ELP Credit Essay for IT - Home by dandanhuanghuang

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An Overview: The request for, Credit for Network Infrastructure Design (IT329)




            ELP Essay: The request for Network Infrastructure Design (IT329),

                                      Daryl Shaver

                                          CTU

                                     Prior Learning:

                                         7/28/09
                                                                                                2


                 A credit request for Network Infrastructure Design (IT329)

       This paper is written to provide a credit request for IT329, through my work/Life

Experience related to instruction, beginning with a brief overview of my related training and

actual work related to Network Infrastructure Design Engineering.

       I have developed strong Network Infrastructure design skills a long with Systems

information processes foundation and a keen technical understanding, which allowed me to

build and design Network Infrastructures and Client/Server management systems, which also

have strong security features and network managements systems.

Object 1. From IT29 Systems Administration, was met by my experience as a SR Network

Design engineer working MCI, and Analyst International, also various other consulting

companies in which my duties included explaining and presenting network architectures and

networking basic in my designs.

       In today’s IT departments most production applications will generally require access

to the network in order to establish communication with system servers, applications, end

users and other networking devices such as VoIP Phone systems. There have been many

developments that have changed the network infrastructures such as ecommerce for example

which has opened the doors to VMs allowing for multiple server farms to work together in a

rack mount system. Additionally; this means that utilizing server virtualization as hosts

systems require connections for management also creating the need for storage networking

for backup, and storage purposes. Consider these requirements when determining the

network configuration for the server virtualization infrastructure. The other networking

infrastructures being designed today also include Data base clusters in a distributed

architecture across corporate backbone networks over the WAN and connecting the internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3


using the application requirements collected from analyzing business and technical

requirements. These business requirements must be considered for designing the physical

server layout and design for each host server, in order to determine the number of physical

network adapters and the total throughput requirements for these devices connecting the data

and voice networks across the corporate infrastructure. Also, consider redundancy for

implementing fault tolerance. The business and technical requirements for each application

to be deployed to the virtual network infrastructure should drive these decisions.

       Objective 2 Diagram the physical layout and components of and organizations

internal network infrastructure example Figure 1 taken from a design for a customer’s VoIP

infrastructure design created by Daryl Shaver Design Engineer Insight Global

         Clustered                                                                                                           Video
                                    SJC-RFD-3750-1
          TFTP-1
                   Cluster 1
                  Unified CM1                           SJC-RFD-DIST-1
                                                                                                         WSM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Rockford (RFD)
                  Unified CM3                                                                                                       IP
                                                                                                 SJC-RFD-ACC-5                                                                                                                                         Cluster 1
                  Unified CM5                                                                                                     Phones
                                 Si                          Si                                                                                                                                                                                       Unified CM2
                  Unified CM7            SJC-RFD-FWSM-1                                                                                                                                                                 Clustered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Unified CM4
                   First Node                                                                                                                                                                                            TFTP-2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Unified CM6
                      MOH SJC-RFD-DATA-1                                                                                                        FB-3560-2
                                                                                                                                                    h
                                                                                                                                  FAX                                                              SJC-RFD-3550-2                                     Unified CM8
                      TFTP                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MOH2      3540 MCU
                                                                                                                                                                       IP
                                                                               Gigabit Ethernet SJC-RFD-ACC-3                                                        Phones                                                                             TFTP2
            Unified                                                             Fiber Uplinks                                                                                      FAX                                      Cisco
                                                                   Si                                                                                                                                                     Emergency
          Operations       SJC-RFD-3550-3                                                                                                     SJC-RFD-ACC-6                                                                                Fax
           Manager                                                                                                                                                                                                        Responder                                     RME
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Server
                                                             SJC-RFD-DIST-2                                              AP1200
                                                                                                                                                                                    SIP
                                             3545 MCU                                           SJC-RFD-ACC-1                                                                                                                                               Unified
                                                                                                                                                                                   Phones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MeetingPlace
                                                         Gatekeeper                                                                                                                                                            Gatekeeper          CMM
                      Unity with MS                                                                                                                          SJC-RFD-ACC-4
           Unified                                        Cluster                                                                                                                                                               Cluster
         MeetingPlace  Exchange                                                                                           SIP
                                                                                                      FB-3560-1          Phones                 Gigabit Ethernet                                                                                             Cluster 2
                                      Cluster 2                                                                                                  Fiber Uplinks                                         Video                                                Unified CM4
                                     Unified CM1                                                                                                                                                                                                            Unified CM6
                                     Unified CM3                                                                                                                          SJC-RFD-ACC-2                                                                     Unified CM8
                                     Unified CM5                                                                                                                                                                                                              MOH2
                                                      3540 MCU                       SJC-RFD-3550-5                                     DS3
                                     Unified CM7                                                                                                                                                                                                              TFTP2
                                      First Node
                                         MOH                                                                      Si                                         Si                                                  SFO-ORD-3750-2
                                         TFTP                                                                                                                                                     PSTN                                                     Chicago (ORD)
                                                                                                                                                                                    SFO-ORD-VGW                                              Unified
          San Francisco                                 SFO-ORD-3750-1                                          Core-1                                      Core-2                                                                         MeetingPlace
              (SFO)                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Express
                                                                                                                       SJC-RFD-WAN                                                                                    SFO-ORD-WAN-2

                                                                                                                                                                                              SFO-ORD-VGW-2
                            PSTN SFO-ORD-VGW-1                                                                                                                                                                                      T1 WAN Links
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SRST
                                                                  Unified CM                              Unified CM                                                              Raleigh                                           with QOS and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RSVP                   w/ SIP
                                                                   Express                                 Express                                                                 (RDU)                                                                       Phones
                                                                                                                                                                     RDU-WAN-2821                                                                                        SIP
                        SFO-ORD-WAN-1                 Atlanta                                                                                                                                First Node/                                                                Phones
                                                                                                                                                                                                TFTP
                                                       (ATL)                                                                                                   New
                                                                                                      Toronto                                                                                          Unified                                                  Video
                                                                                                                                                               York                                  CallManager
                                                                                                       (YYZ)
                     T1 WAN Links
                                                                                      Gatekeeper                                         NYC-WAN-3725         (NYC)                 V
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.1(1)              Unified SRST                 SCCP
                     with QOS and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              w/ RSVP                    Phones
                         RSVP                                                                                                                                                 Gateway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Agent
                                                               IP-to-IP          Unified
                                                                                                                                        Gatekeeper
                                                               Gateway         MeetingPlace                                                                                   V
                                                                                 Express                                                                                            PSTN                                             Kalamazoo                     Unified
                                                                                                                                                                        Gateway                                           Unified
                                                                                                               DFW-WAN-2691                                                                                               SRST         (AZO)                      Presence
                                                                                                                                             Unified
                                                                                             Unity
                                                                                                                       Gateway             CallManager First Node/                                                                                                  Unified CM
                                                                 Dallas                    Connection                                         4.2(3)      TFTP
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Gateways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Edition
                                     SRST                        (DFW)    RSVP                                                                                                                                               V
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              V


        Video                        w/SIP                                                                               Gateway
                                    Phones
                SCCP                                                                                                               PSTN
                                                                                          ASA
                                                                                          PIX
                Phones                                                                             ASA
                                                                                                                         Gateway                                                                                                         AZO-WAN           Unified
                                                   SRST w/
                                                    RSVP                                  Unified CM1                                                                                   Unified                                                          MeetingPlace
                                                                                          Unified CM2                                                                                   SRST                                                               Express
                                                             SRST w/                      Unified CM3
                                                              RSVP                                                                                                                                Unified
                                                                                          Unified CM4                                                                                             SRST
                                                                                           First Node                                                                                                       Unified
                                                                                          TFTP/MOH                                                                                                          SRST
                                                                                              4


       The attributes for network infrastructure design business requirements are as follows:


1). Determine Host Connectivity Requirements

2). Determine Host Throughput Requirements

3). Create a solution based on the business requirements based on the user’s needs and then

design and scale the network architecture to accommodate growth for all the supported user

access scenarios including voice, video and data.


4). Determine access types and consider factors such as remote access, access from the

Internet, and support for branch offices plus size the bandwidth and connectivity

requirements for devices such as routers and switches.


5). Determine the network infrastructures security and regulatory compliance requirements

and then diagram the physical layout and components for the organizations internal network

infrastructure.




Note the following figure 1.0 taken from an actual design diagram I created for a customer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LAUSD Zelzah
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Project 08CA1588


                                  USB Server Modems
                                   <Make and Model>                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WAN




                                                                Ethernet Control Interface
                                                                                                                                                                          COMPACT




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nd




                                                                          (SIPI)
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               <W


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                                   G650 Media Gateway                                                                                                                                                                                                         Link
                                                                                                  ESD GROUND JACK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               LAN Switch / Router
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     <Gatekeeper (CLAN) >
                             10/100Base T Mbps                                                                      POWER   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11             12               13               14                   POWER




                             Ethernet Interface for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Link
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     LAN
                                                                                             FAN OR POWER FAIL


                                                                                             FAN AND POWER OK




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tomer
                                                                                                         AC INPUT
                                                                                                         DC INPUT




                             control links – uses
                                                                                                   ACTIVE RING




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                             crossover cable to connect                                                                                                                                                                                            Avaya      <V
                             directly to the SIPI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Avaya to Customer LAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LAN Switch / Router
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Link
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           <MedPro




                                                <T1>
                                             <Carrier>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Messaging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Server



                                                         UPS                                                                                                                                                                                                            D
                         PSTN
                                                         UPS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Messaging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Storage Server




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Analog Links

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Digital Links




                                                   Analog Endpoint
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Digital Endpoint
                                                                                             Analog Endpoint                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Avaya Endpoint




            LOCATION:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CONFIDENTIAL NETWORK DESIGN PREPARED FOR:
                                                         Zelzah

            REVISION
             <rev. #>
                        REVISED
                           <rev. date>
                                             PAGE
                                                   1
                                                               LOCAL AVAYA ACCOUNT TEAM:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                <SLE>
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DRAWN BY:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Daryl Shaver
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LAUSD
            PROJECT:
                                          08CA1588

Fig 1.0 customer LAUSD VoIP Server Communication design by Daryl Shaver


Objective 3 Design a Network infrastructure for internet connectivity.


Designing the network infrastructure to accommodate internet connectivity usually starts

with provided the actual physical topology and showing what type of transmissions is to be

used over some type of media which can coaxial, fiber or even satellite and is usually

depicted via a circuit or link T1 or greater provided by the Telecommunication company thus

allowing the network traffic to run through a main data center site or centralized site via a

corporate location.
                                                                                                                                                   6




            SJC-RFD                RDU                           DFW-WAN-2691

   NYC                                                             DFW-WAN                                    MFR Bundle 2 T1s
                                                         Relay                                                GigabitEthernet
                                       Multilink Frame
                 SJC-RFD-WAN                                                                                   FastEthernet
          T1 Links to Other Sites   WAN
    YYZ                                                                      DFW-4503-1
                                                                    Si
                                   ATL
             SFO/ORD                                                               OUTSIDE-24

                                                                                           DFW-ASA-3550

                                                                                                                       ASA
                                                                     ASA
             DFW-2801GW
                                                                                                INSIDE-24
                                                                                                                              DFW-DNS/
                       V                                                                                                        DHCP


                                                                                                 DFW-3750-1                              DFW-CUP
                     DFW-3745GW                                          IPS4240
           Loops
                                                                                                      DATACENTER
                           V
                                                                                                                                    DFW-
                   Loops                 V
                                                                                                                                    UNITY
                                                                             DFW-LDAP
                                   DFW-2851GW
                                                                                                                            DFW-
                           Loops                                                                                           UNITYC
                                                                                      DFW-PUB-1
                                                                                      DFW-SUB-1                 DFW-MPX
                                                                                      DFW-SUB-2
                                                                                      DFW-SUB-3
            PSTN                                                                      DFW-SUB-4
                                                                                    DFW-TFTPMOH-1




This Figure 3.0 above provides a sample diagram taken from an actual customer design with

users connecting to the internet via T1’s and Gigabit Ethernet connection providing both

voice and data across sip trunks.




The next objective developing management and implementation strategies for networking

was met by my working a solution Sales Engineer at Verizon, MCI, Computer Generated

Solutions and NEC America. As part of designing a Network Infrastructure one must also

consider the deployment and the implementation along the management of those systems

devices with network monitoring as while.
                                                                                                7


The understanding of the role of the Sales Engineer as it pertains to a network management

strategy for managing the network is to consider the factors involved such as creating the

disaster recovery systems, storage application systems and redundant data centers for

compliance with the Sarbane Oxley act. As with many enterprise, medium or small networks

it is necessary to define how the network and also the communication systems, along with the

switches, routers, severs, telecommunication terminating plus any other networking

communication or back office systems equipment is going to be monitored. Then the Sales

Engineer or Architect, systems administrators and IT staff will work together to determine if

the current management strategy is adequate or if new applications, equipment, protocols and

processes have considered. Then the next steps in the requirement for the overall strategy

will be to identify Management components which are then integrated into the infrastructure

plus any security measures systems and devices, such as firewalls, Session Border controllers

etc.. These primary elements comprise any well-defined management strategy and should be

considered when developing a networking management strategy.


Other items for consideration within a management and implementation strategy are as

follows:


   1). Network Management Strategy, Network Management Group along with the

   development of the SNMP Applications selecting and installing the Monitoring Devices

   to track and report Events and alarms.


   2). Network Management Groups


   A. Fault
                                                                                                   8


B. Performance


C. Device


D. Security


E. Change


F. Configuration


G. Implementation


H. Fault Management


All these items mention above are listed for the parts and pieces used herein which describes

the pro-active monitoring of devices, circuits and servers for events, alarms and errors. There

are software application and systems such as checkpoint, HP Open view, and Net scout Net

Gen equipment used as part of a over system which specifies what events are monitored and

thresholds for generating alarms. Once the alarms are generated, there is an escalation

process for addressing any errors. It could be a circuit problem, a router interface or a server

link. Service level agreements with local loop providers and long distance IXC for circuit

repair are important as is vendor equipment repair contracts. Out-of-band router management

allows troubleshooting and configuration of routers with an attached modem. The support

technician doesn't rely on the primary circuit to reach the router. They will utilize a separate

analog dial line with a modem connected to the auxiliary port at the router. Escalation

support processes are defined that are used by the network operations center (NOC)

employees for effective problem resolution. These are some typical support activities:
                                                                                                 9


· Established Tier support levels with job responsibilities well defined for each Tier group


· Defined severity levels and what Tier group is responsible


· Defined response times for severity levels


· Applications for trouble tickets


· Established troubleshooting procedures for employees


· Root Cause Analysis


· Survey support groups for skill levels, identify deficiencies and plan for training programs

to address that.


Performance Management


This describes the pro-active monitoring of device, circuit and server performance levels.

That translates to monitoring and reporting on trends with device CPU, memory and link

utilization, circuit bandwidth utilization, server CPU, memory and disk input/output rate. As

well campus segments and device interfaces should be monitored for collisions, CRC errors

and packet drops. Bandwidth capacity planning is an on-going process of monitoring

bandwidth utilization trends for the enterprise network and consideration of business growth

estimates. That information is utilized for developing a provisioning strategy addressing

company bandwidth capacity needs. The dynamic nature of an enterprise network is such that

new locations, employees and application deployments will increase network traffic and

utilize available bandwidth. Trend monitoring tools are typically run from the network
                                                                                                 10


operations center and focus on enterprise traffic patterns and performance of circuits, routers

and switches.


RMON is a popular protocol that is utilized for monitoring router, switch and campus

segment performance with probes at various offices across the enterprise. Information can be

collected at all layers of the OSI model for statistics on utilizations, packet size and errors. In

addition there are specific SNMP applications designed for bandwidth capacity planning. The

bandwidth provisioning strategy could involve faster campus and WAN equipment,

increased bandwidth for circuits, quality of service protocols or a combination of any of

those elements.


Security Management


This describes the management of device and server security that is consistent with the

policies of the corporation. Typical devices are firewalls, routers, switches, TACACS servers

and RADIUS servers. Security includes community strings, password assignment, change

policy, dial security and Internet security.


Device Management


This describes the maintenance of a database inventory that lists all campus and WAN

devices, modules, serial numbers, IOS versions, server documentation and design. It is

important that companies keep information on these assets for support and warranty issues.


Configuration Management
                                                                                           11


This describes the process of configuring, and documenting devices, circuits and servers on

the enterprise network. A process for configuring new equipment, modifying current

equipment and maintaining TFTP servers should be established. Those scripts should be

saved to TFTP servers and documented for later use with subsequent configurations. Build a

directory structure with a folder for each equipment type and subdirectories for model types.


Change Management


This describes a process for approving and coordinating device configuration changes and is

essential for network availability. Staff members that make unapproved changes without

alerting affected departments can cause problems if the changes don't work and are made

during busier times of the day. Any changes to the production network should involve at least

the network operation center and someone from the engineering group. As well it could be

important to let the application developers know of network changes. Any change

management process should have these components:


Review Process


· Affected departments consider impact of changes and discuss concerns


· Proof of concept and quality assurance testing


· Develop a timeline for changes approved by all departments


· Departments plan contingencies should there be network issues


· Approval process: software manages and records approvals from groups
                                                                                          12


· Pro-active monitoring of unauthorized changes


Implementation Management


This describes the process for managing new implementations such that there is no disruption

to the production network and the implementation is efficient and effective. These are some

network operations center (NOC) activities that should be part of any typical implementation

management strategy. Consider vendor support contracts for support with configuration

scripts, testing, and design since that will promote an effective implementation.


Standard Network Operations Center Activities:


1) Turn on circuits and ping all new devices to verify connectivity


2) Modify SNMP applications at network operations center for pro-active fault and

performance monitoring of new devices


3) Verify devices are SNMP enabled and security is applied


4) Update the inventory database and save configuration scripts to a TFTP server


SNMP Applications


There are a myriad of SNMP applications on the market that focus on managing servers,

devices and circuits. An enterprise customer will sometimes employ several applications

including their own software that address each management group. The SNMP version that is

implemented should be noted at each device and server. This is a list of popular commercial

applications and how they could be utilized.
                                                                                                 13


Monitored Devices and Events


Typical devices such as routers, switches and circuits are configured and monitored with

SNMP applications. Thresholds are defined for each event that will trigger an alarm when

that is exceeded. A polling interval is configured for each event, which describes the time

interval between sending of status information from device to network management station.

An example would be a router CPU utilization threshold of 60% and a polling interval of 10

minutes.


       The back ground information provided here in the remaining pages of this essay shall

apply to the overall defining of the basic responsibilities for my duties and life experiences

from that of a network systems administrator to the design and Sales Engineering roles

covering most of my 18 years within the Networking industry.


The duties can be broken down as follows:

(1). Provide Systems IT department leadership and supervision techniques, client systems

service strategies, and set standards of personal ethics for the integrity of the IT departmental

Systems and those who access them.

(2). Administer user accounts, access and resources on computers running server operating

systems software in a corporate networked environment.

(3). Modify user and computer accounts, also adds move and changes.

(4). Enable systems resources for access to various systems with permissions, manage access

to files and folders using permissions, and manage permission inheritance.

(5). Provide support for remote users with VPN and other remote access networking systems

tools, along with security and network-wide printing server systems.
                                                                                              14


(6). Develop IP addressing schemes and also construct IP addresses for each department and

isolate addressing issues associated with the IP routing process.

(7) Consider Data center recovery solution and Plan for a computer disaster, also assign

equipment systems and the features of server’s operating systems to prevent a disaster or

recover when one occurs.



  The system administrator must also consider some network infrastructure issues also;

network architecture refers to the concept of isolated components which are put together in

such a way that would allow for communication, usually across some type of transmission

achieved through signals. These components can usually be broken down into categories

which are depicted as 1).Hardware, 2). Software and lastly for the third category which

includes all other devices and collective components which make up the network and allow

them to interact directly or indirectly.

  The next item a systems administrator should consider is Troubleshooting the boot process

for PC’s and other system related issues.

The Boot process or Bootstrapping is the term used when a systems is switched on.

The Boot process in steps:

The first step is loading and initialization of the kernel in the UNIX systems.

The Windows systems boot up process has a list of detailed procedures that the system

undergoes to perform all system checks and load all necessary files to bring the computer to

an operable state.

The UNIX system after loading the kernel does the device detection and configurations, also

starts the creation of spontaneous processes for its system.
                                                                                                 15


Then within a UNIX boot process you have what’s known as the operator intervention, more

commonly referred to as single user boot only.

The UNIX systems also have some built in scripts, which can be used for execution at the

system startup. The UNIX system can also boot up and use scripts for multi-user operations.

The Windows system does a power up self test, and once the test is successful, the

microprocessor will then trigger the BIOS to perform a series of operations.

Then the windows system will attempt to go through a sequence of devices to load based on

the settings stored in the BIOS, starting with the floppy drive if the floppy does not contain

the startup boot files it will go to the next device.

The next step is the boot-loader or the operating system loader file – NTLDR, found in the

primary partition loader code.

The next item in the process is the Boot.ini file this process is the NTLDR which will then

pass all information from the Windows registry and Boot.ini file into Ntoskrnl.exe.

The next boot phase is the Ntdetect.com program which collects and configures all installed

hardware devices along with any communication ports.

The finally the boot process completes by creating the access security which is the

Winlogon.exe, which then allows a user to access the system.

  The Systems Administrator, must be able to use process management to develop methods

for simplifying administration in a heterogeneous network environment, most administrators

use tricks and techniques developed by one’s own knowledge and experience. However is

important to note that most operating systems have tools and utilities built into the systems to

help with the process management of systems.
                                                                                             16


The main mechanisms, for this area is the use of key utilities, command-line chains, and

scripts that are used to simplify different processes within these systems.

The Windows environment uses some built in tools for these processes called extension

mechanisms, such as the Object Manager, Process Manager, and Registry edit, used by most

systems administrators for process management.

These Processes can be broken down further by some action a systems administrator should

be familiar with such as the following examples:

1). Real-Time Applications and how to apply them to an organization.

2). Real-time priority classes for VOIP and other applications.

3). Deferred Procedure Call (DPC)

4). Responding To External Events

5). Real-time applications and the use of interrupts

6). Multiprocessor Systems, Asynchronous I/O, Device drivers, Priorities and Scheduling.



   My introduction to computer systems and administration began back during the late

1990’s where I worked as a help desk technician as a contractor for ANALYST

INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, where I begin working on trouble shooting PC’s,

Servers and networking devices, this exposed me to the first layer of security and the use of

directory services for the management of user accounts and access, or in today’s terminology

the physical security and LDAP administrations, because I worked for companies running

multiple servers on multiple platforms it was very important to understand and utilize the

directory services to enhance the administration of these systems in a timely manner which

would allow me to quickly handle user accounts and resources and access/ permissions.
                                                                                            17


To illustrate my point let me provide a real world example as follows:

Example1.

Using the Directory services is important when changing the Domain Admin Password.

Exmple2.

When changing a Lost Domain User Account, and also using the Control (UAC) Error

Messages, found within the user account control policy statements. This can be found by

using the Directory Services Restore Mode utility.

The Directory services resource most commonly used be most systems administrators would

be that of (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), or LDAP for short, which has been

proven to be the answer for many system administrators in today’s IT systems environments.

The use of LDAP allows an administrator to integrate a directory server into essential

network services across multiple platforms and operating systems, like Microsoft with its

active directory along with NOVELL, UNIX, Mac OS X and most Linux for distributions

such as mail, DNS, HTTP, and SMB/CIFS etc.

   The other aspects of that job related to computer systems administration include security

as it provided me with the working knowledge of how computers worked from the

mainframe to the desktop. This also provided me with the ability to identify and evaluate the

administrative, technical and physical security controls for the company as I moved up

through the ranks going from help desk to network design consultant. The next items I

learned was that of making sure we had the right policies and procedures in place to

implement administrative controls, with strong passwords policies for system and network

users, card key access to the Data Center, along with the technical controls for the IT

infrastructure, which is done by encryption, network segmentation of the LAN.
                                                                                              18


  The next development in my career was the training I got from both on the job training

working with various enterprise networks as well as, vendor training such as CISCO, Nortel,

Microsoft, etc. During the next phase of my career I became a Network design engineer with

MCI Corporation; this provided me with a wealth of knowledge and experiences a traveling

from one customer site designing networks to another, including the US Postal service

network and The GMAC network. The fact that I became a senior Network design engineer

allowed me to broaden my skills.

This where a met all the objectives of working with Operating Systems and Practical

Networking:

My main duty or responsibility was to present and design networking solution for fortune

500 companies that were of a nonstandard design meaning very complex, having various

components of Voice, Video, and Data.

The main aspect of developing a network design centered on fundamental networking

concepts, components and functions.

The first step within designing a network is gathering the customer requirements, and then

determining the data communication signal methods needed to make sure the transmission

characteristics meet the needs to present the right amount of bandwidth or signal strength.

These operations start with what the customer requirements are which can be as simple as

what type of signal is needed such as baseband or Broadband, analog or digital.

The next steps can be that of what type of transmission are needed such as Asynchronous or

Synchronous in other words start/stop transmission based on character oriented protocols vs.

Using byte oriented protocols. This was a big part of network design during the early nineties

because of the use of Mainframes, mostly IBM and ATM machines connections for networks
                                                                                            19


such as banks and other intuitions using synchronous transmission. This is where things like

BISYNC, ASCII and EBCDIC transmission codes come into play vs. asynchronous

transmission which to say stop 7 data bits then start.

The Network is simply connecting two or more computers to allow them to share

information. These computers can be connected by means of cabling which are electrical or

via fiber-optic cables, wireless radio signals also.

During my career I have designed various types of networks from PBX voice networks to

radio networks such a Page Net a company I worked for back when pagers were used before

the cell phone was made available for individual use outside the military.

The network is designed for the sharing of resources and the exchange of information, such

as documents emails etc.

The components of the network are devices such as computers or PC’s called clients and

servers, routers, gateways, switches, hubs, also software to allow and enable communications

mentioned above.

The other hardware components consists of data communication devices such multiplexing

for Time Division Multiplexing and Frequency Division Multiplexing which allow for the

utilization of channels such as a T1 line for example then there are thing like , modems, also

network interface cards found within the computer internal or external

The next objective is demonstrating how networks are linked networks can be linked in a

number of different way depending on the protocols network standards, distance, network

type meaning LAN or WAN and what type of transmission being used for the actual

connection. These links usually reside at the upper layer protocols that make up the bulk of a

particular type of network, let’s use and older protocol such as SNA for example used with
                                                                                               20


IBM mainframes, the host device is physically connected via multiple transmission lines

these as real objects connected within the network. These lines can form what is known as

transmission groups, which allow data to move to certain segment within this group to

another allowing a specified throughput. This simply means you have a host devices with

let’s say three physical lines connecting two other devices these three lines are consider a

group and used for the data flow. There is also a logical consideration called a path, this how

the data is pass along through these transmissions or route for the data along a certain logical

path to determine the best route or path from one device to another. The next idea to show

how I mastered this objective would that of the network topology, which is considered the

shaping of how the computers and components are connected to each other.

The first network device is called a node, this simply a computer within the network, the next

item is called a packet, which is the data packages as a message sent over the network from

node to another.

These topologies describe how nodes are strung together on interconnected for LANS or

WANS.

The most simple topology is called the bus which is mostly found on LAN’s this where the

entire network is viewed as being connected with a single cable, in this type of topology

every nodes listen to the packets being sent across the network and make a determination

whether or not this packet is intended for them.

The next topology is the star, which is as it sounds all nodes are connected to a central

devices called a hub or switch. The next topology is what known as the ring topology, this

where you have the data sent around a ring from computer to computer, each node looks at
                                                                                               21


the packet to see if it is meant for their use and in passed on, the most common example of

this would be the old IBM token ring with speeds for 4 to 16 megabits.

The next topology is called the mesh which means you have multiple connections between

each node, mostly used in WANS.

The next objective is that of cabling, like most IT engineers who started working on the help

desk I ran cable, this where I learned about the different cable types, such as your typical

Ethernet cable which is made up of four wires inside a single cable or better known as the

twisted pair which uses two pairs. The most common UTP cable is the category 5 with

speeds from 10, 100 and cat 6 up to 1000. The other cable used today is the coaxial used for

video today, based on the old thin net with speeds of ten Mbps; this cable uses the BNC

connector.

The other thing one should consider is what type of network interface card to use be that it

Ethernet UTP based 10/100 depending on what type of hub or switch you are using, maybe a

high speed connection such an Gigabit or even fiber which is still too expensive for the

common everyday user, however into today’s world even wireless cards are the most

commonly used for both home and work.

There is another cables which is the fiber cable used mostly for optical networks such as

ATM, SONET, DWDM, However we know have fiber to the home such as ATT u-verse and

Verizon FIOS.

When selecting cable it depends or the distance and the amount of capacity needed to support

the amount of traffic going across these wires or radio spectrum if we are taking wireless and

radio waves.
                                                                                            22


The Next Objective the OSI reference model. I mastered this objective by attending training

from Cisco Systems, Microsoft, IBM, Verizon, And other training vendors and certification

and from actual working experience, before we talk about the OSI model, I must address the

understanding of standards, which are agreed upon definition for the use of protocols within

the networking world. These standards are used to govern the development of standards for

protocols, which allow universal standard from a mixture of vendors.

These organizations can be broken down as follows:

1). the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

2). The IEEE which is Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, mostly known for the

Ethernet networking standard, IEEE. 802.3, however it is important to note Ethernet was

invented by the Xerox Corporation.

3). The IETF Internet Engineering Task Force, responsible for protocols which drive the

internet.

4). W3C is the last World Wide Consortium, responsible for the development of standards

for the web.

The OSI is a seven layer model used for the governing of various aspects of how the

computers should communicate and provides an outline for network operation which can be

addressed by many deferent vendors and manufactures IT operations network carries etc.

The OSI model or the Open Systems Interconnection Reference model is used as a basis for

breaking these standards into seven layers as follows:

1). The Physical Layer which include the actual connections such as cabling, devices such

hubs, switches and repeaters. Example cat 5 or 6 Cable such as Ethernet connecting two or

more devices.
                                                                                              23


2). The Data link or layer 2 which is for MAC addressing for providing a way for nodes to

identify themselves with a unique address, sent over the physical layer. Let’s say For

example; the packet sizing of data being sent across the network.

3). the network layer or layer 3 this how routers and layer 3 switches handle routing data

across network segments. Example TCP addressing 192.168.0.1

4). this Transport Layer or Layer 4 which simply provides reliable delivery of packets across

the network. Example TCP and UDP establishing connections between network devices, by

acknowledging packets made it through the network without corruption.

5). The Session Layer or Layer 5 this where you would setup sessions between network

application, today’s big buzz in the VOIP world SIP. Let’s say for Example, conversations

between networked devices simplex, half duplex and full duplex.

6). The next is called the presentations layer or Layer 6, simply converts data so that different

systems can read the format and exchange information. An example of this is the conversion

of ASCII to EBCDIC.

7). The higher level or application layer known as layer seven which is for network service

request. An example her would be that of services SMTP, FTP file transfers and downloads

telneting into a router to configure it.

The next Objective is to describe how networks grow for LANS to WANS, I lived this

objective in the old days of using hubs and switches networks mainly used the LAN to

segment traffic from the hubs and switches clients and servers, this was due to the 80/20 rule.

However as networks grow and companies expend their operation across larger geographical

areas they needed to communicate across various media and also the advent of the Network
                                                                                               24


operating systems. The development and expansion of the Internet played a major role in the

need for LANS growing into WANS, Higher bandwidth better applications global marketing.

The next objective is to discuss systems administrator duties in various Oss environments.

I meet this objective early in my career working as a consulting for Analysts International,

where I was contracted out to various companies as a network administrator.

My duties consisted of the following:

1). Main duties: Oversee day to day computer network operations to ensure that they function

smoothly, handle ads, move and changes,

2). Handle all configurations for the severs from UNIX to Microsoft Windows NT and other

back office system servers such as Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange.

3). Make recommendation to corporate clients and department about various program to help

the information flow of Data, Voice, and Video run smoothly.

I as a contract network administrator, I worked with various Network operating systems from

Novell 2.2 to IBM OS2 and UNIX systems in the late 80’s and early 90’s, this allowed me to

earn some certifications from the University of Texas at Arlington, covering UNIX and some

systems programming. Then I begin to work with RAID 5 disk arrays for storage and backup

of company data, also working some data base applications such as Fox Pro, SQL and a

application known a Pacer Share, which allowed for the conversation of UNIX to Macintosh

at Nortel Networks, then known as Northern Telecom. The other duties as assigned were to

ensure that application and updates also patches was pushed out to the users via Systems

Management Server (SMS), other aspects of the job or secondary functions was the

monitoring and the performance of the network also troubleshooting any problems such as
                                                                                              25


slow performance or network crashes using tools such as HP Open View, and other packet

analyzers, along with FLUKE meters to test our network cabling.

The next objective of how to integrate various OS on multiple platforms was a part of my

daily job duties from client to client and project to project, I worked with all kinds of

operating systems from IBM SNA with the Network server (IBM Netfinity 7000)

interoperating with Microsoft Windows 95 and Microsoft Windows NT platforms.

One of the major duties was ensuring that there was network compatibility, some of simplest

sounding problems were some of the hardest to solve such as file naming conventions from

MAC OS to UNIX and also windows. This is where terms like Heterogeneous networks or

open systems come into play with large Enterprise Data Centers, having many operating

systems and platforms also disaster recovery and back systems such as SNA storage area

networking become very important to Network Administrators. Selecting the back office

system to address the needs of the company and HR and IT policy’s play and strong role in

the job of the network administrator, some of the key function for selecting the right OS’s

and the integration include enterprise-wide applications for scheduling and automation for

system such as the Windows environments and platforms also, Unix, Linux, OS/400,

Tandem, z/OS and OVMS are all key consideration, that I experienced as a contract Network

Administrator ( reference attached resume from ELP package along with PowerPoint’s for

the Operating Systems training I developed).
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  My duties within this position were to work with clients in developing their security

requirements, covering all topics from physical security, such as lighting, fencing, device

locks, and UPS or surge protection to the development of SLA’s within the

telecommunication aspects, also with other items like security management practices such as

risk reduction by performing a quantitative analysis and risk assessments. While performing

the duties of a network design engineer, I had the opportunity to evaluate numerous client

networks and design many access control systems and methodologies using centralized

access control such as RADIUS and TACACS also DIAMETER, which can be used in

maintaining and controlling user ID’s, access rights and permissions. Also developing and

writing network usage policy statements for example “The Dshaver Consulting firm

computer network is the property of Shaver Consulting INC and is to be used for legitimate

business purposes. Users are provided access to the computer network to assist them in such

matters including performing said duties associated with conducting aspects of his or her job

responsibilities”.

        During the early nineties, Network design was very crucial, many companies began

upgrading their networks due to the IT communication boom opened up by the

Telecommunication Act of 1996, at this point a was very much engaged in all phases of

network design training and presentations to customers, I have included some of my training

presentations as Artifacts for this credit request, most of my training was learned on the job

and outside vendor training from many of the major Network equipment manufacturers, such

as Cisco, 3Com, Nortel, and there was also training from Microsoft, Computer Associates

and many other Software companies.
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       As a Sales Engineer my role was changed somewhat heading into 2000, my duties

included designing and presenting solution for various fortune 100 companies, this allowed

me to continue learning and providing knowledge of various type of Security Systems which

are a vital part of Networking solutions, such as Applications and Systems Development,

many of these solutions I designed covered techniques such as (1). Identifying the system

development life cycle, Database design, understanding failure states, all of these action help

in explaining to customer process and procedures needed for securing their networks.

My responsibilities under the requirements to become a senior sales engineer, allowed me to

develop a understanding of all phases of Computer Systems from programming to the

communications from network to network, from the server farm to the MDF and IDF’s, from

the physical layout and equipment, to the deployment of various types of logical designs for

internal and external systems also developing and designing and implementing disaster

recovery plans along with Business Continuity of the data centers, call centers and operations

for corporate systems and application.

With the training and experience I gained in the Telecommunications business working for

MCI, GTE, Sprint, AT&T also Verizon, allowed me to significantly enhance my career

opportunities and eventually become a Sales Engineering Manager, this provided me the

skills necessary to build to team of engineers in which I was responsible for all aspects of

their training, in which I had to explain the importance of companies adhering to Laws,

Ethics and investigations, such as RFC 1087 which what activities are unethical, and the

ISC2 code of ethics, which is to protect society or the commonwealth and the infrastructure.
                                                                                              28


Picture the change : As I was suddenly ask to be responsible for Computer Crime

Investigations for my team as whiles making sure our clients did not violate in any laws by

not implanting our network design properly or meeting or SLA, requirements,

There are many aspects in Computer Crime Investigations such as:

Planning and preparing, by laying out the right policies and procedures, also providing

training, having a team of engineers or staff to secure and isolate the scene, to prevent

contamination, answer official’s questions, help with interviews of suspects and witnesses.

The other components we had to make where in place was incident- reporting and responses

procedures. Another big problem we in countered was misuse of our network and computers

there were we had to develop standards for computer forensics procedures.



With the training and experience gained from over almost 20 years within the IT business, I

was able to become a Sales Engineering Manager, also a Business Development Manager,

and Product Manager all within the Telecommunication world, which allowed me a wealth of

knowledge and training, which is the reason why I am now seeking credit through the ELP

process.



Documentation and Evaluation of Learning Achieved:

UNIX Certified Systems Administer University of Texas at Arlington, TX (1995)

Cisco Certified CCDA (2007)

Ericsson IPT Certified (2000)

Verizon Engineer Data Training satisfactory results on examinations

PowerPoint Presentations used by me for customer training and conference.
                                                                                      29


Training Camp Certificate of Accomplishment covering: the topics such as the, OSI Model &

Layered Communication, Network Management, WAN services, LAN Technologies.

								
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