Escalation of the Cold War
• Origins of the cold war started in 1945 with the end of WWII and the negotiations
of the Potsdam Conference (Feb. 1945), the Potsdam Conference (July-Aug
1945), and the agreements made at them
• Differences came with differing ideologies
• Truman set up policy of containment and dealt with many issues
• Eisenhower also continued containment and established massive retaliation, and
began the space and arms race which escalated the cold war
• Tensions began to heighten with the issues in Berlin and Cuba
1. Berlin Crisis
a. Since 1950- the Berlin Crisis was that after the two conferences
Berlin and Germany had been split up into four zones; the conflict
was that people would move into different parts of the areas
because they were ruled better
2. Bay of Pigs
a. April 1961- was an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed
Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the
United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel
Castro; this action deteriorated Cuban-American relations
3. Berlin Wall
a. August 1961- was a barrier separating West Berlin from East
Berlin and the rest of East Germany
b. During this period at least 133 people were confirmed killed trying
to cross the wall into West Berlin
c. Heightened tensions because they prevented people coming into
American sphere of influence of West Berlin
4. Cuban Missile Crisis
a. October 1962- photographs taken by an American U-2 spy plane
revealed missile bases being built in Cuba
b. Ended two weeks later but was very important because it was the
first time nuclear war was actually an option
c. Heightened tensions because this was very close to American soil
• President John F. Kennedy, Speech on June 25, 1963
- Speech about the conflict of West Berlin and his justification for getting involved in
the conflict even though its in Germany
• Why did the Berlin Crisis Occur? Article I, By: CAMPBELL CRAIG
- Two views that the Berlin Crisis occurred one because of the Cold War tensions but
also because it was a strategic move by both sides capitalism and communism
• Why did the Berlin Crisis Occur? Article II, By: PAUL DU QUENOY
- Other viewpoints about why the Berlin Crisis occurred and why we got involved
• Cuban Missiles Speech, By: President F. Kennedy
- expresses to the American public that we have found missiles in Cuba and that it is a
direct threat to American safety
• Cuban Missile Crisis Source II: Did the Kennedy Administration handle the Cuban
Missile Crisis effectively?, By: JOHN A. SOARES JR
- Explain how the Cuban Missile Crisis was when America was the closest to being in
• Cuban Missile Crisis Source I: Did the Kennedy Administration handle the Cuban
Missile Crisis effectively?, By: WILLIAM H. KAUTT
- explains why Cuba was in a state of turmoil that needed American help
• Issues Arose in Soviet Union and Vietnam
1. The Largest Instigation was the Vietnam War
a. 1963-1969: dispute between the communist Democratic Republic
of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and its communist allies and the US-
supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded
with the defeat of South Vietnam
b. Heightened tensions because it was unsuccessful and caused the
spread of communism into South Vietnam; spread of communism
= US is loosing the Cold War
2. My Lai Massacre
a. March 1968: the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of
the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), almost entirely civilians
and the majority of them women and children
b. Incident prompted widespread outrage around the world. The
massacre also reduced U.S. support at home for the Vietnam War
3. Soviet Invasion of Czech
a. August 1968- invaded the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, after
failed negotiations, in order to prevent reforms from continuing
b. Seen as a direct action to spread communism- made the US distrust
the Soviet Union even more
• Johnson’s Vietnam, By: Michael R. Beschlos
- Explains why Johnson should be most concerned with Vietnam because it shows
weakness if they loose and it is greatly affecting the American people
Was U.S. military intervention in Vietnam justified?
• Was U.S. military intervention in Vietnam justified? Article II, By: JEROME SLATER
- Explains how U.S. intervention was not justified and did not serve American interests
• Was U.S. military intervention in Vietnam justified? Article I, By: BENJAMIN FRANKEL
- Explains that the U.S. intervention in Vietnam was justified and it went with the
American policy of containment
• Took administration in 1969- established policy of Détente
• See Detente Study Guide for more info.
• Throughout the year do ALL your journals with 100% effort. Some appear
directly on the IB Test or very similarly.
• Learn the major events of each presidency
• IB Test acts specific events and Policy details of each president
• Make a Timeline of all presidents in the Cold War and write each major event,
major treaty, and major policy of each
• Origins of the Cold War all contribute to the events that escalated it; by knowing
the origins they all tie into the events so they will help you remember the events
Paper Two and Paper Three Questions that You should Study:
Paper 2: All of Topic 6 but specifically;
148. It has been argued that the head-to-head confrontation of the super powers during the Cuban Missile Crisis was
the result of serious miscalculation on that part of Nikita Khrushchev and recklessness on the part of John F. Kennedy.
To what degree can you support this assertion?
175. "The build up of missiles in Cuba in 1962 was a deliberate, provocative and unjustified action." To what extent
do you agree with this statement?
178. To what extent was Germany the cause of East/West disagreements between 1943 and 1963?
179. Analyze the role of either Cuba or Vietnam in the development of the Cold War.
182. Assess the significance of each of the following in the intensification and spread of the Cold War: the Truman
Doctrine; the Marshall Plan; the Korean War; the construction of the Berlin Wall; the Cuban Missile Crisis; and the
changes in leadership in the US and the USSR.
185. Assess the effectiveness of the US's policy of containment in Asia.
188. In what respects and with what justifications can the Cuban Missile Crisis be claimed to have marked a turning
point in East/West relations?
199. “Although it began in Europe the spread of the Cold War to other regions was a much more dangerous
development.” To what extent do
you agree with this judgment?
200. How and why did the policies of either the US or the USSR affect superpower rivalry between 1950
209. In what ways, and with what results, did the Untied States’ Cold War policy of containment affect
Cuba after 1959?
214. Analyze Cuba’s role in the development of the Cold War.
157. "The failures of American politicians and not those of the US armed forces lost America the war in Vietnam."
Discuss this assessment of
events in Vietnam between 1961 and 1975.
158. “The outcome of the Vietnam War was determined not on the battlefield, but on the television screen.” How far
do you agree with this
159. In what ways, and with what results, did the cold War influence relations between either Latin America or Canada
with the United States in
the period 1945 to 1957
160. "The Vietnam War had a disastrous effect on the presidencies of both Lyndon B. Johnson and Richard Nixon." To
what extent do you
agree with this statement?
161. Analyze the effects of the Vietnam War on the United States.
163. Which US president has left the greatest impact on foreign policy since 1945?
164. Compare the policies of two US presidents in regard to the Soviet Union between 1945 and 1985. Which was
more successful and why?
166. Analyze the political impact of the Vietnam War upon the US between 1964 and 1974.
167. With reference to their arms and actions, examine the foreign policy of one of the following presidents of the US:
Truman; Eisenhower, Carter, or Reagan.
168. Compare and contrast the Cold War policies of two of the following US presidents: Harry S Truman, Dwight D.
Eisenhower, or Ronald Reagan.