Grids by xiuliliaofz


									O xford University
e-Science Centre

                     Grid Developments, the Oxford
                      e-Science Centre and ITSS

                                     Paul Jeffreys
                                    Director OUCS
                           Director Oxford e-Science Centre


                                          1                   PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                      Talk Outline
O xford University
e-Science Centre

                 • Summary of developments over last year
                     – (Re-)Introduction to e-Science and the Grid
                     – SR2000 e-Science allocation
                     – OeSC
                        • Funds
                        • Achievements
                        • Team and Management
                        • Access Grid
                     – Race through Oxford projects
                     – SR2002 “e-Science” priorities
                 • What does it mean for IT SS and OU?
                     – What will be needed?

                                               2               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                             What’s in a name?!
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • „Oxford e-Science Centre‟ vs „Oxford Regional Grid Centre‟
  • However:
            – IBM Press Release quote (Aug. 2001):
               • “The driving force behind the evolutionary Grid Project is the
                 global scientific community”
            – e-Science funding!

  • But in Oxford, much more than e-Science
            – …and clear change of emphasis in SR2002

                                             3               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • John Taylor, Director General of the Research Councils, OST

            – “e-Science means science increasingly done through
              distributed global collaborations enabled by the
              Internet, using very large data collections, terascale
              computing resources and high performance visualisation”

            – "e-Science will change the dynamic of the way science is

                                       4             PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                        What is the Grid?
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • “The Grid is a software infrastructure
    that enables flexible, secure,
    coordinated resource sharing among
    dynamic collections of individuals,
    institutions and resources.”
    [The Grid, eds. Foster & Kesselman]

  • “The Grid is an emergent
    infrastructure capable of delivering
    dependable, pervasive and uniform
    access to a set of globally distributed,
    dynamic and heterogeneous resources.
    It brings challenges of scalability,
    interoperability, fault tolerance,
    resource management and security.”
    [UK e-Science Director]

                                       5       PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                 Digital Mammography
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Example to fire the imagination (Brady et al.)!
            –        1.5 million screenings, 20% films lost, 80% false positive rate
            –        40% increase; radiographer rather than radiologist
            –        -> need to develop standardised mammograms in federated database
            –        Enables „findonelikeit‟ with clinical history
            –        Principle generic

                                                  6              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                               SR2000 e-Science
O xford University
e-Science Centre

            – “Research Councils invest £98M for e-Science”

    ForesightLINK, Issue No 10 Summer 2001
            – “The new £80m LINK programme for e-Science Grid Technologies
              will spearhead the UK contribution to developing the next generation
              internet, supporting scientific research and e-business development
              in partnership with UK firms”

            “If UK industry wants a place in the world of business [Grid] applications,
               it has to get involved now - at the academic research stage”

                                               7                 PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                         SR2000 e-Science Allocation
O xford University
e-Science Centre

                                             DG Research Councils
                                                                                        Grid TAG
                                              Steering Committee
                                  Director‟s                            Director‟s
                       Awareness and Co-ordination Role              Management Role

                         Academic Application Support            Generic Challenges
                                  Programme                  EPSRC (£15m), DTI (£15m)
                      Research Councils (£74m), DTI (£5m)
                     PPARC (£26m)
                     BBSRC (£8m)
                     MRC (£8m)
                     NERC (£7m)
                     ESRC (£3m)
                                                       £80m Collaborative projects
                     EPSRC (£17m)
                     CLRC (£5m)

                                                     Industrial Collaboration (£40m)

                                                          8                 PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Indicative Core Funding Breakdown
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  1.       Grid Centres        £7.0M +       £11.5M +   £11.0M
  2.       Grid Middleware     £2.5M         £2.5M +    £2.5M
  3.       Grid IRC Projects   £3.0M         £1.0M +    £4.0M
  4.       Grid Support                      £2.0M
  5.       International       £1.0M
  6.       GNT                 £1.5M         £1.5M      £1.5M
  7.       Demonstrators                     £0.5M
  8.       Pilots                            £1.0M      £8.0M
                               ______        ______     ______
                               £15M +        £20M +     £27M
                               OST           DTI        Industry

                                         9                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                             UK Grid Network
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  £470k to ‘pass go’
  £1M pot – matched by industry

  Oxford University Investment:-
  Associate Directors (RDF £85k), plus
  3 posts phased (RDF £218k), plus       Glasgow
  some subsidised effort                            DL        Newcastle

                                         Belfast         Manchester

                                                   Oxford             Cambridge

                                                   RAL                  Hinxton
                                         Cardiff              London

      Oxford has received                             Soton

       £8M and rising!

                                             10                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                               OeSC ‘Objectives’
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Establish Oxford as regional centre on national Grid
            – Thereby establish Grid connections for our researchers
            – Make our resources available on the Grid (part of the deal!)
            – Aim .. to become „Centre of Excellence‟ -- NB SR2002
  • Support groups throughout University undertaking national and
    international e-Science projects (and other Grid activities),
    collaborate with Oxford Brookes, and link with companies
            – Provide physical infrastructure
            – Provide support infrastructure:- registration, certificate
              authorisation, training, documentation, security, services
            – Share development, coordinate and optimise across projects
            – Disseminate
  • Commission „intranet Grid‟
            – Share resources across university

                                             11               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Status of Oxford e-Science Centre
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Formally launched 17 August
            – Associate Directors: David Gavaghan, Mike Giles, Mark Sansom, Jim Davies
            – Web site …
            – Administrative Centre and Point-of-Contact (OUCS)
            – Strong connections with Business Liaison Unit (from the outset)
            – Connections established with OII and SBS
            – Technical Development:
               • Access Grid installed in ComLab - and shortly in hospital-area
               • „Gate-keeper‟ in OUCS running GLOBUS
               • 8 cpu Linux cluster running Condor scheduling
            – Management Structure established
            – Building close relationship with RAL (A34 Corridor)
            – OUCS team built within Research Technologies Section, in Information and
              Support Group
            – Oxford University is online!

                                               12                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                              OeSC Management
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Substantial/important activity; needs appropriate structure
            – Management Board
               • Overall „responsibility‟ for delivery and operation of functional
                 e-Science Centre, resources invested, accountability, outside
                 relations and integration, and overseeing all e-Science and Grid
                 activities in OU
            – Technical/Development Board
               • High level management of e-Science/Grid activities, internal
                 resources invested on OeSC, coordination
            – Technical Committee
               • Detailed internal technical management and organisation
            – User Committee
               • Forum for Users working on e-Science and Grid projects, and
                 for dissemination across the University

                                             13                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                Access Grid
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  •Collection of resources that support formal and informal group-to-group
  interaction across the grid
  •Supports large-scale distributed meetings and collaborative work sessions

                                          14                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                Access Grid Technology
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Access Grid Collaboration
            – Enable collaborative work at
              dozens of sites worldwide, with
              strong sense of shared presence
            – Combination of commodity
              audio/video tech + Grid
              technologies for security,
              discovery, etc.
            – 40+ sites worldwide, number
              rising rapidly                                                             Presenter
            – Clear area of interest to OII                                                 mic

            – Second installation (Churchill?)

                                                        Ambient mic
                   Audience camera

                                                 15                     PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Oxford Grid Project Overview
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Projects under different headings
            – Research Council Related
               • EPSRC
               • DataGrid
               • Other RC and IRC
            – OeSC Industrial
               • Company has to commit itself to Grid
               • Purpose is to „effect the connection‟ and to disseminate

  • Much more information available…!

                                             16              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                         EPSRC e-Science Projects
O xford University

e-Science Centre

            – Grid Enabled Optimisation and Design Search for Engineering
               • Aim to develop a new way of optimising engineering design
                 through the use of a grid enabled design search service, and
                 focusing on CFD
                     – Mike Giles
            – The RealityGrid – a tool for investigating condensed matter and
               • Aim to use Grid technology to closely couple high performance
                 computing and visualisation (steering) to create an environment
                 for modelling to be compared and to integrate with experimental
                     – Adrian Sutton
            – Distributed Aircraft Maintenance
               • Aim to build a generic grid testbed for distributed diagnostics of
                 aircraft engines on a global scale
                     – Lionel Tarassenko

                                             17              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                 DataGrid Projects
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Two projects each involving the use of computer science to underpin
    the implementation of Grid applications software
     – Grid security
         - develop provably correct security protocols to ensure secrecy,
           integrity and authenticity
                     - Collaborators: OUCL (Gavin Lowe, Bill Roscoe, David Gavaghan),
                       RAL, EU DataGrid Security Coordination group
            – Data Management – with functionality checked
               • develop a distributed handling and job-submission system for
                 very large datasets arising in experimental particle physics and
                 use software engineering techniques to ensure that the
                 implementation has the correct functionality
                     – Collaborators: OUCL (Andrew Martin, Jim Davies, David Gavaghan,
                       Todd Huffman, Ian McArthur), RAL, EU DataGrid WP 2

                                                18                 PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                 Other R.C. Projects(1)
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  •        PPARC
            –        GridPP: National Centre and 4 regional Centres
                         –   Todd Huffman, Ian McArthur, Tony Weidberg and many others
  •        EPSRC-MRC Interdisciplinary Research Consortium
            –        „From Medical Signals and Images to Clinical Information‟
            –        Joint EPSRC/MRC IRC in Medical Imaging and Signals
            –        Awarded £500K to develop and maintain the necessary Grid
                     infrastructure to support e-Science activities between the IRC
                     consortium and the associated Regional e-Science Centres
                         –   Mike Brady, Lionel Tarassenko, Alison Noble, Steve Smith
  •        BBSRC
            1. A Grid Database for Biomolecular Simulations (£700k + 10%)
            – Simulations, creating a federated database, with data mining
                         –   Mark Sansom, Paul Jeffreys
            2. Molecular Consortium; Structural Biology
                         –   David Stuart (WTCHG) representing Oxford Component

                                                     19                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                               Other R.C. Projects(2)
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • MRC
            – Project looking at very large clinical trials of cancer utilising genomic
              information; marrying genetic informations and clinical trial data
                        – Prof David Kerr (Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
                     • Reached the final stage of the MRC call

  • NERC
            – Closely related to „ClimatePrediction‟ project discussed below

  • Wellcome
            – Working to establish Wellcome Grid Centre!

  • …also other projects underway with e-Science component

                                                   20                 PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                            OeSC Industrial Projects…
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Collaborative Visualisation and Computational Steering
                     • Project Leader: Ken Brodlie (Computer Science, Leeds University)
                     • Industrial Partners: NAG, Streamline Computing
                     • Successful bid to Open Call

            – A key generic enabling technology for Grid computing is collaborative
              and remote visualisation and computational steering
            – This project will address this in the context of steady and unsteady
              three-dimensional data arising from CFD calculations at Oxford and
              Imperial College, and the heart-modelling project described above
            – The results will also be relevant to any scientific computations on an
              underlying computational mesh, using finite volume or finite element

                                                 21               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     …OeSC Industrial Projects …
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Videoworks
               • Project Leader: David Shotton, Zoology Department
               • Industrial Partners: IBM, Informix, Virage
               • Funded -> £327k
            – Aim to create a unified suite of generic and scalable video e-services
              specifically for the handling and analysing scientific digital video
              data files located in distributed file stores over high bandwidth
              academic Grid networks, with a particular emphasis on the
              usefulness of these video e-services for biomedical research

                                             22               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                            … OeSC Industrial Projects…
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Remote use of scientific Instrumentation
                      • Project Leader: David Cockayne (Materials)
                      • Industrial Partner: JEOL
                      • Submitted and awaiting response! (£250k)
            –        Micro-analytical instrumentation, such as transmission electron
                     microscopes, electron probes and surface analysis equipment is
                     becoming increasingly expensive, increasingly sophisticated
            –        Consolidation of infrastructure seems both inevitable and desirable
            –        Many instruments can now be operated (at least in part) remotely
            –        Purpose is to develop a capability for satisfying this need in electron
                     optical instrumentation, and to put in place a demonstration national
                     grid of access to sophisticated electron optical equipment

                                                    23                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     … OeSC Industrial Projects …
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Climate Prediction
                • Project Leaders: Myles Allen, Dave Stainforth (Atmospheric
                • Industrial Partners: IBM, RSL, up to 2 million PC owners world-
                • Submitted last week £320k
            – Recent studies have shown that atmosphere-ocean general
              circulation models (AOGCMs) are capable of simulating some large-
              scale features of present-day climate and recent climate change
              with remarkable accuracy
            – Aim is to develop techniques that will allow the use of up to 2 million
              home and business PCs to provide the first fully probabilistic 50-
              year forecast of human induced climate change
            – New challenge of collecting (relatively) large data samples

                                              24               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                            …OeSC Industrial Projects
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • eDiamond (Digital Mammography)
                     • Will be submitted to DTI as „special‟ on Friday
                     • Mike Brady, David Gavaghan, Paul Jeffreys
                     • Expect to be £3M, but only need modest amount from OeSC

  • Heterogeneous Workload Management and Grid Integration
               • IBM researcher on secondment to Oxford
               • Basically receive money for two staff!
               • Submit to DTI on Friday
            – End to end response time monitoring and differentiated service
              applications running within Virtual Organisation
            – Applied to e-Diamond

                                               25              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     OeSC Projects under development…
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Computational Drug Discovery
               • Project Leader: Graham Richards, Mark Sansom
               • Industrial Partners: Inhibox, Wellcome Trust?
            – Following screensaver project, more computationally demanding
              calculations on binding of small molecules to proteins using the Grid

  • Whole-heart Modelling
                • Project Leader: Denis Noble, David Gavaghan
                • Industrial Partners: The Wellcome Trust, possibly others
            – Biological function arises from a complex interplay between
              processes at all levels of organisation -> comprehensive biological
              simulation of the whole-heart to be undertaken in a grid environment

                                             26                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     …OeSC Projects Under Development
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Fully Accessible Video for e-Learning
               • Oxford/Cambridge (Stuart Lee)
               • £412k
               • “Test water”…
            – An e-Learning project to develop the use of high quality video-based
              resources for teaching, enabling random access to video data files
              while operating at streaming speeds
            – Enables accurate access to precise points within datasources (eg
              down to sentences)
  • Library Services
               • Matthew Dovey, David Price
            – Looking for overlapping areas of interest, eg access to
              heterogeneous databases, methods for locating protocol gateways
              and information services, and distributed library architectures

                                            27               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Is the Grid Niche or Mainstream?
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • „A major development in 2001 has been the endorsement of the
    concept of the Grid by Microsoft, Sun and IBM‟ (SR2002 bid)
  • Irving Wladawsky-Berger (Lead for IBM Corporate on Grid)
            – „Grid computing is a set of research management services that sit on
              top of the OS to link different systems together‟
            – „We will work with the Globus community to build this layer of
              software to help share resources‟
            – ‘All of our systems will be enabled to work with the grid, and all
              of our middleware will integrate with the software’
  • Dave Turek (IBM‟s Vice President of LINUX)
            – „IBM's Global Services division plans to build $4 billion worth of such
              [Grid] "computer farms" around the globe‟
  • NeSC opened by Gordon Brown
  • Tony Blair‟s talk …

                                             28                PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Blair’s speech on British Science
O xford University
e-Science Centre,11126,721029,00.html

  • “The emerging field of e-science should transform this kind of
    work. It's significant that the UK is the first country to develop
    a national e-science grid, which intends to make access to
    computing power, scientific data repositories and experimental
    facilities as easy as the web makes access to information. One of
         the pilot e-science projects is to develop a digital mammographic
         archive, together with an intelligent medical decision support
         system for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. An individual
         hospital will not have supercomputing facilties, but through the
         grid it could buy the time it needs. So the surgeon in the
         operating room will be able to pull up a high-resolution
         mammogram to identify exactly where the tumour can be found. “

                                       29              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  •        SR2002 – distinct change of emphasis
            1. e-Learning
                • Virtual Laboratories, AccessGrid and other Grid-enabled
            2. e-Government
                • Many of the heterogeneous data collections of Government
                  Departments should be federated using Grid middleware
            3. Medical and Healthcare Informatics
                • Grid middleware to maintains privacy and trust; need to
                  strengthen links with NHS activities
            4. e-Environment
                • Grid infrastructure needs to be applied to a wide variety of
                  environmental problems ranging from monitoring endangered
                  species or traffic flows to flood warning systems or pollution

                                             30               PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
O xford University
e-Science Centre

            5. e-Business
                – By the end of the SR2002 period, robust, industrial-strength
                   Gridmiddleware will be available -> „Virtual Organisations‟ ->
                   multi-company business opportunities
            6. International e-Science collaboration
                – e-Science …s UK programme fits well into the EU‟s European
                   Research Area initiative
            7. Military applications of Grid technologies
                – Joint programme should be established with the MOD
            8. Security
                – Vital area of concern for the Grid and requires a focused sub-
                   programme of R&D looking at the needs of the different
                   application areas

                                             31              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                             SR2002 OST resources
O xford University
e-Science Centre

                     SR2000         Programme      SR2002
                      15.0            Core            20.0
                     (20.0)           (DTI)          (25.0)

                      8.0            BBSRC            15.0
                      5.0             CLRC             9.3
                      17.0           EPSRC            19.5
                      3.0             ESRC             8.5
                      8.0             MRC             10.0
                      7.0             NERC            10.0
                      26.0           PPARC            45.0
                      89.0            Total          137.3

                                       32       PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                             SR2002 conclusions
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • More money requested for e-Science than in SR2000
            – Up to now Oxford University received > £8M and growing
  • Activity is now mainstream
            – We are building a special relationship with IBM
  • Different emphases from SR2000
            – Clearly advantage to Oxford
            – Healthcare prominent!
  • We need to be preparing for SR2002
            – OeSC – building projects in the key areas and competing!
            – Preparing to bid against the RC funds

                                            33                  PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                                Implications for ITSS
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Role of Computing Services and IT Support in Infrastructure
            – Generally understood that the Grid will form part of the basic IT
              infrastructure of the modern University
                • Meeting May 1, NeSC – e-Science Developers/Computing Services
                        – „Goal is to have the advantages of the infrastructure, but not visible
                          to user‟
                     • Oxford uniquely placed – and leading
                     • Computing Services becoming more important as move from Level
                       1 Grid (basic Grid functionality for one-off tests) to Level 2 Grid
                       (persistent, robust, 24X7)
                     • Majority of e-Science money in Oxford invested in applications
                        – How do we support the researchers, who generally are not Grid

                                                    34                  PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     What will it mean for IT SS (1) ?
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Our IT users
            – “I need a digital certificate to access my collaborators‟ computing
                • Authentication by University of Oxford
            – “I need authorisation to use the database and Beowulf cluster at..”
                • Authorisation through their collaboration, but coordinated and
                  facilitated here
            – “I need to be able to use my digital certification to launch jobs into the
                • Means variety of things:
                      – Knowing how to send secure requests with digital certificates
                      – How to launch jobs (different schedulers)
                • Substantial help from OeSC will be available
            – “I need to advertise the resources here in Oxford to my collaboration (or I
              need to find out what resources are available)”
                • Need to be able to advertise/interrogate MDS GIIS/GIS services

                                                     35                   PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     What will it mean for IT SS (2) ?
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • Collaborators from outside Oxford wishing to use facilities owned
    by our users
            – “A collaborator based at … needs to access the OU SuperComputer
              and database”
               • Your user will need a „Grid Client‟ or gatekeeper (could be central
                 one or one set up locally)
                      – This will need to receive his/her collaborator‟s digital certificate
               • He/she will need to be authorised to use the facilities
               • You will need to take care of firewall and other security issues
            – “My collaborator has launched a job which requires facilities at
              Oxford, but it is running slowly/does not work”
               • At least will need to know how to route questions!

                                                   36                  PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Likely questions from IT SS (1)
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  •      "How much am I going to need to know?“
          – Not need to know intricacies of the Grid (unless wish to!)
          – Basic understanding will probably be necessary
          – Some exciting opportunities!
  •      "Where can I get help?“
          – OeSC point of information:
              • Routed through RT to expert
              • All learning together to some extent!
              • Applications will build up considerable expertise which must be able to
                draw upon
  •      “How much of an additional workload is the introduction of the Grid is likely
         to impose upon me?”
          – Hard to be sure
          – At the moment – specifically related to scientific applications, but could be
             much broader
          – How would you answer the question if asked about WWW?
          – Certainly true that expertise being built up across most Universities
          – Perhaps will mean closer association with application teams

                                              37                 PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
                     Likely questions from IT SS (2)
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • “Should I be responsible for supporting users‟ collaborators?”
            – Ideally it should all balance out!
            – I suspect for some time it will operate through well defined mini-
              Grids (eg the Dame Grid)
            – The project itself will offer support
  • “How can I be kept informed and/or contribute?”
            – email
            – Training will be made available
            – Partnership needed

                                                38            PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
O xford University
e-Science Centre

  • e-Science and the Grid are now mainstream
            – Will have profound effect on the University
  • Oxford has extremely exciting Grid projects
  • OeSC is one of the main centres within a world leading national
    Grid installation
  • Opportunity for OU to really lead the way in terms of creating a
    persistent, robust IT infrastructure
            – Must be done in partnership
  • Collaboration between IT SS, OeSC, OUCS and application
    researchers will be needed

                                            39              PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002
O xford University
e-Science Centre

                 •   SR2000 investment in e-Science has been successful
                 •   OeSC is well advanced, managerially and technically
                 •   Oxford has been very successful in bidding against RC funds
                 •   The Industrial Projects are well developed and we will be
                     one of the first Centres to allocate our funds!
                 •   Over the last year, the Grid has become mainstream
                 •   Definite change of emphasis in SR2002 e-Science bid
                 •   Oxford should be preparing now..
                 •   There will be profound implications for the University and
                     for IT SS!

                                              40             PWJ/ ITSSG Conference June 2002

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