Post War Social Change Society in the

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					Do-Now                     Thursday December 4th
Use the spaces provided on the
    blackboard to list the major
    details, arguments, viewpoints,
                                        Agenda
                                        •Do-Now
    etc. represented in your group’s
                                        •Prohibition discussion
    section of the prohibition
                                        •Notes on Prohibition
    reading.
                                        •Explain and assign
Talk with your group about how
                                        “Heroes” for cereal boxes
    you’d like to explain the reading
    to the class.
                                        Homework
                                        Begin work on your
                                        “Heroes” cereal box
                                        Due: Wednesday December
                                        10th
Post-War Social Change
 Society in the 1920’s
      Prohibition of Alcohol
     Religious Tension Rises
           The 1920’s, Prohibition
     A simple solution to a complex problem.
1.   Why did many Americans believe Prohibition was
     necessary? What goals did they have?

2.   What were the results (intended or unintended) of the
     Prohibition of alcohol?

3.   Was Prohibition of Alcohol in the 1920’s successful?

4.   In what way could you say that the goals of prohibition
     “backfired”?

5.   Why did so many Americans look for cultural icons who
     represented good or “heros” during this time period?
“As an attempt to restore morality,
  Prohibition probably produced the
  opposite effect. The willingness to
  break the law contributed to a wider
  decline in moral standards.”
     Prohibition of Alcohol
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Became the law of the land January 16th, 1920. Largely
         Ignored by the majority of Americans.

Prohibition’s main goals:
– Eliminate drunkenness
     Lessen domestic abuse, conflict
– Get rid of saloons
     Sites of prostitution, gambling, and other vices
– Prevent absenteeism & problems at work
     Missing work, and on-the-job accidents
    Prohibition of Alcohol
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution

Enforcing Prohibition:
– Volstead Act (1919)
    Passed by Congress to systematically enforce


– Widely Ignored
    Demographics:
     – Kansas, 95% obeyed
     – New York, 5% obeyed
    Enhanced the rural/urban morality contrast
       Violating Prohibition
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Bootlegging
– Manufacture, sale, or transport of beer, liquor, wine, etc.
  is outlawed
– A new type of criminal is born
– Operated stills, smuggled overland or sea

Speakeasies
– Illicit saloons where smuggled booze was distributed
     After Prohibition: 700 speakeasies and 4,000 bootleggers in
     Washington D.C.
     Before Prohibition: Only 300 licensed saloons
      Violating Prohibition
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Organized Crime
– Bootlegging/Speakeasies required large networks

Gang wars & murder
– Gangsters expanded their bootlegging empires
– Overlapping gangs clashed, murderous results
– “Rackets”
    Paid off local police to “look the other way”
    Forced local business to pay for “protection”
      – Unpaid business suffered terrorism


What happened to protecting morality!?!
       Violating Prohibition
The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Al Capone
– “Scarface,” most notorious gangster
– Over $60 million per year bootlegging alone
– Incredibly powerful
     Politicians, judges


The F.B.I is born
– J.Edgar Hoover
– Dedicated, independent force against Org. Crime

STILL couldn’t trap Capone
– Finally jailed for tax evasion!
           Prohibition of Alcohol
    The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
   Violations of Prohibition led Congress to hear testimony to
     whether the 18th amendment should be repealed.
     In Favor of Repeal                          Against Repeal
“I will concede that the saloon was        Instead of lowering our standards,
   odious [offensive], but now we             we urge that the law be
   have delicatessen stores, pool             strengthened… the closing of
   rooms, drug stores, millinery              the open saloon… has resulted
                                              in better national health;
   shops, private parlors, and 57
                                              children are born under better
   other varieties of speakeasies             conditions, homes are better,
   selling liquor and flourishing.”           and the mother is delivered from
 -- Representative LaGuardia of NY, 1926      the fear of a drunken husband.
                                                  --Ella A. Boole, president of the
                                                                    NWCTU, 1926
     Other Issues of Morality
    Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
Fundamentalists in conflicts over:
  Emerging science and technology
  War and widespread crime
  – Began to question existence/involvement of God
  Scholars who criticized the bible
  – Historically inaccurate? Written by humans?
    Contradictory?
  Evolution
  – The Scopes Trial
  – Fundamentalism v. Science
      Other Issues of Morality
    Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
Fundamentalism
  Religious traditionalists
  Christian ideas about Jesus
  Argued God inspired the Bible
  – Therefore it cannot hold contradictions or errors
  Favored literal interpretation of the bible
     Other Issues of Morality
   Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
Famous Fundamentalists
  Billy Sunday
  – Former professional baseball player
  – Anti-Alcohol
  – Led WILDLY POPULAR Religious Revival meetings
 Sister Aimee
  – Owned radio station
  – Used public broadcasts to spread her revival meetings
  – Broadened her ministry
     Other Issues of Morality
    Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
The Scopes Trial
  Evolution
  – Theory that human beings and all other living species
    developed over time from simpler life forms
  – Deeply disturbed fundamentalists
  – Contradicts the history of “Creation”
  1925, TN bans teaching evolution in school
  – Science teacher John T. Scopes challenges
    constitutionality
     Other Issues of Morality
    Religious Tension Comes to the Forefront
The Scopes Trial (continued)
  William Jennings Bryan v. Clarence Darrow
  – Outspoken fundamentalist lawyer
    v. Passionate supporter of free speech
  (New) Mass media made the trial wildly popular

				
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posted:10/23/2011
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