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SPECIAL OPERATIONS
       TOTAL
 TRAINING SOLUTION
      (SOTTS)




        19 December 2007
  Completed for USSOCOM SOAL PEO-PT
   Completed by Jacobs Technology, Inc.


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                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1

   1.0       Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1
      1.1.      Background ............................................................................................................................... 1
      1.2.      Objective ................................................................................................................................... 1
      1.3.      SOTTS Methodology ................................................................................................................ 1
      1.4.      Assumptions and Limitations .................................................................................................... 2

CHAPTER 2 – AFSOC TRAINING PROGRAMS ...................................................................................... 3
   2.0       AFSOC INPUT ............................................................................................................................. 4
      2.1.      SOTTS Level 1 data: ................................................................................................................ 4
      2.2.      SOTTS Level 2 data ................................................................................................................. 6

CHAPTER 3 – MARSOC TRAINING PROGRAMS ................................................................................... 7
   3.0       MARSOC INPUT .......................................................................................................................... 8
      3.1.      SOTTS Level 1 data ................................................................................................................. 8
      3.2       SOTTS Level 1 data: None provided ....................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER 4 – NSWC TRAINING PROGRAMS ........................................................................................ 9

   4.0       NSWC INPUT ............................................................................................................................. 10
      4.1.      SOTTS Level 1 data ............................................................................................................... 10
      4.2.      SOTTS Level 2 data ............................................................................................................... 11

CHAPTER 5 – USASOC TRAINING PROGRAMS ................................................................................. 12

   5.0       USASOC INPUT ........................................................................................................................ 15
      5.1.      SOTTS Level 1 data (SF CMD - ARSODTC) ......................................................................... 15
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      5.2.      SOTTS Level 1 data (75 RR) ................................................................................................ 16
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      5.3.      SOTTS Level 1 data for 160 SOAR ...................................................................................... 17
      5.4.      SOTTS Level 2 data for USASOC .......................................................................................... 18

CHAPTER 6 – PHASE II PROGRAM SELECTION................................................................................. 19

   6.0       Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 19
      6.1.      Background ............................................................................................................................. 19
      6.2.      Objective ................................................................................................................................. 19

CHAPTER 7 - ADVANCED MARKSMANSHIP PROGRAM REVIEW .................................................... 20
   7.0       Summary ................................................................................................................................... 20
      7.1.      General Description of Mission Needs ................................................................................... 20
      7.2.      Training Requirements ........................................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER 8 - ADVANCED DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM REVIEW .................................................. 24


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   8.0        Summary ................................................................................................................................... 24
       8.1.      General Description of Mission Needs ................................................................................... 24
       8.2.      Training Requirements ........................................................................................................... 25

CHAPTER 9 - INDIRECT FIRE AND FORWARD AIR CONTROL SIMULATIONS PROGRAM REVIEW
.................................................................................................................................................................. 31

   9.0        Summary ................................................................................................................................... 31
       9.1.      General Description of Mission Needs ................................................................................... 31
       9.2.      Training Requirements ........................................................................................................... 31

CHAPTER 10 - U-28A PROGRAM REVIEW ........................................................................................... 33

   10.0          Summary ................................................................................................................................ 33
       10.1. General Description of Mission Needs ................................................................................... 33
       10.2. Training Requirements ........................................................................................................... 33

CHAPTER 11 - AFSOC MEDIUM UAV PROGRAM REVIEW ................................................................ 35
   11.0          Summary ................................................................................................................................ 35
       11.1. General Description of Mission Needs ................................................................................... 35
       11.2. Training Requirements ........................................................................................................... 35




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               SOTTS – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

TBP




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                                   CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.0     Introduction
1.1.   Background

The genesis of the Special Operations Total Training Solutions (SOTTS) Analysis of Alternatives (AoA)
was a directive from the Commander USSOCOM to look at simplifying training solutions for all
USSOCOM Components by migrating to single contracted solutions for training requirements. These
requirements would be defined primarily by a trained SOF graduate, at a predetermined level of
proficiency, at a single cost to the command, managed by a single umbrella contract. The most desired
solution would be a Contractor owned, contractor operated training scenario with the SOF Commanders
writing a single check, under a single contract for the SOF product, thus ridding the command of
multiple, time consuming and often more expensive contracting options.

.
1.2.   Objective

The primary purpose of this AoA is to determine the feasibility of converting all SOCOM training to
contractor owned and operated systems, with trained personnel as the product of this system.

Secondary objectives of this AoA are to document current training methods, and to develop a detailed
economic analysis of the final recommended solutions. The full economic analysis is an option to be
executed after feasibility analysis is complete and an alternative is selected.
1.3.   SOTTS Methodology

With the establishment of SOAL PEO-PT in October of 2006, USSOCOM had for the first time a
program executive office chartered with the oversight of the MFP-11 training dollars flowing through the
USSOCOM budget. Up until the establishment of PEO-PT, SOF Components had almost 20 years of
identifying, validating, budgeting, conducting and managing SOF training requirements. Components
prepared and submitted training budgets as a part of their overall POM submission, with little direct
oversight and training specific guidance. Additionally, SOF Components have worked directly with their
parent service training organizations for service common skills training requirements, with varying
degrees of success.
Though listed as a secondary objective, it is imperative that the initial step of the SOTTS process be the
documentation of current training baselines. PEO-PT must start with an understanding of each of the
four component training systems that have developed largely without central management, within
service stovepipes and with little joint oversight or any eye toward the economies of shared assets. It
has quite literally been every man for him self for almost 20 years.

With this background established the SOTTS effort will be conducted in three phases:
Phase I – Identify each components training baseline requirements within three major categories,
simulators, simulations, and advanced training. To support this effort, the SOTTS team has briefed and
gained PEO-PT approval of the high level resourcing descriptions required to adequately evaluate
training requirements within this phase.

Phase II – Brief PEO-PT on each component baseline and jointly identify training opportunities that

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show promise for contracting improvement under the Commander’s initial guidance. Select a
reasonable number of these training requirements for additional detailed analysis. Conduct an AoA of
each training requirement selected, brief PEO-PT on the outcome of these analyses, and jointly select
only those training requirements that are viewed as viable solutions under the commander’s guidance
and that can be successfully documented for POM submission by April 2008.



Phase III – Complete full economic analysis of the selected training requirements for POM submission
and produce all PEO-PT support documentation.



1.4.       Assumptions and Limitations

The primary assumptions of this Quick Look analysis are:

           Initial Phase I Analysis will be qualitative (i.e., subjective extrapolation from secondary
            data/literature search and expert interview sources); quantitative analysis/results not required.

           Unstaffed, but documented, Component and Service training insights and responses to
            questions regarding a current baseline and future projections will suffice.

The primary limitations of this SOTTS study are:

           There is no existing USSOCOM training baseline documentation.

           There is no existing USSOCOM Modeling and Simulation Master Plan.

           There are limited existing current analyses to leverage.

           Time available for data collection, data collation and report generation is limited.




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                           CHAPTER 2 – AFSOC TRAINING PROGRAMS

AFSOC Program Summary

1. (U) The following paragraphs are the summation of the Study Team’s assessment in regards to the
three categories of Feasibility Targets; Simulators, Simulations, and Advanced Training. This
summation is based upon their reviews of documents, as well as, interviews conducted during Phase l of
this study.

2. (U) Feasibility Target Summary:

A.   (U) Simulators:

              1) The bulk of AFSOC simulator support is covered by the Aircrew Training and
Rehearsal Support II (ATARS II) contract. This recently awarded contract is extremely close to the
USSOCOM Commander’s stated desire of simplified, one contract covers all application. ATARS II is
not a candidate for modification at this time.

                 2) U-28A aircraft has no simulator at this time. AFSOC is expanding its Fleet of U 28
aircraft and has identified this as being an emerging requirement where a high fidelity simulator would
facilitate the training of the growing pool of Flight Crews at a reduced cost. l Flight Training in the U-28 is
currently provided by government contract and is a candidate for CO/CO.

               3) AFSOC continues to acquire Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). AFSOC has an
emerging requirement for Instructors and Simulator interface to facilitate the training of the pool of UAV
operators. Initial UAV training is currently provided by AETC. UAV training is a CO/CO candidate for
AFSOC.

B. (U) Simulations: The Indirect Fire Forward Air Control Trainer (I-FACT) supports training for Joint
Tactical Close Air Support for SOF across SOCOM. Each service/component and or location has
individual contracts and systems to meet the similar/identical training requirements. Training and support
for I-FACT in AFSOC is currently provided by government contract and is a candidate for CO/CO or
some other version of a SOCOM umbrella contract to support all component requirements.

C.   (U) Advanced Training: AFSOC has yet to Identify and provided information on Advanced Training.
D. (U) Other: Special Operations Forces Planning, Rehearsal and Execution Preparation (SOFPREP)
provide access to geospatial intelligence data across SOCOM. SOFPREP provides data in support of
mission execution, mission planning, CONPLAN/ OPLAN development and other support requirements.
It is estimated that the development of products in support of mission planning and rehearsal amount to
far more than 50% of SOFPREPs work load. The amount of data developed and stored is out growing
the SOFPREP facility. Further investigation is required to determine an equitable division of funding for
SOFPREP, and the proper sources for that funding.




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2.0     AFSOC INPUT
2.1.   SOTTS Level 1 data:

            Simulators                         Simulation                 Advanced Training

AC-130H Crew Station Trainer (CST)   Indirect Forward Air Control
                                     Trainer (I-FACT)               ASOT II Training

AC-130H Part Task Trainer (PTT)      AC-130 H/U Battle Management
                                     Center (BMC) Distributed
                                     Mission Operations (DMO)
                                     (Future URR)                   Medical Training (TCCC)

AC-130U Weapon Station Trainer
(WST)                                                               Communications Sustainment

MC-130 LMPTT                                                        Jump Master (S/L and HALO)

MC-130H WST x 2                                                     Pre-Scuba Training

MC-130E WST                                                         Combat Diver Sustainment

CV-22 FTD x 2 (x 6 FY13)                                            Combat Search and Rescue

MH-53M WST (obsolete)                                               Airborne proficiency

Interactive Defensive Avionics
System–Multi-mission Advanced
Tactical Trainer (IDAS-MATT) Part                                   Austere Environment (Water,
Task Trainer (PTT)                                                  Mountains, Sand, Snow, etc.)

40mm/105 Part Task Trainer (PTT)                                    Combative GMV

Visual Threat Recognition and
Avoidance Trainer VTRAT x 2                                         Demolition

Tower Simulator System (TSS)                                        ATV Mobility Training

SOF Air Ground Interface Simulator
(SAGIS) (Prototype)                                                 Airfield Seizure

AC-130H Crew Station Trainer (CST)                                  UAV/SUAS Operations

AC-130H Part Task Trainer (PTT)                                     Heavy Weapons



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                                         CAS Currency/Training

                                         JTAC Course

                                         JTAC Evaluator/Instructor




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2.2.   SOTTS Level 2 data

.
.




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                        CHAPTER 3 – MARSOC TRAINING PROGRAMS

MARSOC Summary

1. (U) The following paragraphs are the summation of the Study Team’s assessment in regards to the
three categories of Feasibility Targets; Simulators, Simulations, and Advanced Training. This
summation is based upon their reviews of documents, as well as, interviews conducted during Phase l of
this study.

2. (U) Feasibility Target Summary:

A. (U) Simulators: At the time this deliverable was produced, the Marine Special Operations Command
is in the process of final staffing for validation of simulator requirements.

B. (U) Simulations: Detailed coordination is ongoing between operational, logistical, and budgetary
staffs of MARSOC and USASOC to determine current simulations that are feasible, suitable, and
acceptable for use within the command. Simulations will be selected based on their respective
application to the command’s Mission Essential Task List and unique skill sets. Areas of emphasis for
simulations are: interoperability and mission planning/rehearsal with a higher headquarters, Command
and Control, Control and conduct of indirect fire support and Close Air Support, and lastly, execution of
multiple mission profiles.

C. (U) Advanced Training: MARSOC has stated their priority of effort is final development of the Initial
Training Course (ITC) requirements and associated course POIs. Limited Advanced Training is now
conducted, specifically: Explosive Breaching, Sniper, and Level III Special Reconnaissance (SR).
However, it is the intent of this command to develop a template in regards to Advanced Training that is
similar to that of USASOC.




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3.0    MARSOC INPUT
3.1.   SOTTS Level 1 data

        Simulators                    Simulation                 Advanced Training

NONE                          NONE                      Explosive Breaching

                                                        Sniper

                                                        Level III Special
                                                        Reconnaissance (SR)




3.2    SOTTS Level 1 data: None provided

.




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                          CHAPTER 4 – NSWC TRAINING PROGRAMS

NSWC Summary

1. (U) The following paragraphs are the summation of the Study Team’s assessment in regards to the
three categories of Feasibility Targets; Simulators, Simulations, and Advanced Training. This
summation is based upon their reviews of documents, as well as, interviews conducted during Phase l of
this study.

2. (U) Feasibility Target Summary:

A. (U) Simulators: NSWC has placed a high priority on acquiring three Joint Tactical Close Air Support
systems to train the force at home station on the east and west coast, and during certification training at
NAS Fallon. Current NSWC thinking has them most interested in the USMC system the MSAT.
Complete analysis of the total NSW and SOF training requirement in this area are recommended, and
the opportunity for a CO/CO, umbrella type, SOCOM sponsored contract to support multiple component
JTAC requirements is seen at this time as a possibility. Additionally, one NSWG has identified a
requirement to upgrade existing craft simulators with navigation for ports and harbors world wide. An
opportunity was identified to convert these systems to GO/CO, with the contractor responsible for all
systems, day-to-day function and hardware and software updates.

B. (U) Simulations: NSWC has placed a high priority on acquiring additional Multiple Integrated Laser
Engagement Systems (MILES) gear to enhance simulation of craft engagement in training. NSWC is
most interested in the products developed by SAAB Corporation and marketed as the Deployable
Integrated Training System. Additionally, they have identified a strong desire to increase the availability
of Interactive Courseware offered through their Advanced Training Center (ATC).

C. (U) Advanced Training: NSWC’s stated highest priority for training program support is being driven
by the implementation of the Global SOF Posture (GSP) and the requirement to expand the operational
base of the command. The increased requirement for qualified SEALs in the expanding NSW Groups is
driving an increased requirement for contractor instructors to support all phases of NSWC advanced
training. NSWC strongly desires to maintain oversight of the training courses, Government owned and
government directed, with contracted instructors solely in a supporting role.




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4.0     NSWC INPUT
4.1.   SOTTS Level 1 data

           Simulators                              Simulation                    Advanced Training

                                       SAAB Multiple Integrated Laser      Advanced Special Operations
JTAC simulator (PC-based)              Engagement System (MILES) gear      (ASO) Level 2

                                       Mobile Tactical Operations Center   Special Reconnaissance Scout
SOC-R simulator                        (TOC) for Special Boat Teams        (SRS)

                                       Special Operations Mission
MKV simulator                          Planning Environment (SOMPE-G)      NSW Sniper

RIB simulator                          Mardam Internet Relay Chat (mIRC)   SDV Operator

Kongsberg 151 A2 Remote                Tactical Local Area Network
Weapons System Simulator Mk            (TACLAN)                            SDV Advanced Operator

MSAT USMC JTAC simulator               Interactive Courseware for ATC      ASDS Operator

Convoy training simulator for
tactical vehicles with boat trailers                                       MFF

SDV Wet Simulator                                                          Dive Supervisor

                                                                           JTAC Course

                                                                           NSW Close Quarters Combat
                                                                           (CQC)

                                                                           NSW MOUT

                                                                           NSW VBSS

                                                                           100-ton Vessel Course

                                                                           Tactical Combat Casualty Care
                                                                           (TCCC)

Emerging Requirements in RED                                               HRST/Cast Master

                                                                           UAV




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4.2.   SOTTS Level 2 data

.

.




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                            CHAPTER 5 – USASOC TRAINING PROGRAMS


USASOC SUMMARY

1. (U) The following paragraphs are the summation of the Study Team’s assessment in regards to the
three categories of Feasibility Targets; Simulators, Simulations, and Advanced Training. This
summation is based upon their reviews of documents, as well as, interviews conducted during Phase l of
this study.

2. (U) Feasibility Target Summary:

A. U) Simulators:

               1) (U) Ground Components - The usage of simulators within JFKSWC is specialized
and several of these devices require instructors that are either uniformed members of the Special
Forces Command or contractors possessing the requisite skills authorized to instruct and operate the
particular systems. The command is often challenged in finding civilian instructors with the appropriate
experience necessary to operate certain specialty simulators. In the interim, active duty personnel from
within the command fill this role; doing this has a substantial operational impact to the command.

                  2) (U) 160th SOAR – Simulators are a key part of the 160th SOAR aircrew qualification,
training, and sustainment program. The Regiment consists of modified OH-6 light observation
helicopters, MH-60 utility helicopters, and MH-47 medium-lift helicopters, each having at least one
supporting simulator. The Special Operations Aviation Training Company (SOATC) is responsible of
initial aircraft qualifications for newly assigned personnel and oversee all simulator operations.
Numerous aspects of simulator day to day operations, maintenance and sustainment are currently being
done by civilian contractors under multiple contracts.

               a) Training is conducted in five (5) phases over specific training days as outlined by the
        Program of instruction (POI) or syllabus for the specific aircraft:

                Phase 1 - CMS AQC

                Phase 2 - Day ACFT AQC

                Phase 3 - N/NVG ACFT AQC
                Phase 4 - Environmental Training

                Phase 5 - BMQ Evaluation

                 b) The purpose of the course is to train selected rotary wing aviators in the aircraft
        specific, special mission equipment and special mission tasks. The training program involves
        developing skills in both individual and collective tasks. Students will graduate the course as
        well-rounded special operations aviators that can readily integrate as mission pilots into the
        gaining unit. Task-oriented training and academic instruction are designed to complement and
        reinforce one another. The syllabus is designed to provide adequate time for the student to
        become proficient in each task. All efforts will be made to meet syllabus time. All flight tasks will
        be performed.

                c. Training progression is continually monitored and aviators may progress early
        through training based on proficiency. The gaining commander reserves the right to complete
        mission training depending on the needs of the unit. Aviators unable to progress IAW the


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        training syllabus will be given a progress evaluation. Progress evaluations will be given by an IP
        designated by the SOATC Commander. These evaluations can be, depending on task and level
        of training, be completed in the simulators.

B.   (U) Simulations:

                1) (U) Ground Components - The JFKSWC’s Army Special Operations Digital Training
Center (ARSODTC) simulations are relevant and adaptive, but often lack sufficient funding to develop
required software patches necessary to replicate the unique enemy and special operations mission
profile. Purchasing simulations approved for use by either TRADOC or JFCOM with little developmental
input from SOF compound this problem. Sufficient funding to improve existing simulations competes
with a multitude of USASOC priorities within their POM. The command believes purchasing simulations
approved by the Department of the Army would be a tremendous benefit - from a budgetary perspective
- with regards to long-term contracting, improvements, and life-cycle issues. This is an acceptable
course of action, so long as SOF input was considered during the respective design and testing phases.
The ARSODTC’s use of simulations is arguably more extensive than any other component within
SOCOM. ARSODTC reports for FY07 indicate a combination of 21 separate simulators and simulations
were utilized to conduct 151 exercises or periods of training. Given the increase to Special Forces force
structure with the Global SOF Posture (GSP), the use of simulators and simulations will likely increase
exponentially. Similar to SF Command, the 75th Ranger Regiment states simulations currently utilized
within the Regiment have not been sufficiently designed or modified to accommodate their specific
mission requirements. The exception to this is the Mobile Combat Trauma Simulator Lab (MCTSL) and
the Indirect Fire Forward Air Control Trainer (I-FACT) both of which had substantial Regimental input
from the earliest phases of their design. However; unlike the ARSODTC, the 75th Ranger Regiment is
an operational organization believing their constant deployments (which have not slowed since October
2001), an adequate budget, and their continuous training cycle, their requirement for and utilization of
simulations is limited.

                2) (U) 160th SOAR – The 160th SOAR by definition does not have simulation systems.
The regiment does however have a unique simulation capability through facilities such as the Mission
Rehearsal Operation Center (MROC) or other like tools. The mission of ARSOA is to plan, conduct, and
support SO by clandestinely penetrating non-hostile, hostile, or denied airspace. ARSOA conducts air
operations in any operational environment across the spectrum of conflict. Mission rehearsal is a
cornerstone of the regimental simulation capability. The rehearsal serves several purposes: It allows the
key players an opportunity to visualize the key events of the plan and identified contingencies. It
provides a forum for key players to analyze and make adjustments to the plan. It reinforces and confirms
the final version of the mission plan discussed in the war game and briefed in the air mission brief. The
160th also maintains a deployable mission rehearsal capability.

C. U) Advanced Training:

               1) (U) Ground Components - The various types and frequency of Advanced Training
attended by the members of USASOC (both SF and 75th RR) is extensive. The majority of Advanced
Training attendance is critical to sustainment of their respective METLs, core tasks, and mission profiles.
However; many courses currently attended are quite similar in both scope and duration. Given the
similarity of many of the training opportunities offered, certain component common Advanced Training
would lend itself to consolidated “umbrella” contracting.

              2) (U) 160th SOAR - The 160th SOAR has yet to identify and provided information on



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Advanced Training requirements. However, the Special Operations Aviation Training Company
(SOATC) is responsible for the Initial Combat Skills Training Course, better known as Green Platoon for
all newly assigned officers and soldiers. Green Platoon/Combat Skills, is a five-week assessment and
training program that teaches basic soldiering skills, i.e. advanced first aid techniques, combatives, land
navigation, and weapons training. The program is run by cadre representing a variety of military
occupational specialties (MOS), normally with years of real world Night Stalker experience. Additionally,
each of the battalions in the Regiment require some for of advanced training to support combat
requirements. While the 160th strongly desires to maintain oversight of the training courses,
Government owned and government directed, contracted instructors are a viable option for this
advanced training.




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5.0      USASOC INPUT
5.1.    SOTTS Level 1 data (SF CMD - ARSODTC)

           Simulators                         Simulation                Advanced Training

Blast/FX Explosive Effects          Special Operations Mission     Synthetic Environment for
Analysis Software (Blast/FX)        Planning Environment           Analysis & Simulation (SEAS)
                                    (SOMPE-G)

Close Air Support Trainer           Joint Conflict &Tactical       Medical Sustainment Training
(CAS)                               Simulation (JCATS)

Call For Fire (CFF) Trainer         Joint Semi Automated Forces    Pre-Scuba Training
                                    (JSAF)

Engagement Skills Trainer 2000      Synthetic Environment for      Combat Diver Sustainment
                                    Analysis & Simulation (SEAS)

Guardfist IIB                                                      MFF Sustainment

One Semi Automated Forces                                          Water Infil Sustainment
(OneSaf)

Parachute Simulator (ParaSim)                                      Mountain Sustainment

                                                                   Sniper Sustainment

                                                                   Combatives Course

                                                                   GMV / ATV Mobility Training

                                                                   Horse / Mule Packing




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                           th
5.2.   SOTTS Level 1 data (75 RR)

        Simulators                     Simulation                    Advanced Training

NONE                        Mobile Combat Trauma                AM General Operator
                            Simulations Lab (MCTSL)

                            Enhanced Skills Trainer 2000        AM General Mechanic
                            (EST 2000)
                                                                Special Operations Terminal
                            Indirect Fire Forward Air Control   Attack Controller Course
                            (I-FACT)                            (SOTACC)


                            Beamhit                             Barnhart Shooter

                                                                Vanguard Tactical

                                                                OEMS (RMED)
                                                                NAT'L Security Associates
                                                                Explosive Breaching
                                                                Nat’l Security Associates Non-
                                                                Explosive Breaching

                                                                O’Neil Driving

                                                                Rock Creek Packing

                                                                Athletes Performance Course

                                                                Tactical Tracking

                                                                Barnhart Unlimited Advanced
                                                                Marksmanship

                                                                Overland Experts 4x4

                                                                The 4x4 Center

                                                                Ken Von Lich Dog Handler’s
                                                                Course

                                                                New Horizons Computer and
                                                                RTO Course




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                                th
5.3.   SOTTS Level 1 data for 160 SOAR
           Simulators                    Simulation                Advanced Training
MH-47E Combat Mission           None                        None
Simulator (CMS)
MH-60K Combat Mission
Simulator (CMS)
MH-6 Light Assault and Attack
Reconfigurable Mission
Simulator (LASER CMS)
MH-47G/MH-60 Common
Avionics Architecture System
(CAAS)
MH-47G/MH-60 CAAS Part Task
Trainer (PTT)
MH-47G/MH-60 Desk Top
Trainer (DTT)
Tactical Operation Scene
(TOPSCENE) Systems
MH-47E Combat Mission
Simulator (CMS)
MH-60K Combat Mission
Simulator (CMS)
MH-6 Light Assault and Attack
Reconfigurable Mission
Simulator (LASER CMS)
MH-47G/MH-60 Common
Avionics Architecture System
(CAAS)
MH-47G/MH-60 CAAS Part Task
Trainer (PTT)
MH-47G/MH-60 Desk Top
Trainer (DTT)
Tactical Operation Scene
(TOPSCENE) Systems




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5.4.   SOTTS Level 2 data for USASOC




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                           CHAPTER 6 – Phase II Program Selection

6.0     Introduction
6.1.   Background

As previously outlined in Chapter 1 of this report the genesis of the Special Operations Total Training
Solutions (SOTTS) Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) was a directive from the Commander USSOCOM to
look at simplifying training solutions for all USSOCOM Components by migrating to single contracted
solutions for training requirements. These requirements would be defined primarily by a trained SOF
graduate, at a predetermined level of proficiency, at a single cost to the command, managed by a single
umbrella contract. The most desired solution would be a Contractor owned, contractor operated training
scenario with the SOF Commanders writing a single check, under a single contract for the SOF product,
thus ridding the command of multiple, time consuming and often more expensive contracting options.
6.2.   Objective

The primary purpose of Phase II of this AoA was to determine the feasibility of converting specified
SOCOM training programs to contractor owned and operated systems, within the time constraints of the
current Program Objective Memorandum (POM) Cycle. Having gathered all Level I and Level II training
program data from each of the Components in Phase I of the study, the SOTTS study team evaluated all
data provided with the objective of providing PEO-PT with a recommended list of programs that
appeared at first glance to meet all criteria for conversion to Contractor Owned/Contractor Operated
(CO/CO) programs and could be documented, fully supported with cost analysis and consensus for
support built within both the SOCOM staff and the SOCOM Components.

In a briefing delivered to PEO-PT on 22 Oct 2007 the SOTTS recommendations were identified to the
government. In a meeting between the government Performance Monitor and the SOTTS Team
Program Manager on 23 Oct 2007 five programs were identified to take forward to Phase II of the study.




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                   CHAPTER 7 - Advanced Marksmanship Program Review



7.0     Summary
7.1.   General Description of Mission Needs

A. The ultimate objective of military marksmanship training is to develop skilled shooters that can adapt
the fundamentals of marksmanship to the environment of combat. It is so widely accepted within the
community of military marksmen that marksmanship is a highly perishable skill, even more so if
practiced incorrectly, that it deteriorates without frequent practice.

B. Small arms training, specifically rifle marksmanship is one of the fundamental corner stones of the
Army, particularly special operations forces. Its correct execution enables the use and application of
offensive and defensive tactics at all levels of command.

C. United States Special Operations Forces (SOF) routinely operate as a member of a small unit such
as a Special Forces Operational Detachment Alpha (ODA), Ranger squad, or SEAL Platoon in
accomplishing their principal missions of Unconventional Warfare, Foreign Internal Defense, Direct
Action, Special Reconnaissance, Combating Terrorism, Counter proliferation, and Information
Operations. SOF missions are dynamic and constantly evolving in response to political-military
considerations, technology and other considerations. A change in national security policy, national
military strategy, global or regional social structure, or technology may radically alter the manner in
which SOF units train on its principal missions and collateral activities. The weapons standards, training
strategies and resource requirements have been developed to support a fluid and often changing
training environment and schedule dictated by short-notice operational deployments and training
exercises in OCONUS locations.

                 1) The training strategies for sustaining special operations forces qualification in
assigned weapons is based on the experience levels of SOF personnel. For example, Special Forces
NCOs have an average of 12-15 years of service. Individual weapons training normally consists of
advanced shooting skills, rather than the basic marksmanship techniques outlined in training references.
Cross training and multiple personnel qualified on the same weapons systems is a primary means of
providing a SOF flexibility and increased survivability. SOF maintains thorough familiarity with current
and obsolete U.S. weapons and foreign weapons that equip the majority of foreign armies and militia-
type forces throughout the world. Special Forces units provide individual, unit and "train-the-trainer"
instruction to pro-U.S. foreign military and militia forces. SOF specialize and routinely conduct Live Fire
Exercises (LFXs) that define the “train as you fight” approach to training and readiness. It builds
confidence across the force and components. The “Crawl, Walk, Run” methodology is employed in all
phases of SOF training, but the cohesiveness type units and the experience of SOF Soldiers determine
the time spent on the crawl and walk phases of any training exercise. Use of training devices, blank fire,
sub caliber, SRTA and paintball for crawl and walk phases is encouraged, but there is no substitute for
full caliber live fire training. The battalion and company Field Training Exercise (FTX) is another tool any
SOF unit can use to further accentuate the decentralized and often independent operations of special
operations forces.

              2) These programs were developed to give the commander the flexibility to adjust
training based on unit skill. The strategies are also based on the assumption that most training events


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will be evenly spaced throughout the training year, even though OPTEMPO may not allow a commander
to conduct all live fire events in a given training year. In this case, not all detachments would be able to
train at a regular interval based on months, quarters or in some cases the training year.



7.2.   Training Requirements

A. The modern battlefield, filled with noncombatants and media personnel, requires a high emphasis
on shot placement and accuracy. The ability to hit your target without causing collateral damage
becomes paramount to the successes of the local mission as well as the strategic missions of nation
building and counter terrorism operations.

B. The training approach identified in this study is to build the core fundamentals of each task
separately, and then gradually incorporate additional tasks. It was suggested that the training of
fundamental skills should be conducted first without distraction, and then tasks should be broken down
to basic elements or subtasks. Training should focus on building proficiency in the subtasks that add up
to the whole. It was strongly recommended that sustainment or refresher training always begins with a
review of the fundamentals.

               1) Once the basics are mastered, technology should then be introduced. As individual
and collective proficiency increases, the pace of training should accelerate. In most cases that mean
the conditions for task performance are made more difficult. Training should first ensure that standards
can be met. Then the standards should be exceeded.

             2) For soldiers and units to reach the highest levels of proficiency, subject matter
experts (SMEs) believed that training should focus on the hardest collective tasks that incorporate the
greatest number of critical individual tasks.

                3) Training must routinely push soldiers and immerse them in realistic, challenging
tactical environments. Training events must include integrated stressors and a depth of realism down to
the individual level. To the extent possible, nothing should be notional (i.e., no notional smoke, no
notional fire support, and no notional casualty evacuation). The interviewees were serious about “Train
as you fight.”

                 4) The Ranger Regimental Training Circular 350-10 (DRAFT), dated October 2007,
establishes the end state of their marksmanship training program is a Ranger who is competent and
confident, and a lethal marksman, particularly in a MOUT environment. As such, combat fire (stress fire
or Advanced Marksmanship training) shooting is the priority focus. It establishes marksmanship drills
that will improve their ability to assess, refine, and improve our combat marksmanship skills. The
ultimate test of advanced marksmanship is combat, short of that units must develop and execute combat
fire (stress) drills, executed both day and night, that closely resemble combat conditions. These must be
executed under combat stress, simulated by physical and/or mental stresses, wearing all equipment we
expect to fight in.

C. USSOCOMs primary mission is to organize, train, and equip forces to conduct prompt and
sustained combat operations to achieve and sustain the capability to deter and when necessary to fight
and win America’s Global War on Terrorism. SOF must be trained and ready today. The three core
domains of the training system are the institutional, operational, and self-development domains. Each
serves one underlying purpose, to enhance the ability of units to perform their missions. Unit readiness
is the objective of all SOF training.


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               1) Institutional domain: The institutional service schools and training centers for each of
the components is the foundation for long-term learning. It provides institutional centers of excellence in
military knowledge and progressive resident and non-resident training and education to enhance
individual potential, initiative, and competence in task performance and warfighting skills.

               2) Operational domain: Unit training prepares units to perform their METL so that they
are ready to perform their assigned missions when required. Using the institutional foundation, training
in organizations focuses and hones individual and team skills and knowledge.
                  a) Commercially contracted marksmanship training courses, not a new training
             concept, afford operational units the ability to train on specific tasks. SOF units hire
             professional commercial shooting instructors to hone the skills of the special operations
             soldiers to a razors edge. The instruction is focused on a variety of mission specific training
             needs.

                  b) Appendix F of the Advanced Marksmanship Annex highlights advanced
             marksmanship training programs that are designed to teach and reinforce fundamental
             shooting skills and is structured to systematically build a shooter’s training to a combat-
             ready level of proficiency. The appendix also identifies 33 specific marksmanship tasks
             that are routinely sought when selecting and soliciting commercial contracts. This approach
             to marksmanship training is the key to developing effective combat marksmen.

               3) Self development domain: Self-development is continuous and should be
emphasized in both the institutional and operational assignments. These programs are executed by
exploiting reach back, (the process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or force, or
equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed) distributed learning and
continuing educational technologies.

D. (U) Appendix A of the Advanced Marksmanship Annex expounds on the various Task, Conditions,
and Standards pertaining to Advanced Shooting requirements of SOF operators. These core individual
and collective tasks form the basis of SOF training requirements. This appendix also identifies Mission
Essential Task Lists (METL) for specific units and collective tasks, to include USSOCOM specific core
and support tasks that require advanced shooting capabilities.

                1) (U) SOF missions are dynamic and constantly evolving in response to political-military
considerations, technology and other considerations. A change in national security policy, national
military strategy, global or regional social structure, or technology may radically alter the manner in
which soldiers and units train on its principal missions and collateral activities. The weapons standards,
training strategies and resource requirements have been developed to support a fluid and often
changing training environment and schedule dictated by short-notice operational deployments and
training exercises in OCONUS locations.

               2) (U) Even with unique mission requirements, each soldier must be able to perform all
common critical tasks for that are required for their specific skill level and below. The individual soldier
shares responsibility with the trainer to sustain the skills and knowledge required to perform all warrior
skills and warrior leader skills.

              3) (U) Units have different training needs and requirements based on differences in
environment, location, equipment, dispersion, and similar factors. Tasks selected for leader’s
assessments include, but are not limited to, individual tasks that:

                  a) (U) Support the units mission essential task list (METL).



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     b) (U) Support other non-METL unit tasks as shown in the MTP.

      c) (U) Are identified by higher headquarters for inclusion in planned individual
training.

     d) (U) Are rated as substandard on previous training feedback.




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                   CHAPTER 8 - Advanced Driver Training Program Review



8.0     Summary
8.1.   General Description of Mission Needs

A. (U) Assured mobility is a Force Operating Capability identified in the U.S. Army Training and
Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet 525-66 for future operational environment capabilities. It
states the assured mobility framework includes all those actions that guarantee the force commander
the ability to deploy, move, and maneuver, by ground or vertical means, where and when desired,
without interruption or delay, to achieve the intent.

B. (U) Until the mid-1980s, the United States (U.S.) Army lacked a dedicated mounted special
operations (SO) capability. Recognizing that traditionally dismounted Special Forces (SF) operations in
desert environments were unrealistic, the 1st Special Operations Command and the 5th Special Forces
Group (Airborne) (SFG[A]) authorized the formation of two elements in 1984 in order to develop
mounted doctrine and operational techniques. Elements of Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th SFG(A),
moved to Fort Bliss, Texas, and, in the autumn of 1986, began to fulfill this mission.

C. (U) In October 1987, A 1/5th SFG(A) produced a summary of the lessons that were learned
between 1985 and 1987. The initial intent of the compendium was to provide a reference for the training
and employment of mounted SF detachments within the 5th SFG(A). The 3d SFG(A) and 5th SFG(A)
standing operating procedures (SOPs) and lessons learned were incorporated, and procedures for new
or improved equipment was added. Although many of the tactical principles remained essentially
unchanged, revisions have been necessary to account for equipment updates, such as the new ground
mobility vehicle (GMV) and global positioning system (GPS) devices.

                1) (U) During conflicts in desert environments, the distance from special operations
Forward Operating Bases (FOB) to the area of operations (AO) is often too great for dismounted
infiltration. Desert-oriented SOF units cannot rely solely on the limited Air Force special operations wing
assets or the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR) to infiltrate SOF into their AOs. The
introduction of mounted platforms customized to the threat and terrain can greatly enhance a unit’s
capabilities within the theater.

              2) (U) Mounted detachments may be called upon to conduct direct action (DA), medium-
to long-range special reconnaissance (SR), and unconventional warfare (UW) operations. They may
also be used to conduct and support unconventional assisted recovery (UAR), perform area
reconnaissance missions, and transport other personnel and equipment to or from their target area.

D. U) Operations DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM, RESTORE HOPE, PROVIDE DEMOCRACY,
ENDURING FREEDOM, and IRAQI FREEDOM have drastically, and most likely permanently, altered
the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) of special operations forces. As operational requirements
evolved around the world over a variety of terrain from high, rugged mountains to low-lying deserts of
deep sand. The capability of mounted detachments to travel long distances, unassisted, in enemy rear
areas provides the joint force commander (JFC) and commander, joint special operations task force
(COMJSOTF), with a viable cross country capability to perform SO missions.

              1) (U) The Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts remain the top priorities for the SOCCENT



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AOR for the near future. The broad spectrum of both environmental and threat conditions has caused
the current fleet of vehicles to undergo many modifications to make them more survivable in the non-
contiguous warfare environment. Special Operations Forces (SOF) must be prepared to negotiate
complex, urban terrain; must have the ability to maneuver into and through the battle space
clandestinely; must be capable of moving quickly in order to capitalize on fleeting tactical and
operational opportunities, apply continuous pressure and drive the tempo that enables us to operate
inside the enemy’s decision-cycle.

                2) (U) Current operations in Iraq, primarily those in the larger cities, such as Baghdad
and Mosul, require wheeled vehicle drivers to be well versed in congested traffic driving techniques.
Although SOF employs measures to keep local traffic away from vehicles and convoys, such as
distance warning signs and hand and arm signals, the local population does not always obey. Unless
drivers have previous experience driving in heavy urban traffic, they are learning on the fly. Even the
most experienced driver will need training to overcome the dangers of driving in hostile environments.
To ensure drivers are sufficiently trained to maneuver among obstacles common to urban environments,
the Army needs to develop a train-the-trainer course in evasive and defensive driving techniques, to
include practical exercises, for unit master drivers to use when conducting training for inexperienced
soldiers prior to deployment.

              3) (U) Locally procured commercial vehicles have been the primary ground mobility
vehicles meeting the majority of transportation requirements for SOF ISO OEF-PHILIPPINES (OEF-P).
OEF-P currently has a mix of ground mobility platforms: locally procured commercial vehicles (45-50);
SOFSA Non-Standard Commercial Vehicles - modified Toyota HILUXs (6ea OH, 6ea due-out), and
Service Common HMMWVs and GMVs (20-25). This mix of ground mobility vehicles has met
COMJSOTF-Ps requirements; however, sustainment of military equipment has been a major challenge.
Military Ground Mobility platforms have been extremely difficult to sustain in OEF-P austere operating
environment primarily due to OST and transportation costs associated with repair parts.

                4) (U) The Non Standard Commercial Vehicle (NSCV) program consists of a common
pool of civilian vehicles, a vehicle sustainment package, and a suite of mission modification kits that will
give the vehicle operational capabilities in mobility, communications, navigation, and night operations.
SOF has a day-to-day requirement to employ non-standard commercial ground vehicles due to
operational, force protection, survivability and political considerations unique to the region. This hide in
plain sight capability, often allows SOF to provide a broader capability to achieve and maintain
clandestine or low visibility mission status.
                   a) (U) Special Operations Forces units in accomplishment of their core missions and
             collateral tasks will use the NSCV. The NSCV will be used as the primary mobility vehicle
             for SOF elements when the use of standard military ground mobility platforms is not
             practicable because the mission requires the element to blend in with the indigenous
             population. The NSCV will permit mounted SOF with greater freedom of maneuver
             because of their reduced signature and non-lethal profile. Reducing the overt presence of
             tactical military vehicles enhances force protection by making the vehicle more difficult to
             identify and target.
8.2.   Training Requirements

A. (U) The days of conducting simple operator/driver's training in a sterile environment are gone.
Convoy live fires are now a way of life for units preparing for combat. Even in the third world, urban



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sprawl and modernization have made defensive and tactical driving in congested urban environments a
fact of military life, requiring the careful application of creative training by unit leaders. Leaders must
continue to draw on the experiences of seasoned combat veterans who served during operations in
Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Haiti, and Bosnia. Commanders should never stop refining tactics,
techniques, and procedures that will improve their unit's ability to meet the challenges of urban
operations.

B. (U) The capabilities needed to enable Mounted/Dismounted Maneuver are essential to enabling
effective mounted and dismounted maneuver. These capabilities are essential regardless of the
condition: day, night, open terrain, complex terrain, urban or desert environment. Advanced Mobility /
Driver Programs are designed to teach and reinforce fundamental driving skills and is structured to
systematically build a driver’s training to a combat-ready level of proficiency. This approach to Mobility /
Driver training is the key to developing effective combat mobility.

C. (U) Most SOF operators are not military occupational specialty (MOS) trained vehicle operators but
are required by unit requirements or like factors to assume this role. Advanced mobility / drivers training
is a critical resource in training affective vehicle operators. Cross training and multiple personnel
qualified on the same mobility systems is a primary means of providing a SFODA flexibility and
increased survivability.

D. (U) Future force units will possess superior tactical mobility. Training, quality, realistic training is
essential to ensure SOF is adequately trained to conduct mounted/dismounted maneuver. Systems
must have embedded training and mission rehearsal capabilities to enable Soldier training where
facilities are lacking.

E. (U) The ability to maneuver in any operational environment and scenario is a skill needed by every
SOF Operator. Advanced Mobility / Driver Programs are designed to teach and reinforce Mobility /
Driver skills for both mid-level and experienced shooters. Commercial contractors, if utilized properly,
can be a vital element of any SOF Mobility / Driver program. These contractors should work closely with
drivers to help develop and refine their Mobility / Driver skills.

                 1) (U) The Manual for the Wheeled Vehicle Driver, FM 21-305, covers the general
principles of non-tactical wheeled vehicle operation. It also describes special instructions for tactical
vehicle operation. Military and civilian drivers of government-owned vehicles use this manual as a guide
for safe and efficient vehicle operation. Instructions in this manual help the wheeled vehicle driver
maintain a high degree of driving efficiency. This manual does not restrict its contents to any particular
vehicle. It is a guide to normal everyday operations and to driving under difficult conditions. When more
information is needed for a specific vehicle, check the technical manual written for that vehicle. Chapter
8, FM 21-305, "Operating Practices and Maneuvers," should address evasive driving techniques, but
instead only focuses on driving practices, starting, steering, turning, braking, stopping, ground guide
safety procedures, backing, turning around, parking, and the elements of safe driving.

F. (U) Typically, unit driver's training standard operating procedures (SOPs) will include reviews of the
above information with additional training that is unit specific or condition specific. For example, the
objective is to establish a training program at the squadron and troop levels for motor vehicle drivers and
equipment operators that promote the highest standards of technical proficiency, equipment safety, and
driver knowledge. The SOP should outline the following criteria, requiring unit leaders to:


               1) (U) Ensure that, at a minimum, troop master drivers, under the supervision of the


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squadron master driver, license all soldiers who are not in command positions on high mobility
multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs) within 60 days of their arrival to the unit.

              2) (U) Teach and/or sustain basic operator skills on motor vehicles and equipment.

             3) (U) Ensure that soldier's motor vehicles and equipment are in proper operational
status by complying with proper preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS).

              4) (U) Promote safety.

G. (U) USSOCOMs primary mission is to organize, train, and equip forces to conduct prompt and
sustained combat operations to achieve and sustain the capability to deter and when necessary to fight
and win America’s Global War on Terrorism. SOF must be trained and ready today. The three core
domains of the training system are the institutional, operational, and self-development domains. Each
serves one underlying purpose, to enhance the ability of units to perform their missions. Unit readiness
is the objective of all SOF training.

               1) (U) Institutional domain: The institutional service schools and training centers for each
of the components is the foundation for long-term learning. It provides institutional centers of excellence
in military knowledge and progressive resident and non-resident training and education to enhance
individual potential, initiative, and competence in task performance and warfighting skills.

               2) (U) Operational domain: Unit training prepares units to perform their METL so that
they are ready to perform their assigned missions when required. Using the institutional foundation,
training in organizations focuses and hones individual and team skills and knowledge.

                  a) (U) Commercially contracted driver training courses, not a new training concept,
             afford operational units the ability to train on specific tasks. SOF units hire professional
             commercial shooting instructors to hone the skills of the special operations soldiers to a
             razors edge. The instruction is focused on a variety of mission specific training needs.

                  b) (U) Appendix F of this Annex highlights advanced driver training programs that are
             designed to teach and reinforce fundamental driving skills and is structured to
             systematically build a shooter’s training to a combat-ready level of proficiency.

               3) (U) Self development domain: Self-development is continuous and should be
emphasized in both the institutional and operational assignments. These programs are executed by
exploiting reach back, (the process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or force, or
equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed) distributed learning and
continuing educational technologies.

H. (U) Appendix A of the Advanced Driver Training expounds on the various Task, Conditions, and
Standards pertaining to Advanced Driver requirements of SOF operators. These core individual and
collective tasks form the basis of SOF training requirements. This appendix also identifies Mission
Essential Task Lists (METL) for specific units and collective tasks, to include USSOCOM specific core
and support tasks that require advanced shooting capabilities.

I. (U) Light vehicle systems will be a family of modified commercial off-the-shelf (M-COTS) 4x4 and
6x6 all-terrain utility vehicles. These systems will be comprised of a commercial base vehicle, SOF -
peculiar modifications kits, and modular storage racks for equipment. It will be designed to operate
worldwide on primary and secondary roads and unimproved off-road terrain.




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                1) (U) Training. Operator/Crew Chief training must be designed to support and sustain
the highest levels of training readiness for the SOF crew by leveraging existing institutional and unit
training profiles with the addition of any new training equipment such as simulators. New Equipment
Training (NET) equipment training. Unit and individual training support manuals, training literature,
publications, and other training products will be reviewed and updated to reflect new technologies and
operational requirements.

               2) (U) Vehicles shall require no more than 10 (Threshold) or 5 (Objective) days (8 hours
per training day) for initial operator training in accordance with service training references, Additionally,
the vehicles shall require no more than 2 (Threshold) or 1 (Objective) days (8 hours per training day) for
operator sustainment training to be conducted at the parent unit in accordance with service training
references.

J. (U) The Ground Mobility Vehicle (GMV) or Medium Vehicle Systems were originally designed to
better equip SF for the accomplishment of long-range SR in a desert environment. Although designed
and optimally suited for such SR missions, the GMV is frequently employed with great success in other
SF missions, such as DA, coalition support, humanitarian assistance, and peace enforcement.

              1) (U) Early GMV variants are based upon the U.S. Army’s standard M1025A2 HMMWV.
Newer GMV models are based upon the M1113 variant. Most M1113-based models come equipped
with the upgraded systems. Although most M1025A2-based GMVs did not come equipped with these
enhancements, the vehicles can be upgraded to incorporate the new components.

               2) (U) M1114: Based upon the U.S. Army’s up-armored M1109, the M1114 is
extensively modified to protect the crew against 7.62-millimeter (mm) armor-piercing (AP) ammunition,
mine blasts (12 pounds [lb] in front, 4 lb in rear), and a 155-mm overhead burst. The vehicle is equipped
with shock attenuating seat mounts for mine-blast G-force protection. The M1114 armor protection
makes it particularly well suited for coalition support, humanitarian assistance, and peace enforcement
missions. Due to the increased vehicle weight and limited carrying capacity, the M1114 is not optimally
suited for long-range SR missions in a desert environment.

                3) (U) Training. Operator/Crew Chief training must be designed to support and sustain
the highest levels of training readiness for the SOF crew by leveraging existing institutional and unit
training profiles with the addition of any new training equipment such as simulators. New Equipment
Training (NET) equipment training. Unit and individual training support manuals, training literature,
publications, and other training products will be reviewed and updated to reflect new technologies and
operational requirements.
               4) (U) Vehicles shall require no more than 10 (Threshold) or 5 (Objective) days (8 hours
per training day) for initial operator training in accordance with service training references, Additionally,
the vehicles shall require no more than 2 (Threshold) or 1 (Objective) days (8 hours per training day) for
operator sustainment training to be conducted at the parent unit in accordance with service training
references.

K. (U) The Non Standard Commercial Vehicle (NSCV) program consists of a common pool of civilian
vehicles, a vehicle sustainment package, and a suite of mission modification kits that will give the
vehicle operational capabilities in mobility, communications, navigation, and night operations.
SOCSOUTH has a day-to-day requirement to employ non-standard commercial ground vehicles due to
operational, force protection, survivability and political considerations unique to the region. This hide in
plain sight capability, often allows SOF to provide a broader capability to achieve and maintain


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clandestine or low visibility mission status.

                1) (U) Coalition Contribution Vehicles provide vital support to SOCCENT forces across
the AOR. SOCCENT currently has approximately 605 commercial vehicles being utilized in an
administrative role within secure areas. These vehicles free up other non-standard vehicles for combat
operations as well as the limited number of military tactical vehicles. SOCSOUTH has a day-to-day
requirement to employ non-standard commercial ground vehicles due to operational, force protection,
survivability and political considerations unique to the region. This hide in plain sight capability, often
allows SOF to provide a broader capability to achieve and maintain clandestine or low visibility mission
status.

                2) (U) Training. The NSCV will require operator and maintenance training to support the
fielding process. Individual operator training will be conducted by unit personnel who will be trained by
the vendor as part of the New Equipment Training process for the initial fielding. Specialized training
(Diagnostic and Repair Training) for unit maintenance personnel will be required as part of the life-cycle
support of the system. Operator training in the form of a driver’s certification or driver’s course must be
implemented to reduce risk of injury or fatality. Operation of the NSCV requires operator knowledge and
training to safely use this system, particularly in an off-road environment. The unit commander is
responsible for continued system proficiency through sustainment and transition training. Unit operator
and maintenance training requirements and the training program will be developed by the program ILE
(PT, but should address loading/unloading the vehicle, operator maintenance, load distribution, and tie-
down of equipment.

L. (U) Heavy Vehicle Systems: Ongoing operations in OEF/OIF have identified the urgent need for
vehicles with an increased protection, survivability and mobility of forces capability, especially when
operating in a hazardous fire area against threats including mines, Improvised Explosive Devices (IED)
and small arm fire (SAF), Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP) and rocket propelled grenade (RPG) in
the Area of Operations (AO).

                1) (U) SOF needs a maneuver capability allowing forces to meet the demands of
conducting operations while maximizing efforts to prevent or reduce these casualties. This maneuver
capability includes: movement with adequate levels of force protection; repositioning personnel with
organic combat equipment and combat loads; delivering cargo; supporting ground combat forces with
lethal and non-lethal fires; and maintaining C4ISR connectivity throughout the land battlespace.

                  2) SOCOM is working to create additional guidance as required to facilitate the safe and
effective employment of ground vehicles. The fielding of Heavy vehicles will likely require changes in
current doctrine and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTPs). New doctrine and TTPs will be
developed to maximize the tactical benefit of Heavy vehicles capabilities. These TTPs are subject to
constant evolution. There is the potential for threat overmatch without this current, constant adaptation.
It is likely that the enemy will change their operating procedures as these new, highly protected systems
are fielded. TTP development will reflect an understanding of Heavy vehicles capabilities and
corresponding enemy reactions.
               3) (U) SOF medium vehicles, based on its capabilities to adapt to an ever changing
threat environment will likely require doctrine be modified or created for certain instances. Doctrine for
tactical and administrative troop vehicular movement is established in FM 31-23, TTP’s and unit SOP’s.
               4) (U) Training. Heavy vehicles will affect training considerations in two ways. The first
is training towards the new doctrine and TTPs discussed above. The second area of training concerns


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operators and maintainers. Heavy vehicles will require certain systems-specific training capabilities.
Efforts should be made to leverage simulator training to provide a solid training base capability.

                   a) (U) It is envisioned that training for incidental operators heavy vehicles will be
             done at unit level. Operators of the Heavy vehicles vehicle will be trained at formal MOS
             schools. Maintainer training in the near term will consist of on-the-job training monitored by
             the Field Service Representatives in theater. The long term goal is to transition from CLS
             toward an organic capability by developing MOS specific courseware. Operator and
             maintainer training will support and sustain the highest levels of training readiness for the
             Heavy vehicles Screw. This will be accomplished by leveraging existing or future
             institutional and unit training programs. For Heavy vehicles systems where training material
             does not exist, new material shall be provided. Standard training processes shall be
             followed to determine training requirements. Final determination of training requirements
             will be reflected in the Training System (or equivalent program document).

                   b) (U) All heavy vehicle related training and task development shall be reflected in
             appropriate training plans and incorporated into existing or future institutional and
             organizational training structures. All training materials (Individual, unit and maintenance
             training support manuals, Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM), simulators and
             other training products) will be reviewed and updated to capitalize on new technologies and
             operational requirements.

                  c) (U) Ensure vehicle and equipment operators are properly licensed and trained
             according to this regulation and other local requirements. Training will include driver
             responsibilities and Government liability, laws and regulations, vehicle inspection and
             maintenance, accident avoidance, environmental considerations, convoy operations, off-
             road operations, and all other topics necessary for safe and proficient military driving.




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       CHAPTER 9 - Indirect Fire and Forward Air Control Simulations Program Review



9.0      Summary
9.1.    General Description of Mission Needs

A. The Department of Defense (DoD) spends millions of dollars to develop and implement simulations
for training. Simulations allow the DoD to train commanders, staffs, and individuals in a wide range of
tasks. Simulations have evolved into complex software and hardware programs designed to allow the
DoD to conduct collective training using wide area networks to increase the scope of training events.
There has been significant and increased emphasis on simulations as part of a large effort to reduce
training costs. These collective training tools have become vastly more complex and greater in scope.

B. Recent combat operations and new concepts illustrate that timely and decisive ground maneuver is
dependent upon the seamless integration of JCAS with other supporting arms (naval gunfire support,
artillery, mortars, etc.) in support of ground scheme of maneuver. Training in techniques for deconflicting
airspace between indirect fire weapons and aircraft, to include lateral, altitude, or time separation, could
enhance aircrew safety. Additionally, the practicing of timely and accurate marks by indirect (artillery,
mortar, or naval surface fire support) fires, direct fires, observer teams (laser), or other aircraft (rockets
or laser) will help pilots to visually acquire the target, thereby reducing the possibility of fratricide. These
scenarios are nearly impossible to replicate in live training, but entirely possible through the use of
simulations. Additionally, JTAC qualified personnel – regardless of Service affiliation – can practice
standard calls for fire for each type of supporting arms.

C. Recognition of the need to practice integrating and synchronizing fires while at home station is
necessary both as a cost saving endeavor and to ensure maximum training effectiveness.

9.2.    Training Requirements

A. Individual unit training program must be tailored to meet the unit’s Designed Operational Capability
(DOC) statement, and probable contingency taskings outside of those missions identified in the unit’s
DOC statement. JCAS specific training should be conducted in conjunction with joint training exercises
to the maximum extent possible. Units will design JTAC training missions to achieve combat capability
in mission tasks, enhance mission accomplishment, and comply with safety standards.

B. Individual JTAC qualification, certification, and currency requirements are highly detailed, well
documented and subject to routine inspection. The following are the standards as specified within the
JTAC MOA and AFI 13-112v1.

C. Training objectives must balance the need for realism against the expected threat when executing
JTAC mission essential tasks. Applying published flight/ground safety standards is paramount during
the conduct of JTAC training.

D. JTAC Initial Qualification Training (IQT) is a two-phase process to train a JTAC in basic controller
duties without regard to the unit’s mission. Phase I is JTAC familiarization focusing on academic
prerequisites and terminal attack control missions supervised by a JTAC-I. Phase II is attendance of a
Joint Forces Command (JFCOM)-accredited, formal JTAC training school. IQT is complete after the
prospective JTAC successfully completes a USJFCOM-accredited training course. Upon completion of
JTAC IQT, the JTAC begins MQT.


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              1) Phase I – JTAC Familiarization Training

              2) CAS Practical Exercise (PE)

              3) Phase II – Formal School Training

              4) Initial JTAC MQT

                5) Prospective JTACs must successfully complete a minimum total of 12 terminal attack
controls prior to a formal evaluation. If necessary, prospective JTACs may accomplish more than four
graded terminal attack controls during JTAC MQT, to ensure they are fully prepared for formal
evaluation.

              6) JTAC CMR Qualification

              7) JTAC Continuous Training

E. Once certified, a JTAC will remain qualified; provided currency is maintained and all recurring
evaluation requirements are satisfactorily accomplished. Currency requirements are 6 Type 1 or Type 2
live controls within the past six-month period. The 6 controls must consist of the following:

              1) Minimum of 3 fixed-wing controls

              2) Minimum of 1 must expend live or training ordnance

              3) Minimum of 1 must be at night

F. JTACs that do not accomplish the required 6 controls in a six-month period will be considered non-
qualified. JTACs will satisfy their currency requirements with ground maneuver units whenever possible.
Commanders are encouraged to establish guidance and goals within local constraints aimed at
achieving greater joint interoperability. A terminal attack control simulation trainer will be used to
enhance procedural training and mission rehearsal. Simulation devices will continue to be evaluated
and accredited by the JCAS ESC or their designated representative, for their capability to replace live
controls for currency training. Units with an accredited simulation device may replace a maximum of 2
live controls per 6 month period.

G. The following live controls will not be replaced by simulation: 3 fixed-wing, 1 night, and 1
expenditure of live or training ordnance.




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                              CHAPTER 10 - U-28A Program Review



10.0    Summary
10.1. General Description of Mission Needs

A. Aviation support of United States Special Operations Forces (SOF) operations requires specially
equipped aircraft and trained aircrew members. SOF missions are dynamic and constantly evolving and
SOF aviation operations are no different.

B. The overall objective of the aircrew-training program is to develop and maintain a high state of
mission readiness, facilitating immediate and effective employment in exercises, contingencies, limited
war, and general war operations.

              1) The training strategy for special operations forces aircraft qualification is based on
extensive Flight Simulator training prior to flight in the actual aircraft.

                2) The use of simulators and simulation is continued throughout all levels of SOF
aviation training and in mission rehearsal.
10.2. Training Requirements

C. Training is designed to progressively develop the combat readiness of each aircrew member, while
maintaining previously acquired proficiency. Training should focus on building proficiency in the
subtasks that add up to the whole and continue to collective level of training, from the least demanding
to the most demanding modes. It is strongly recommended that refresher training always begins with a
review of the fundamentals.

                  1) Basic Qualification Training (BQT). The training needed for an aircrew member to
qualify for basic aircrew duties in an assigned position for a specific aircraft, without regard to the unit
mission. Upon completion of BQT, the crewmember attains BAQ status. BAQ is typically a prerequisite
for Mission Qualification Training (MQT), but crewmembers enrolled in the PC-12 IQT course may
proceed to the mission phase of training before completing all MQT requisites. The Pilatus PC-12
Training Course is the Basic Qualification Training Course for PC-12 and U-28 aircraft. All crewmembers
must complete the SIMCOM series 10 PC-12 training course located in Scottsdale, Arizona, prior to their
first flight (or suitable alternate approved by AFSOC/DOT). This course is designed to provide a baseline
of knowledge on aircraft systems and performance before commencing formal USAF flight training.
               2) Mission Qualification Training (MQT). The training needed for an aircrew member to
qualify in an assigned aircrew position for a specific aircraft, to perform the command or unit mission.
MQT picks up where BQT ends and provides the training required to achieve competence in typical
missions the PC-12 or U-28 would be tasked to perform. Crewmembers will maintain BAQ status until
they complete MQT and differences training (if applicable).

                 3) Continuation Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to maintain and
further develop skills acquired in basic qualification or mission qualification training. An aircrew member
in continuation training may be assigned mission ready (MR), basic mission capable (BMC), or basic
aircraft qualification (BAQ) status. Continuation training provides aircrew members the capability to
reinforce and build upon previous training and conduct Air Force Task List (AFTL), USSOCOM Joint



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                          UNCLASSIFIED- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


Mission Essential Task List (JMETL), and AFSOC Mission Essential Task List (METL)-based, combat-
oriented aircrew training.

                4) Upgrade/Specialized Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to
upgrade to instructor, or flight examiner in their respective crew position. It also covers procedures to
qualify or certify selected aircrew members in specialized mission operations.

               5) Refresher/Re-qualification Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to
maintain proficiency in tasks or procedures not normally conducted or prohibited in the actual aircraft.
Aircrew members will complete an academic and simulator refresher course at a minimum every 17
months based on the date last attended. Refresher training can be accomplished at any time during the
17-month period and extend the next due date required by 17 months. The course will cover PC-12 or
U-28 basic operations, aircraft systems, abnormal conditions, and emergency procedures.

D. USSOCOMs primary mission is to organize, train, and equip forces to conduct prompt and
sustained combat operations to achieve and sustain the capability to deter and when necessary to fight
and win America’s Global War on Terrorism. SOF must be trained and ready today. Unit readiness is the
objective of all SOF training. Training serves one underlying purpose, to enhance the ability of units to
perform their missions.

E. (U) Appendix C of this Annex expounds on the PC-12 and U-28 Programs of Instruction, AFSOC
Training requirements, training guidance, course syllabus with Task, Conditions, and Standards. This
appendix also contains PC-12 and U-28 Programs of Record with aircraft fielding schedules.




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                          UNCLASSIFIED- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


                     CHAPTER 11 - AFSOC Medium UAV Program Review



11.0    Summary
11.1. General Description of Mission Needs

A. Aviation support of United States Special Operations Forces (SOF) operations requires specially
equipped aircraft and trained aircrew members. SOF missions are dynamic and constantly evolving and
SOF aviation operations are no different.

B. The overall objective of the aircrew training program is to develop and maintain a high state of
mission readiness, facilitating immediate and effective employment in exercises, contingencies, limited
war, and general war operations.

              1) The training strategy for special operations forces aircraft qualification is based on
extensive Flight Simulator training prior to flight in the actual aircraft.

                2) The use of simulators and simulation is continued throughout all levels of SOF
aviation training and in mission rehearsal.
11.2. Training Requirements

A. Training is designed to progressively develop the combat readiness of each aircrew member, while
maintaining previously acquired proficiency. Training should focus on building proficiency in the
subtasks that add up to the whole and continue to collective level of training, from the least demanding
to the most demanding modes. It is strongly recommended that refresher training always begins with a
review of the fundamentals.

               1) Basic Qualification Training (BQT). The training needed for an aircrew member to
qualify for basic aircrew duties in an assigned position for a specific aircraft, without regard to the unit
mission. Upon completion of BQT, the crewmember attains BAQ status. BAQ is typically a prerequisite
for Mission Qualification Training (MQT). The Predator Pilot/ Sensor Operator Training Course, and the
Predator Pilot/ Sensor Operator Launch and Recovery Training Course conducted at Creech AFB NV
are the Basic Qualification Training Course for MQ-1. These courses are designed to provide a baseline
of knowledge on aircraft systems and performance before commencing formal Mission Qualification
Training for MQ-1 aircraft.

               2) Mission Qualification Training (MQT). The training needed for an aircrew member to
qualify in an assigned aircrew position for a specific aircraft, to perform the command or unit mission.
MQT picks up where BQT ends and provides the training required to achieve competence in typical
missions the MQ-1B or MQ-9 would be tasked to perform. Crewmembers will maintain BAQ status until
they complete MQT and differences training (if applicable). Pilot Combat Mission Readiness Training
Course, and Predator Sensor Operator Combat Mission Readiness Training Course conducted at Nellis
AFB NV are the Pilot / Sensor Operator Mission Qualification training Courses for MQ-1B and MQ-9
aircraft.

               3) Continuation Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to maintain and
further develop skills acquired in basic qualification or mission qualification training. An aircrew member
in continuation training may be assigned mission ready (MR), basic mission capable (BMC), or basic



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                          UNCLASSIFIED- FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


aircraft qualification (BAQ) status. Continuation training provides aircrew members the capability to
reinforce and build upon previous training and conduct Air Force Task List (AFTL), USSOCOM Joint
Mission Essential Task List (JMETL), and AFSOC Mission Essential Task List (METL)-based, combat-
oriented aircrew training.

                4) Upgrade/Specialized Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to
upgrade to instructor, or flight examiner in their respective crew position. It also covers procedures to
qualify or certify selected aircrew members in specialized mission operations.

               5) Refresher/Re-qualification Training. The training needed for an aircrew member to
maintain proficiency in tasks or procedures not normally conducted or prohibited in the actual aircraft.
Aircrew members will complete an academic and simulator refresher course at a minimum every 17
months based on the date last attended. Refresher training can be accomplished at any time during the
17-month period and extend the next due date required by 17 months. The course will cover MQ-1B or
MQ-9 basic operations, aircraft systems, abnormal conditions, and emergency procedures.

B. USSOCOMs primary mission is to organize, train, and equip forces to conduct prompt and
sustained combat operations to achieve and sustain the capability to deter and when necessary to fight
and win America’s Global War on Terrorism. SOF must be trained and ready today. Unit readiness is the
objective of all SOF training. Training serves one underlying purpose, to enhance the ability of units to
perform their missions.

C. (U) Appendix C of this Annex expounds on the MQ-1 and MQ-9 Programs of Instruction, AFSOC
Training requirements, training guidance, course syllabus with Task, Conditions, and Standards. This
appendix also contains MQ-1 and MQ-9 Programs of Record with aircraft fielding schedules.




                                                     36

				
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