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A Profile of Korean EFL Students - finchpark by xiuliliaofz


									          A Profile of Korean EFL
          Students’ Learning Beliefs,
            Styles and Preferences

8:17 PM                             Slide number 1
                              Dr. Andrew Finch

 Learning styles, beliefs and preferences are controlling
factors in language learning.
This research set out to:
   examine these factors in Korean students of
   English Education; and
   make a profile these Korean EFL learners

                                                   Slide number 2
              The situation

College students receiving instruction which reflected
their preferred learning styles scored higher on tests
(in terms of factual knowledge, attitude, and efficiency).
(Domino, 1979)
 Approximately 90% of traditional classroom instruction
is geared to the auditory learner.
(Hodges, 1982, pp. 30-31)

                                                  Slide number 3
              The situation

90% of the students with normal ability can learn 90% of the
material 90% of the time if the teaching methods and media
are adjusted to the student‟s educational cognitivestyle.
(Hill, 1976, p. 3)
Teachers tend to give higher grades to students who
have the same field style as they do
(Hansen-Strain, 1989, p. 224)

                                                 Slide number 4
Individuals vary in the strategies they employ because
of differences in learning styles, affective styles, and
cognitive styles.
Dunn & Dunn (1979) identify perceptual learning
   visual learning: reading, studying charts;
   auditory learning: listening to lectures, audiotapes;
   kinaesthetic learning: experiential learning - total
   physical involvement with a learning situation;
   tactile learning: “hands-on” learning, such as building
   models or doing laboratory experiments.
                                                     Slide number 5
Most research involving Korean students has been
carried out in the United States:
  Hofstede, G. (1986). Cultural differences in teaching and
  learning. International Journal of Intercultural Relations,
  10, 301-320.
  Oxford, R. L. (1986). Strategy Inventory for Language
  Learning (SILL). Various Versions. Tuscaloosa, AL:
  Oxford Associates.
  Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language
  learning of beginning university foreign language
  students. The Modern Language Journal, 72(3),

                                                      Slide number 6

Reid (1987, p. 96) reviewed ESL learning style
preferences over nine language backgrounds, finding
that Koreans were most visual in their learning style
preferences, though they preferred kinaesthetic and
tactile learning as major learning styles.
Stebbins (1995, p. 111) found that “Korean students
strongly preferred visual learning.” Lee (1996) attributed
this to the use of largely iconographic language systems
in Asian cultures (hangul 한글 and hanmun 한문).

                                                   Slide number 7

The “received truth” about the Asian context has
beenthat the learner is generally “an individual who is
conditioned by a pattern of cultural forces that are not
harmonious to learner autonomy, independence or
self-direction” (Pierson, 1996, p. 52; Liu, 1998, p. 5)

                                                  Slide number 8
 However, it has been shown that traditional learning
practices and cultural traits may actually contribute to
the development of learner autonomy (Ho & Crookall,
1995; Pierson, 1996)

Cultural differences may not be the main barrier to
thepromotion of the concept of autonomy in countries
with a group-oriented tradition such as China.
(Little, 1996, p. 46)

                                                  Slide number 9

The stereotype of Asian students as „obedient listeners‟ does not
reflect the roles they would like to adopt in class.
   They do not see the teacher as an authority figure who should
   not be questioned;
   they do not want to sit in class passively receiving knowledge;
   and they are only slightly on the „agreement‟ side that the
   teacher should have a greater role than themselves in
   evaluating their learning. (Littlewood, 2000, p. 33)

                                                           Slide number 10
    Alternative Perspectives

“Educational contexts” are more responsible for Asian
learning styles than the learners themselves (Littlewood,
2000, p. 33)

The gap between generations of learners of English is
becoming more noticeable. (cf. Sakui & Gaies, 1999,
p. 488)

                                                Slide number 11
                 The Study

For these reasons, this study set out to construct a
profile of learning styles, beliefs and preferences of
language learners in Korea in the 21st Century.

An up to the date profile of EFL students studying in
Korea would have implications for materials
developmentand for teacher training programs.

                                                   Slide number 12
                     The Study

          Kyungpook National University,
8:17 PM
            2002 to 2004 (4 semesters).
                                      Slide number 13

During each semester, students taking methodology or
writing courses in the Department of English Education
were asked to work on a learning journal (Finch, 2000).
This journal consisted of a number of investigative, group
work (classroom) activities for each week, followed up by
individual (homework) written reflection pages.
Students investigated various learning-related issues in
theclass and reflected upon these in their own time.

                                                   Slide number 14

The research was part of the coursework.
The research took place over the whole semester.
Students were actively engaged in discussing the issues
and then reflecting upon them.
There was little reason for them to consider writing respon-ses
that reflected the teacher/researcher‟s point of view.
Classroom interactions focused on learning-related topics, and
featured a number of questionnaires based on (or
adapted from) published research instruments.
                                                   Slide number 15
           Research Instruments
Title                                             Author(s)
A Measure of Autonomy and Self-Direction          Dickinson, 1978, p. 26
Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory BALLI   Horwitz, 1988, p.292
Classroom Environment Questionnaire CEQ           Fraser, 1986
Classroom Environment Scale CES                   Fraser, 1986
Classroom Learning Environment CLE                Pine & Boy, 1977
Deficiency Analysis                               Finch & Hyun, 2000b, p. 19
Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale FLCAS    Horwitz et al. 1986, p. 130
Language Learning Ideas                           Hahn et al. 1989, p. 250
Language Skills Self-assessment                   Finch & Hyun, 2000b, p. 16
Learning Contract                                 Finch & Hyun, 2000b, p. 18
Learning Preferences                              Finch & Hyun, 2000b, p. 19
Learning Style Inventory LSI                      Martinez, 1997, p. 178
Multiple Intelligences Survey MIS                 McKenzie, 1999
Self-assessment                                   Oscarsson, 1980
Strategy Inventory for Language Learning SILL     Oxford, 1989, pp. 242-245
Student Perceptions About Language Learning       Willing, 1988, pp. 106-7
Students’ Needs                                   Hills, 1976, pp. 31-32
Study Styles                                      Finch & Hyun, 2000a, 22-23
Teachers’ Needs                                   Hills, 1976, pp. 29-30

                                                               Slide number 16
                 BALLI (Horwitz 1986)
                                                                                N = 113

1. Learning a language means acquiring a body of knowledge.

                 Agree strongly        Agree        No opinion     Disagree        Strongly
  Av     Total    #        %      #            %    #      %      #       %       #       %

 2.58    113      10     8.8%     54      47.8%     23    20.4%   26    23.0%     0       0%

2. The teacher has this knowledge and must give it to the learner.

   Av    Total     #1      2%     #2           0%   #3      %     #4      %       #5      %
  2.49    112      17    15.2%    56       50.0%    10    8.9%    25    22.3%      4      4%

                                                                                Slide number 17
                 BALLI (Horwitz 1986)
                                                                     N = 113

8. The role of the teacher is to help students learn how to learn.
  Av     Total   #1     %     #2     %     #3    %      #4    %       #5       %

  1.66   113     67   59.3%   32   28.3%   4    3.5%    5    4.4%      5       4%

10. The role of the teacher is to share knowledge.
  3.10   113     5    4.4%    38   33.6%   24   21.2%   33   29.2%    13       12%

11. The role of the teacher is to prepare students for adult life.

  2.07   113     25   22.1%   69   61.1%   7    6.2%    10   8.8%      2       2%

                                                                     Slide number 18
                BALLI (Horwitz 1986)
                                                                    N = 113

17. Some people have a special ability for learning languages.
 Av     Total   #1    %      #2    %      #3    %      #4    %       #5       %

 2.80   113     7    6.2%    54   47.8%   16   14.2%   27   23.9%     9       8%

22. Learning a language is different to learning other subjects.
2.50    113     15   13.3%   51   45.1%   24   21.2%   21   18.6%     2       2%

24. Women are better than men at learning a language.

 1.93    113    40   35.4%   52   46.0%   12   10.6%   7    6.2%      2       2%

                                                                    Slide number 19
This research presents a profile of a set of Korean EFL
students over a certain period of time.
It does not claim to be true of all Korean students, but it
does show particular trends that can be of interest to
teacher trainers and materials designers.
These trends reflect the changing nature of education
and of student perceptions, beliefs, study strategies and
learning preferences in Korea.

                                                   Slide number 20
       Conclusions: Trends
BALLI: a movement away from traditional views of
language learning and teaching.
FLCAS: a growing feeling of comfort in the language
classroom (decreasing anxiety).
LSI: Twice as many Visual Learners as Auditory
Learners. Almost no Tactile Learners.
SILL: General raised awareness of learning strategies.
MIS: Comparable presence of all 9 intelligences, with
Intrapersonal strength being the strongest and
Interpersonal strength being the weakest.

                                                 Slide number 21
       Conclusions: Trends
CLE: heightened awareness of the significance of the
learning environment.
CEQ: heightened awareness of the importance of
matching preferred and actual learning environments.
Self-Assessment, Confidence: students responded
Self-Assessment, Motivation: students responded

                                               Slide number 22
                Thank You

The learning Journal English Reflections is available
from KNU Press:
The author can be contacted by email at:
aef @
Thank you for your time.

                                                   Slide number 23

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