale bloodshed going on the country.
       The transfer power in August 1947 is a great landmark in the history of India. It was in the midst of
       unprecedented tragedies that India gained independence on 15th August 1947.
       Problems faced by the Indian people immediately after Independence:
       1. Political unification of India – The British had left India not only partitioned but also divided.
       2. Refugee Problem – It arose because of the atrocities committed by Pakistan on the minorities, lakhs of
            refugees, both Hindus and Sikhs began to migrate to India.
       3. The Food Problem – Then there was the food problem. Many wheat growing areas had gone to Pakistan. So
            there was an acute shortage of food grains in India.
       4. The Economic Problem – India was a poor country. Also the partition of the country created shortage of raw
            materials for many industries.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What was the attitude of Nationalist Movement towards the Second World War?
   Ans. The Nationalist leaders condemned the fascist countries like Germany, Italy and Japan which followed
   imperialist and expansionist policies. But they also did not spare the British Govt. which had dragged India into
   this imperialist war without consulting the Nationalists.
   The congress leaders put the condition that they would help the British Govt. in the war if she promised to grant
   freedom to India after the war. As the British Govt. refused to meet the demand, the congress ministers in the
   provinces resigned.
   In August 1942, Gandhiji started his “Quit India Movement”. A mass civil disobedience movement was launched
   to cripple the British War- machinery. The Govt. arrested Gandhiji and other leaders of the congress.
2. What was the position of Pondicherry and Goa during the period of British rule? When and how did they
   became Independent?
   Ans. Like France, Portugal too had some territories like Goa, Dama, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli under her.
   While France saw the writing on the wall and left India peacefully, Portugal failed to understand the changing
   times. So here the struggle for independence became somewhat tough. The freedom fighters were prosecuted,
   jailed and sentenced to various types of tortures but struggle for liberation continued by Goa, congress
   committee under the national leaders like Trestao Broyanzo Cunha. In 1954 Dadra and Nagar Havelli was
   liberated but Portugal refused to hand over Goa, Daman and Diu and in 1955 killed many unarmed Satyagrahis.
   The struggle continued for some years more and when the thinks became intolerable Indian troops were sent to
   Goa, Daman and Diu. Ultimately, the Portuguese surrendered and these territories also became a part of India.
   Independence of Pondicherry:
   Pondicherry along with some other territories was under the French control before 1947. Soon after
   independence there was a revolt in Make in 1948 and in Chandernagore in 1949 and both became independent.
   Ultimately in 1954 when the French controlled territories voted for merger with India. France entered into an
   agreement with the Govt. of India and with one stroke of pen Pondicherry also merged with India.

3. Why was the Indian National Army formed? What did it do for the freedom of the country?
   Ans. The Govt. crushed the Quit India Movement in 1942 with an Iron hand. After that there was no political
   activity in India till the war ended in 1945. But her brave sons abroad were not inactive. Subhash Chandra Bose
   organized the Indian National Army to carry on the fight for India’s freedom from abroad. He was one of the
   heroes of National Movement and a great patriot.
   He escaped from India in March 1941 and reached Russia for help. As Russia joined the Allies, he went to
   Germany. In February 1943, he left for Japan to organize on armed struggle against British rule with the help of
   the Japanese. In Singapore, he formed the Azad Hind Fauj / Indian National Army to carry on military campaign
   for the freedom of India.
   With the help of Japan, the soldiers fought in Burma and on the eastern border of India. Japan held to surrender
   in 1945 and as such INA too met with defeat. Subhash Chandra Bose tried to escape but was killed in an
   aeroplane accident. A large number of soldiers and officers of the INA were imprisoned.

4. Fill in the blanks:
   a) Poland.
   b) 1940.
   c) Individual.
   d) Japan, Pearl.
   e) Cripps.
   f) 1945, Italy.
   g) Indian Navy.
   h) Kashmir.
   i) Economic.
                                                    (Unit – III - CIVICS)

LESSON NO 03 – THE UNITED NATIONS
Long Answer Type Questions:
1. Mention the organs of the United Nations and discuss the composition and functions of the Security Council.
    Ans. There are six main organs of the United Nations:
    a) The General Assembly.
    b) The Security Council.
    c) The Economic and Social Council.
    d) The Trusteeship Council.
    e) The International Court of Justice.
    f) The Secretariat.
        The Security Council is the most important organ of the United Nations. It looks after the security and peace in
        the world. It has 15 members. These fall in two categories. Five members – France, The People of Republic of
        China, the Russian Federation, the UK and the USA are permanent members. The other ten members are
        elected by the General Assembly for a period of two years.
        The main functions of Security Council are:
        a) To maintain peace in the world.
        b) To settle disputes among the nations. It has the power to use force against any country if need arises.
        c) It has also the authority to appoint the judges of the international court of Justice along with the
            cooperation of the General Assembly.
Short Answer Type Questions:
    1. Give some of the achievements of the UN.
        Ans. The United Nations was helpful in avoiding several wars. Since its existence in June 1945, it reduced tension
        in many critical situations. It prevented large scale wars in Congo, West Asia Kashmir, Cyprus and Yemen.
        Various agencies of the United Nations have taken many steps for promoting health and humanity. It has helped
        successfully nations in achieving Independence. It has made significant contribution in the field of promotion
        and protection of human rights, protection of environment etc. The United Nations has also been making
        sincere efforts to stop the nuclear arms race.
    2. List the main objectives of the UN.
        Ans. The main objectives of the UN are:
        a) To maintain peace and security throughout the world.
        b) To develop friendly relations between nations.
        c) To work together to help people to live better lives.
        d) To eliminate poverty disease and illiteracy in the world.
        e) To stop environmental destruction.
        f) To encourage respect for each other rights and freedom.
        g) To be a centre for helping nations achieve their common ends.
    3. Give the full form of
        a) UNICEF – The United Nations International Children’s Education Fund.
        b) UNESCO – The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.
        c) ECOSOC – The Economic and Social Council.
        d) IAEA – The International Atomic Energy Agency.
        e) UNDP – United Nations Development programme.
        f) FAO – Food and Agricultural Organization.
        g) IMF – The International Monetary Fund.
        h) UPU – Universal Postal Union.
        i) UNO – The United Nation’s Organization.
        j) WHO – The World Health Organization.
                                                    (Term II - CIVICS)

LESSON NO 04 – GLOBAL ISSUES.
Long Answer Type:
    1. Write short notes on – Apartheid, Industrial Revolution. Nuclear Arms Race.
       APARTHEID – Apartheid is a form of racial discrimination. This policy segregated the people of South Africa
       according to their colour as white, black and coloured. White government of South Africa had been following the
       Apartheid against the black natives of the country. It was a naked violation of human rights.
       This discrimination on the basis of race is very unjust but today this policy has come to an end.
       INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION – Industries are however most important but they cause much of the pollution both
       of air and water. The effluents emitted by the chimneys of the factories mingle with the atmosphere and pollute
       it. Similarly, chemical wastes pollute water. Thus the Industrial development is giving rise to Industrial Pollution
       which is a big health hazard.
       NUCLEAR ARMS RACE- This is a major obstacle in the way to achieve world peace. It started with the Second
       World War when USA dropped two Atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which were completely destroyed.
       During Second World War USA was the only country which possessed atomic weapons. Later on other countries
       followed and so many nuclear weapons were formed. More and more countries joined this race. If this race goes
       unchecked humanity cannot be saved from the coming disaster. It will prove destructive for human race.
Short Answer Type:
    1. Why are human rights essential? Why is 10 December celebrated as Human Rights Day?
       Ans. Human Rights are fundamental rights that every human being needs to be able to live with dignity, justice
       and honour. These rights are essential for ones existence and development as a human being. All individuals
       should enjoy human rights without any distinction of race, religion, caste, colour or sex. They are universal and
       are protected by laws in different countries.
       On 10 December, 1948 the General Assembly adopted the universal declaration of Human Rights. The United
       Nations has called upon member states to secure all the human rights to their people. So 10 December is
       celebrated all over the world every year as the human rights day.
    2. Briefly explain the disparities between developed and developing countries.
       Ans. The disparities between developed and developing countries are:
       a) Developed nations are industrialized while developing countries have no industrialization or less industries.
       b) Developed nations have mass literacy and high economic production while as in developing countries even
             the basic necessities are not available.
       c) In terms of capital income developed countries are at the top. They comprise a quarter of the world’s
             population having 80% of the worlds manufacturing income while the per capita income of developing
             countries is very low.
       d) The people of developed countries do not depend entirely on the agriculture. They have the capital as well
             as technical knowledge while developing countries entirely depend on agriculture and are not possessing
             technical knowledge.
    3. Describe how arms race is a waste of resources.
       Ans. Arms race is a waste of resources. The scientific study has shown that a huge amount of money is being
       spend on armaments. This is a big obstacle in the way of development. Millions of scientists, engineers, and
       other workers spend their time and skill to produce new weapons. Countries are spending huge amount of
       money on armaments. A huge amount is spent on manufacturing of arms. If one fourth of that amount is spend
       for the betterment and development of humanity, and then no one of the world will remain hungry. There is no
       money to eradicate disease. That annually $14800 is spent on one soldier per year. This is now quite evident
       that arms race is simply a waste of resources.

Objective Type Questions:
   1. Fill in the blanks:
        a) Human rights.                                                 f)   $14800 and $230.
        b) 1991.                                                         g)   Arms race.
        c) World war.                                                    h)   Developing countries.
        d) World peace.                                                  i)   Industrial.
        e) Cancer.                                                       j)   2400
                                                 (Unit - III -GEOGRAPHY)
LESSON NO 08 – NATURAL RESOURCES
Answer the following questions briefly:
   1. What is meant by smelting and leaching?
       Ans. Smelting: This is the process by which metals are separated from ores by using heat.
             Leaching: The process whereby soluble substances like organic and mineral salts are washed out of the
                        upper layer of soil into a lower layer by percolating rain water.
   2. Write notes on – Black soils and Mountainous Soils.
       Ans. Black Soil: Black Soils are made up of volcanic rocks of lava flows. They are clayey and retain moisture for a
       long period. These soils are fertile and are found mainly in the Deccan Trap region of Maharashtra and parts of
       Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. These soils are mostly suited for raising cotton.
       Mountainous Soil: In the mountainous regions of the Himalayas, soil cover is generally thin. Valleys have
       comparatively thick cover. Soils of such regions are known as mountainous soil.
   3. What are the major forest products of India?
       Ans. Forests yield a variety of products. They are divided into two categories – major products and minor
       products. Wood is the major product of the forests, which is used for timber and fuel.
       They are used for making furniture, paper, building houses and bridges.
                Minor products of our forests are lac, resins, gums, medical herbs, katha, fodder, tendu leaves, lac etc.
   4. Coniferous trees are found at an altitude of _______________ m.

Long Answer Type Questions:
   1. How are coal and petroleum formed? Give a brief account of the distribution pattern of major coal fields and oil
       fields in India.
       Ans. Coal and Petroleum are the most important sources of energy in today’s world. Coal is formed from
       decayed plants buried long long ago in swamps. The major coalfields are located in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa,
       Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
       Petroleum or mineral oil is found in the pores of Sedimentary rocks. It has an organic origin i.e. form animal and
       plant matters contained in shallow marine sediments such as sand, silt and clay. In India Petroleum is found in
       Gujarat, Maharashtra and Brahmaputra and the Surma valleys in Assam. The Bombay High, 160 km away from
       Mumbai in the Arabian Sea is the largest producer of Petroleum in the country.
   2. What are the major types of forests found in India?
       Ans. The major types of forests found in India are:
       a) The Tropical Rain forests.
       b) The Tropical Deciduous forests.
       c) The Thorn forests.
       d) The Tidal forests.
       e) The forests of the Himalayan region.
       The Tropical Rain Forests: They are found in the areas where temperature is high and evenly distributed
       throughout the year. Rainfall is above 200 cm and dry season is short. These forests yield hardwood, teak, sal,
       rosewood and ebony.
       The Tropical Deciduous Forests: They are also known as Monsoon forests as they are the most typical of the
       monsoon region. They are found in areas having rainfall between 100-200 cm per annum. These forests yield
       teak, sal, sandalwood, sisam, and bamboos.
       The Thorn Forests: They are confined to the regions having an annual rainfall of less than 80 cms. It consists of
       trees, scrubs, and bushes, babul, kikar and wild palms are found in these areas.
       Tidal Forests:They are common to the areas flooded by the tides of the sea. Mangroves and the Sundari trees of
       the sundarban in Bengal are the examples of this type of vegetation.
       The Forests of the Himalayan region: They vary with height. The foot hills of the Himalayas are covered with
       tropical deciduous trees. Sal is the most important tree in the belt.
    3. Write a note on the distribution of metallic minerals in India.
       Ans. It is estimated that India has about one fourth of the world’s known Iron-ore reserves. The Iron ore
       reserves of Bihar and Orissa are among the best in the world. Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,
       Tamil Nadu and Goa also have important reserves. Manganese is used in the manufacture of special varieties of
       steel. Major deposits of Manganese are found in Karnataka and Goa. India is one of the largest producers of
       Manganese in the world.
       Bauxite deposits are found in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa and Maharashtra. Aluminum is extracted
       from Bauxite.
       Copper and Gold deposits in India are comparatively small. Important copper deposits are located in singhbhum
       district (Bihar) Balaghat (MP) and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts (Rajasthan).
       Gold is a precious metal. It is found mainly in Karnataka. Its Kolar gold mine is one of the deepest mines in the
       world.

Give One word Substitution:
    1. Afforestation.
    2. Sanctuary.
    3. Strip Croping.

Fill in the blanks:
      1. Ores.
      2. Water resources.
      3. Teak, sal, and sandalwood.


LESSON NO 09 – AGRICULTURE.

Long Answer Type:
   1. Describe the soil and climatic conditions required for growing rice and wheat. Which are the major rice and
       wheat producing states of the country?
       Ans. In India climatic conditions are ideal for the cultivation of wide range of crops. Agricultural operations in
       India begin with the arrival of the monsoon rains in June. There are three crop seasons – Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
       In India Rice and Wheat are the two most important food crops:
       RICE – Rice is mainly a kharif crop. Rice requires uniformly high temperature and plenty of water throughout its
       growth. Areas having more than 100 cm of rainfall or assured supply of water through irrigation are able to grow
       this crop successfully. Clayey soil, which retain water for a longer time is suitable for rice cultivation on the hill
       slopes. It is grown in terraced fields.
       Rice is grown almost throughout the country. However, the humid eastern part, river valleys and deltas are the
       rice growing areas. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu
       and Kerala are the major producers of rice.
       WHEAT – Wheat is a rabi crop. It requires well drained soil moderate temperature and 50-75 cm of rainfall. It
       requires water during early period of growth, but at the time of ripening weather should be warm and sunny. It
       grows well in the north western parts of India like Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, where winter is
       relatively longer and rainier.
   2. State the measures taken by the Govt. to improve the agriculture in India.
       Ans. At the time of Independence agriculture was not so good. The production of crops was so slow that India
       suffered food shortage. Hence, planned efforts were made to improve the situation. Major irrigation projects,
       agricultural research and development programmes were started. With the help of irrigation, improved seeds,
       use of fertilizers, manures and pesticides and by adopting scientific methods of farming etc. production of crops
       has increased substantially.
       By providing irrigation and fertilizers, less fertile and cultivable waste lands have also been brought under
       cultivation.
       The farmers were also given loan from banks and co-operative societies to purchase seeds, fertilizers and farm
       machineries. They were also provided with reasonable rates to buy high yielding and disease resistant varieties
       of crops.
       Land reform and adoption of scientific methods of farming helped a lot to improve the agriculture in India.
    3. Discuss the physical factors influencing agriculture.
       Ans. The physical factors which influence agriculture in a region are relief, soil and climate.
       CLIMATE – Climate has a great influence on the Agriculture of an area. On the basis of climate there are three
       crop seasons in India - Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon. Crops such
       as rice, maize, jowar, cotton, sugarcane, groundnut etc. are sown during this season. Rabi season begin in
       autumn and the important crops grown in the season are wheat, barley, gram, mustard etc. The Zaid is the
       summer crop season. Rice, Maize, vegetables, sunflower and groundnuts are grown in this season.
       SOIL – Soil is also an important physical factor having influence on agriculture. The alluvial and clayey soils are
       the most fertile soils among all. The black soil is found in plateau areas is most suitable for raising cottons etc.
       RELIEF – Relief also plays an important role in determining the agriculture in India. Various relief features like
       mountains plains, and plateau determine the type of nature and agricultural activity to be practiced. For
       Example, the cultivation of food grains like rice and wheat largely takes place in the plains. Fishery is mainly an
       activity of coastal areas.

Short Answer Type:
   1. Write a short note on White Revolution in India?
        Ans. Diary development has brought a white revolution in the country. The milk production has increased
        steadily. India is the largest producers of milk in the world. The per capita availability of milk has been 204 gram
        per day in 1997-98.
   2. Name the areas where coffee is grown in India.
        Ans. Coffee is grown in well drained soil and requires warm climate and moderate rainfall. It grows best in
        Tropical highlands, kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
   3. Distinguish between Rabi and Kharif Crops.
            Rabi Crops                                                          Kharif Crops
        1. It is a crop which begins to grow in autumn.                     1. It is a crop which starts to grow with the
        2. Important crops grown in this season are                             onset of the monsoon season.
            wheat, barley, jowar, gram, mustard and                         2. Important crops grown in this season are
            linseed.                                                            Rice, Maize, Cotton, Jowar, Sugarcane,
        3. The crops are harvested at the end of the                            Groundnut and Urad.
            winter season.                                                  3. The crops are harvested in autumn.

Very Short Answer Type:
   1. Name two oilseeds.
       Ans. The two oilseeds are – mustard and groundnut.
   2. What is GDP?
       Ans. GDP is Gross Domestic Product which refers to the total value of goods and services produced by a country
       over a period of time.
   3. What is meant by rotation of crops?
       Ans. Different crops that are grown one after another on the same piece of land to maintain fertility of the soil is
       called Rotation of Crops.

                                                (Term – II – Geography)
LESSON NO 10 – INDUSTRIES
    1. Discuss the distribution of cotton textile and sugar industries in India.
       Ans. Textile Industry: Cotton, jute, silk, wool and synthetic are different varieties of fibres providing raw material
       for textile industry. In India, cotton textile is one of the oldest industries. The first modern cotton textile industry
       was set up in India in Mumbai in 1854. In our economy, it has a unique place as it contributes a significant
       portion of the total industrial production. It provides employment to millions of people. It also shares about 1/3
       of the total export earnings.
       Since independence, there has been a tremendous progress in the production of cotton fabrics. In recent years,
       production of blended fabrics has increased. Synthetic fibres are manmade and are developed through chemical
       processes e.g. Rayon, nylon and terene. Of the total fabric production, 60% is contributed by cotton and
       remaining is blended or non-cotton.
       There are about 1500 cotton man-made fibre mills. Most of them are in the private sector. The cotton and man-
       made fibre industry is concentrated mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. A substantial production is
       also obtained from the handloom sector.
    Sugar Industry: The sugarcane is the raw material for this industry. After harvesting the crop, it needs to be sent
    to mill immediately for crushing. Storing can reduce the sucrose content as the juice dries. Hence, these mills are
    located in the sugar cultivating areas. These industries are operative only during the harvesting season of the
    sugarcane.
    Maharashtra is an important producer of sugarcane. Here the cultivation of sugarcane and the sugar industry
    are under cooperative sector. India is one of the major sugar producers of the world.

2. What are the different bases for classifying industries?
   Ans. Industries are classified in different ways – on the basis of raw materials, size of the industrial unit and
   ownership. Industries are grouped under two broad categories. They are:
   a) Industries obtaining raw materials from agriculture are called agro- based.
   b) The group of industries, using minerals as their raw materials is called mineral based industries. e.g. Iron and
       steel, aluminium, cement and copper industries.
       Industries may be classified on the basis of the size both in terms of number of employees and the amount
       of money invested in setting up the plant and the running cost.
       There are large, medium and small scale industries. Iron and steel, cotton textiles and oil refining are
       examples of large scale industries.
       If the industrial unit is small, having very few people employed and the amount of money invested is also
       not very high, it is called a small-scale industry e.g. leather goods, paper, glass etc.
       A wide variety of goods such as carving on woods, making of cane furniture and other items, weaving of
       cloth, making pickles etc are produced in very small unit mostly in homes with the help of family members
       only. These industries are known as Cottage industries.
            Depending upon the nature of ownership, the industries, the industries may be classified as Private,
       Cooperative, Public and Joint Sector industries.
       I) Private Industries: Industry owned and managed by an individual or a group of individuals is called
                Private industry.
       II) Cooperative Industries: If the ownership of an industry belongs to cooperatives, it is called central
                cooperative sector.
       III) Public sector: If the government center or the state is the owner of an industry it is called public sector
                industry.
       IV) Joint Sector Industries: Industries set up, owned and managed in cooperation between the Government
                and the Private initiative is called joint sector industries.
       V) Multinational Industries: In recent years, a number of industries have been set up in collaborations with
                foreign investors. They are called multinational companies (MNC).

3. Describe the location and growth of Iron and Steel industries in India?
   Ans. The modern iron and steel industry was set up in Kulti, West Bengal in 1870. The first large scale plant got
   underway with the establishment of Tata Iron and Steel company (TISCO) in 1907 at Jamshedpur. The Iron and
   Steel plants are at Burnpur, Bhadravati, Vijainagar, Burgapur, Bhilai, Rourkela, Bokaro and Vishakapatnam. There
   is also an alloy steel plant at Durgapur and stainless steel plant at Salem. Except for TISCO, all other steel plants
   are owned and managed by the Govt.
   The Iron and Steel industry is considered as a basic industry because it provides iron and steel for manufacturing
   tools and machines for various purposes like – construction, auto industry and infrastructure projects etc. The
   production of finished steel in 1997-98 was over 22 million tones. Iron and steel is also exported now.

4. Distinguish between:
   a) Primary and Secondary Activities:
           Primary Activities                                                Secondary Activities
       1. These activities are directly connected                         1. The activities related to transformation
           with nature so they are called primary                            of primary products into secondary
           activities e.g. milk, fruit, fish, vegetables                     products are called secondary activities
           etc.                                                              e.g. bread, sugar, cloth etc.
       2. Forestry, farming, mining, fishing etc.                         2. Manufacturing and processing is a
           are primary activities.                                           secondary activity. Processed goods are
                                                                             more valuable than their raw form.
        b) Agro-based and Mineral-based industries:
              Agro-based industries                                         1. Industries using minerals as their raw
           1. Industries obtaining raw materials from                          material are called mineral based
              agriculture are called agro-based                                industries.
              industries.                                                   2. They are based on manufactured good
           2. They are based on agriculture.                                   involving use of machines.
           3. Agricultural products are transformed                         3. A no. of complex products are
              to useful products such as textiles from                         manufactured from goods such as iron
              cotton, sugar from sugarcane.                                    used in the making of machinery
              Mineral-based industries

Objective Type:
   1. Tata Iron and Steel Company.
   2. 1854.
   3. 1500
   4. Madras.


LESSON NO 11 – TRADE, TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
    1. What are the life lines of a country? Why are they so called?
       Ans. The means of transport and communication are the lifelines of a country. Means of transport help in
       carrying of materials from one place to another. Transport also makes possible internal and international trade.
       Whenever in need or in times of famine, flood and other natural calamities the help can be done only through
       transportation. Efficient and faster means of communication provide all necessary information regarding the
       commodities in different markets of the country as well as in the world and keep the govt. well informed. All
       urgent messages can be conveyed only through them. Thus, an adequate, efficient and faster network of means
       of communication and transportation is the first requirement for a country’s economic success.

   2. Write a note on development of communication system in India.
      Ans. The means of transport and communication are closely related to each other. Together they act as the
      lifelines of a country. Postal services telecommunication and several means of mass communication such as
      radio and television bring people closer.
      The Indian postal network with about 1.5 lakh post offices is the largest in the world. The telecommunication
      network with over 22000 telephone exchanges and 158 lakh connections has grown very fast. Every village is to
      be provided with one public telephone. About 1/3 of the total villages have now this type of facility. E-mail and
      internet services provide cheaper and quicker communication. It has been possible because of the satellites
      launched by India for improving communication facilities.
      Radio and television are most important means of mass communication, even in remotest part of the country.
      The facilities are being used successfully for education the masses and creating awareness.
   3. Why is railway transport very important in our country? Also mention how railway journeys have been faster
      now?
      Ans. Railways are the most important means of transport for a majority of people, for long distance travel. Even
      for bulky and heavy commodities this is a faster mode of transport. Coal, food grains, raw materials for steel
      plants, finished iron and steel products, cement, fertilizers and mineral oil are the most important goods carried
      by the railways.
      Railways are the main contributor to the national income. They also help us in quick movements of our defence
      forces. Railways also helps us in maintaining constant supply of ration, ammunition etc to the forces at our
      borders.
      With the gradual electrification of railway routes, the number of steam engines has reduced drastically. Electric
      and diesel engines ensure fast and clean journeys. Several trains with very high speed have been introduced.
      Rajdhani Express and Shatabadi Express are such trains. State capitals are linked with national capital by
      Rajdhani Express.
Short Answer Type:
   1. Which are the two main navigable rivers of India?
        Ans. Ganga and Brahmaputra.
   2. Write a short note on national highway.
        Ans. Major Roads connecting different parts of the country, passing through several states are known as
        national highways. They account for less than 2% of the total road network. They are constructed and
        maintained by central government. In border areas, roads have been constructed even at high altitudes. Some
        of these roads connect India with Tibet through the mountain passes.
   3. Why does air transport have special significance in a different terrain?
        Ans. Air travel in recent years has become very important. It has reduced distance and made most parts of the
        country accessible. For reaching difficult terrain in the hilly and mountainous areas as well as islands in Bay of
        Bengal and the Arabian Sea, it is the fastest mode of travelling. The air transport is of great value in the north-
        eastern states. The air links also help maintaining constant supplies to army at borders. They help in carrying
        passengers, cargo and air mail.

Fill Ups:
     1. Domestic Trade
     2. Export
     3. 3574 Km.
     4. Border Roads Organization (BRO)
     5. Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi.


LESSON NO 12 – HUMAN RESOURCES

    1. Discuss the distribution of population in India with special reference to the factors influencing distribution.
       Ans. Population of our country is not evenly distributed. One means of describing the pattern of population
       distribution is to refer to the population density i.e. the number of people per sq. km. According to 1991 census
       the total population of India was 84.39 crore and the density of population was 267 persons per sq. km. The
       density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density
       of population depends on the amount of rainfall, the area which have sufficient amount of rainfall can support a
       large no. of people.
       The areas which have highest density of population in India are:
       Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Malabar Coastal Strip.
       The areas with lowest density are Nagaland, J&K, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh and the Thar Desert in Rajasthan.
       The density of population in India varies with the land and its surface. In the fertile Ganga- Brahmaputra plains
       and deltas or rivers, the density of population is high. In Plateaus it is moderate, in mountains, deserts, forests
       and marshy areas the density of population is low.
    2. How composition of population is helpful in understanding the quality of population? Explain with the help of
       suitable examples.
       Ans. Population of a country is composed of males and females – children, young and old. The population is
       usually divided into three age- groups.
       a) Children (0-14 years)
       b) Adults (15-59 years)
       c) Aged (60 and over).
       This is known as age group of population. They live either in villages or towns. India like other developing
       countries has a large proportion of children in the total population.
       The Sex ratio i.e. the number of females / thousand males is low in our country. This ratio has gradually
       declined. Only Kerala has higher no. of females per thousand males. In the state of J&K the sex ratio as per
       census 2001 is 900. Pulwama district has higher no. of females / thousand males. A person who is above 7 years
       and can read and write any language with understanding is called a literate. Literacy i.e. the percentage of
       literate people is one of the indicators of quality of population.
       All these components are the basic indicators of human development. These make the overall quality of people.
       The large no. of males increases the manpower to utilize natural resources. The large no. of children increases
      the dependant population. A hard working, educated and healthy population is a great asset of a nation. Thus,
      the quality of population is an index of economic development of a country.
   3. What is the cause of fast population growth in India? Discuss with example.
      Ans. Our country has witnessed a rapid population growth. In 1921, total population was 251 million. In 78 years
      it has grown to 988 million. Today it is more than 110 crores. This rapid increase in our population is mainly due
      to the fall in the death-rate. Due to improved health facilities a number of diseases and epidemics have been
      controlled. Life expectancy of people has increased from 20 years in 1920 to 65 years now. Thus, due to a fall in
      the death rate there has been a rapid increase in our population.

   4. Distinguish between:
      a) Population Growth and Natural Increase.
              Population Growth                                                Natural Increase
          I) Population growth is the increase in                          I) Natural increase is the difference
                  population due to natural growth                                 between birth-rate and death-rate
                  and migration.                                                   per 1000 persons.
          II) The growth of population is the                              II) The natural growth is expressed as
                  difference between total                                         percentage
                  population over a certain period.

       b) Rural population and urban population.
               Rural Population                                                 Urban Population
          I) Agriculture is the main occupation of                         I)   The main occupation is trade and
                   rural people.                                                    manufacturing.
          II) They are not provided with modern                            II) They are provided with all the basic
                   facilities.                                                      facilities of life.
          III) The density of population is low in rural                   III) The density of population is high in
                   areas.                                                           urban areas.

Short Answer Type:
   1. What is population density?
        Ans. The number of persons per sq. Km. is called population density.
   2. What is Sex ratio?
        Ans. Number of females for thousand males.
   3. What is meant by population growth?
        Ans. The Population growth means the natural increase in population due to difference in birth-rate and death-
        rate . The net gain from migration is also added to it.
   4. Why is population in urban areas growing fast?
        Ans. The population in urban towns is growing fast because the people from rural areas move to urban areas in
        search of employment. People find many facilities of recreation, health, education also so the population is
        attracted towards the urban areas.
   5. What is age group of population?
        Ans. The population is usually divided into three age groups – children (0-14 years), adults (15-59 years) and
        aged (60 and over). This is known as age groups of population.

Objectives:
   1. Asset
   2. Seventh
   3. River valleys and deltas.
   4. 251 million.
   5. Sweden
   6. Pulwama district
   7. 54%

				
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