Africa Atlas Chapter 1

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					AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment
AFRICA: Atlas of Our Changing Environment
Africa’s Facts and Figures

                             • Africa holds approximately 30%
                               of the earth’s minerals and oil

                             • Africa is the Earth’s oldest,
                               second largest (after Asia) and
                               second most populous (after
                               Asia) continent

                             • Africa has the world’s longest
                               river (the Nile), biggest desert
                               (the Sahara), oldest desert (the
                               Namib) and shortest coastline
Africa’s Geography

The Land                                              People

                               Water Resources

      The Plants and Animals

                                                 Climate Zones
 Africa’s Geography: Land

• 32% of Africa’s pasture lands and
  19% of its forests and woodlands
  are classified as degraded
• Africa's deserts account for about
  5% of Africa's land area

• Arid lands cover approximately
  60% of Africa

• 10% of farm soils are prime
  agricultural land and more than
  25% of the land has moderate to
  low potential for sustainable

• Forests account for over 20% of
  Africa’s 30 million km2 of land area
Africa’s Geography: Water Resources

• It is estimated that over 300 million
  people in Africa face water scarcity
• Per capita water consumption in
  Africa is 31m3 per year

• About 75% of the African
  population relies on groundwater as
  its major source of drinking water

• Renewable water resources for the
  whole of Africa amount to about
  3 930 km3
Africa’s Geography: Climate Zones

• Africa is the world’s second
  driest continent (after Australia)

• Africa is the world’s hottest

• Africa emits only 4% of total
  global CO2 emissions
Africa’s Geography: The Plants and Animals

 Africa is home to world’s largest bird –
  the ostrich (Struthio camelus) and
  largest living land mammal – the
  African elephant

 98% of Madagascar's land mammals,
  92% of its reptiles, 68% of its plants
  and 41% of its breeding bird species
  exist nowhere else on Earth

 Africa’s Congo Basin constitutes the
  second-largest area of dense tropical
  rain forest in the world (after the
  Amazonian forests of South America)
Africa’s Geography: People

• In 2007 Africa was home to
  more than 965 million people

• More than 60% of Africa’s
  population was still living in
  rural areas in 2005

                                   • Africa now has the fastest urban
                                     growth rate in the world
                                   • 2.7% of Africa’s population lives
                                     within 100 km of the coast
                                   • 56.6% of African labour force is
                                     engaged in agriculture
 Africa’s Changing Environment

 Natural Change and Population
Africa’s population grew 2.32% annually
between 2000 and 2005—nearly double        Air and Atmosphere
the global rate of 1.24%                  Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate
                                          change - towards the end of the 21st
                                          century, climate change will have caused
                                          sea-level rises that will affect Africa’s
 Land Cover and Land Use                 highly populated low-lying coastal areas
Africa is losing more than four million
hectares of forest every year—twice        Water
the world’s average deforestation rate    By 2050 it is expected that areas
                                          experiencing water shortages in sub-
                                          Saharan Africa will have increased by
   Biodiversity
  Africa contains 3 044 protected areas including 198 Marine Protected Areas, 50
  Biosphere Reserves, 80 Wetlands of International Importance, and eight of the
  world’s 34 international biodiversity hotspots
Africa’s Changing Population

             Africa’s population grew 2.32%
             annually between 2000 and 2005—
             nearly double the global rate of 1.24%
             per year
Africa’s ―Shrinking‖ Land Base

 Increased population increases
 pressures on the land and its
 resources. In a hypothetical
 situation whereby land is
 shared equally among its
 population, each individual’s
 share of land would decrease      1970
 with the increase in population
 as time passes, putting more
 pressure on resources.


 Africa’s Changing Environment

                  Deforestation rate

                                       Vulnerability to

Deforestation                          Desertification
Africa loses an average of 40 000      Lands prone to desertification
km2, or 0.6%, of its forests           occupy about 5% of Africa’s
annually                               land mass and are home to 22
                                       million people
 Africa’s Changing Environment

            Per Capita Renewable Water                          Water Stress

Renewable Water                          Water Stress
Africa’s freshwater supplies represent   It is estimated that over 300 million people in
less than 9% of global renewable         Africa face water scarcity conditions
water resources
8 Biological Hot Spots of Africa
A Few African Species Extinct in the Wild
Earth Observations

 Africa at Night

  Light distribution correlates
  with population density

  Africa with about 12% of the
  world’s population consumed
  a mere one-tenth of the
  electricity used in North
  America which had 5.1% of
  global population (as of 2004)
Earth Observations

Africa—Lightning Centre of the World
Africa has more lightning flashes per square
kilometre than anywhere else on Earth

                                          Africa – World’s Hottest Region
                                          This image shows the highest land
                                          surface temperatures recorded worldwide
                                          between 2003 and 2005 (in pink)
Soil Moisture Monitoring using Radar

 August 2005                                         August 2006

The maps show marked differences in soil moisture between August 2005 and
August 2006, as a result of above average rainfall in 2006
Thank You!

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