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					  Activities in the Centre of Excellence in
Nanoelectronics (CEN), IIT Bombay & Future
                  Projections

           (A project sponsored by DIT, Govt of India)




Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay,
Powai, Mumbai, India

http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~nanoe


US-India Network-enabled Research Collaboration Workshop, Dec 6-7, 2010
                                                                     IIT Bombay
        Centres of Excellence in Nanoelectronics




• Atoms-up                                    • Shrink-down
• Material centric                            • Device centric


                     IISc       IITB


                     Funding from DIT, MCIT
                                                  IIT Bombay
Investigators at IITB (1)

                 Faculty involved: 30




                              IIT Bombay
                   Funding
• Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics (CEN) was
  set up in 2006 ($ 11 million)
• Centre for Research in Nano Technology and
  Science (CRNTS) was set up in 2005 ($ 12 million)
• Applied Materials funded the AMAT Nanofabrication
  Lab ($ 8 million)
• National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and
  Education being established ($ 10 million)
• Indian Nanoelectronics Users Program ($ 3 million)
• Compound Semiconductor activity ($ 8 million)
• Inputs from IIT Bombay ($ 8 million)
                                               IIT Bombay
IIT Bombay
CEN – IIT Bombay




      IIT Bombay
CEN – IIT Bombay




      IIT Bombay
CEN – IIT Bombay




      IIT Bombay
CEN – IIT Bombay




      IIT Bombay
CEN – IIT Bombay




      IIT Bombay
      IITB: CEN Research Areas
• 5 important “Areas”
  – Sub-100 nm CMOS Process Development
  – Nanosystems for Healthcare and Environmental
    Monitoring
  – Organic & Biopolymer Devices
  – GaN Devices
  – Characterization, Modeling and Simulation of
    Nanoelectronic Devices
• 1 “Joint Deliverable” together with IISc
  – RF Oscillator with on-chip LC resonator and sub-100 nm
    transistors
• Other activities in addition to the above research
  areas
                                                   IIT Bombay
   Technology Development/IP
  Generation/Product Development

• iSens: A point of care system for Cardiac Diagnostics

• Environmental & Security Applications


  • Technology Enablers for Silicon Locket

       Products that have a Societal relevance
               System-in-Package solutions
                                               IIT Bombay
   iSens: A point of care system for Cardiac
                   Diagnostics
• Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. In 2001,
  Ischaemic heart disease accounted for 7·1 million deaths worldwide.
  (Lancet 2006; 367: 1747-1757).
 5·7 million (80%) deaths were in low-income countries. (Circulation 2001;
  104: 2746-2753) , & (N Engl J Med 2004; 350 (24): 2438-2440).
 Between 1990 and 2020, these diseases are expected to increase by
  120% for women and 137% for men in developing countries, compared
  with 30-60% in developed countries. (Circulation 2001; 104: 2855-2864).
 By 2010, 60% of the world's heart disease is expected to occur in India.
  (BMJ 2004; 328: 807-810).
 South Asians have a high prevalence of risk factors, have Ischaemic heart
  disease at an earlier age than people in developed countries. (J Am Coll
  Cardiol 2001; 38: 682-687, JAMA 2007; 297: 286-294).


                                                                 IIT Bombay
Highly sensitive self standing SU-8
  cantilevers with embedded CB




                                  IIT Bombay
        SU-8/Carbon black/ SU-8 cantilevers




Before Antibody Immobilization   After Antibody Immobilization

                                                        IIT Bombay
                  PDMS Liquid Cell
Specifications:

   Base material: Poly-di-
    methyl-siloxane (PDMS)
    elastomer
   Fabrication: Simple MEMS
    fabrication processes
    (optical Lithography,
    Plasma treatment, etc.)

   Volume: 10-20 L

   Advantages: Bio-
    compatible, easily
    patternable, surface-
    modification easy,
    transparent
                                     IIT Bombay
Cantilever Characterization on a chip




                        Won a second prize in the All-
                                India Cadence
                        Design Contest, October 2010.
                                          IIT Bombay
Exploratory Sketches ‐ iSens




                               IIT Bombay
CAD Packaging of Components




                              IIT Bombay
iSens Prototype- IIT Bombay




                              IIT Bombay
    An Ultra-sensitive Piezo-resistive
     Polymer Cantilever Technology

• iSens: A point of care system for Cardiac Diagnostics

• Explosive Detection


  • Technology Enablers for Silicon Locket


               System-in-Package solutions

                                               IIT Bombay
   Different Approaches: IIT-B
• Introduction
   – The Challenges in Explosive Detection
   – Current Worldwide status
• IIT-B Explosive Detection Approach based on
   – Cantilever Deflection
   – Deflagration (jointly with Prof. S.Mukherji, Bio-school, IIT-B)
   – Organic Sensors (OFETs)
   – Florescence Quenching – Prof. Anil Kumar, Chemistry, IIT-B
   – Pattern Recognition
   – Surface Plasmon Resonance/ Evanescent wave based optical
       detection (Prof. S.Mukherji, Bio-school, IIT-B)


jointly with Prof. S.Mukherji (Bio-school) & Prof. Anilkumar, (Chemistry)
                                                                        IIT Bombay
Cantilever based Explosive Detection @
              IIT Bombay

                     • Optimizing the
                      (a) 4-mercaptobenzoic acid
                          (4-MBA)
                      (b) Fluoroalcohol
                           polysiloxane polymer
                          (SXFA)
                      (c) Porphyrin
                         coating on cantilevers

                     • Electrical/Optical detection




                                          IIT Bombay
IIT Bombay
IIT Bombay
    Miniaturized wireless explosive detector
                                                        Packaged flow cell for explosive detection




                                                           PCBs for wireless explosive detector

 Fully automated and stand off detection




                                                                                    IIT Bombay
Unpackaged microcantilever carrier and PTFE flow cell
Explosive Detector Prototype for RDX/TNT developed
                   @ IIT Bombay




                                               IIT Bombay
            Functional Conducting Polymers

3,4-propylenedioxysilole               3,4-propylenedioxythiophene

                                                            Printable Electronics
Syntheses          Electrochromics         Sensors    Transparent Conductor


Nano-Structures
                         Electronic Tongue           Electronic Nose


       Electrochemical                     Fluorescence                Thin Film
          Transistors                       Quenching                 Transistors

                     Nerve
  Immuno     DNA              Explosives       Biosensors              Radiation
                     Agents

                                                                 29      IIT Bombay
          Current Activities
• Aqueous Dispersible Conducting Inks for

             * Printing Electronics
             * Transparent Conductor
             * Conducting Paints and Adhesives

• Fluorescence Based Generic Sensing Platform for

              * Explosives
              * Biomedical
              * Substance of Abuse

• Solution Processable High Mobility Organic Semiconductors
  for TFT Applications

                                                    30   IIT Bombay
          First Generation Handheld Device for detection
              of TNT and RDX at Room Temperature

         SIDE VIEW                         TOP VIEW




• Sub ppt sensitivity
• Highly selective                                    IITB
                                                        &
• 50 prototypes                                    BIGTEC Labs
• Available for field trials
                                                           IIT Bombay
        3-D Wireless Networked Sensor
                    Systems

•   iSens: A point of care system for Cardiac Diagnostics

• Sensors for Security & Environmental Applications
   - Explosive Detection
   - Radiation Sensing

     • Technology Enablers for Silicon Locket



                                                  IIT Bombay
     A modular 3 channel 12
          lead ECG unit




Lead investigator: Prof. D.K.Sharma
                                      IIT Bombay
Motion Artifacts




                   IIT Bombay
Polymer Composite Microaccelerometer




                                IIT Bombay
 12 lead heart monitor with a
        thermal printer
                                   • The unit is battery operated.

                                   • It has a user interface with a pictorial
                                     guide for attachment for for any one
                                     of the 12 standard ECG leads.

                                   • This allows a minimally trained person
                                     to take an ECG, which has obvious
                                     advantages in a rural setting.

                                   • ECGs can be collected by a field
                                     operator with printouts and then
                                     examined at the hospital by a doctor.


This is a portable ECG unit with a printer, which can be easily
               carried by a doctor in a briefcase
                                                                 IIT Bombay
          Patents (filed)
     Indian patents = 10, US patents = 11
     (Multiple patents are currently under different stages of filing)

  Technology Transfers:

  • Silicon Locket: TCS
  • Flourescence based Explosive Detection technology: Bigtec
  • GaN Technology: SSPL

  Incubation:
  • NanoSniff Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
      (a low-cost cardiac diagnostic technology & a cantilever based
       explosive detection system)
Sponsored, Consultancy & Collaborative Projects
    Indian industry: SCL, BEL, SITAR, TCS, Sasken, TII, Cypress, ControlNet,
    National, L&T, BIGTEC etc
    International industry: Intel, Motorola, GE, Siemens, Hitachi, Renesas, TSMC,
    National, IME, Agere, IMEC, Applied Materials, IRC, Vishay, SRC, IBM, Maxim,
    Infineon
                                                                         IIT Bombay
      Applied Materials Nanofabrication Facility




 Gate Stack Centura   Etch Centura       PVD Endura

Applied Materials: Major semi-tool manufacturer
Equipment donated, value USD 7.5M
Manned jointly by AMAT & IIT-B staffs
Further tool donation for PV activities (2010)
                                                 IIT Bombay
        National Centre for PV Research &
                Education (NCPRE)

• Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)
  announced in November 2009
• The Mission document lists, among steps which may be
  required for human resource development:
  “ aEin Nano-Electronics”
  Snn
  ede
  teer
  iaug
  ncy
  gtoi,
  uiTS
   poc
   oI a
   fM
   Nm
   lPbd
   C, t
   rrs
    hw
    vgC
    t pe
    i so
    cDE
    Ref
    sax
      tc
      nl
      fn
• CEN is invoked by name in the JNNSM document
• The existence of a full running silicon facility available at
  CEN led Dr. Chidambaram, PSA to Govt. of India to
  propose that the NCPRE be set up at IITB



                                                          IIT Bombay
Indian Nanoelectronics Users’ Programme:
             Fabrication facility




                                    IIT Bombay
              Current Status
• CEN is making rapid strides in all aspects and
  exceeded the expectations/project objectives so far.
  Full credit to the DIT officials & the Nanotechnology
  Working Group for their vision & positive outlook.
• Focus is to apply the technologies developed in the
  CEN for the societal benefit.
• Technology & product development/ industry
  interactions/generation of high quality manpower will
  be the focus for Phase II.


                                               IIT Bombay
                 Phase II-CEN @ IIT-B
 CMOS
   – Hetero-structure MOSFET
   – Non-conventional Devices
       • Tunnel FETs, Mol. Electronics, Spintronics
   – Memory Devices
   – “More than Moore” Heterogeneous Integration (work with local
     foundries - already initiated)
 Energy (NCPRE creation at IIT Bombay is expected to strengthen this
  activity further in the CEN)
 Sensors
   – Nano-Electro-Mechanical Devices
   – Optical
   – Polymer
 “More than Moore”
 Joint Deliverable with IISc/External Partnerships
 Incubation
                                                             IIT Bombay
A Need for a Networked Centre for
  Computational Nanoelectronics




             Perspectives from the

    Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics

  Indian Institute of Technology Bombay




                                              IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
Nanoelectronics: the computational approach
• Materials: electronic structure, phonon spectrum
• Processes: simulation of fabrication processes

• Devices: simulation of transport (& optics &…)

• Circuits: simulation of circuit equations



• Challenge: advanced (atomistic) models for process/device

• Challenge: process/device simulation for realistic (3D) structures

• Challenge: process + device simulation

• Challenge: device + circuit simulation

• Challenge: process, device, circuit variability modeling



                                                                 IIT Bombay
        Need for HPC in nanoelectronics
                   research




• High-performance computing: inevitable for nano research
                                                      IIT Bombay
  Need for HPC in nanoelectronics teaching
• Indian employers need high-quality nanoelectronics
 HR (e.g. IBM)

• Indian engineering colleges: faculty quality is a
 challenge

• High-quality instruction  more effective learning

• Visualization of physical phenomena  more
 effective learning

• Providing online learning resource across India 
 National Centre
                                                  IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
 Computational nanoelectronics @ IITB




        Voltage-controlled magnetism
       Optimization of 2D spin transport

• Computational design of novel spintronic devices

• Need HPC for more sophisticated models, e.g. 3D/full-band
 Ganguly, Saha, and co-workers, IIT Bombay: published in Physical Review, Applied Physics Letters etc.
                                                                                          IIT Bombay
 Computational nanoelectronics @ IITB

Thermal map of integrated circuit                         ESD failure mechanism




 • Computational optimization of self-heating effects

 • Computational study of ESD reliability

 • Need HPC for co-design of device and circuit/system
        V.Ramgopal Rao and co-workers: published in IEDM, IRPS, IEEE-TED etc.
                                                                                  IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
US Network for Computational Nanotechnology




• Started @ Purdue in 2002 with NSF funding of $10.5M (~ 50crore)
• “Phase-II” NSF funding in 2007 of $18.25M (~ 90crore)

• This is in addition to other projects from SRC, NSF etc.
                                                             IIT Bombay
US Network for Computational Nanotechnology

• Centered at Purdue  flagship online resource: the Nanohub

• Online simulation tools, presentations, publications etc.

• Over 100,000 users, but very little interactive instruction

• Facility manned by ~ 20 technical staff (not researchers)

• Note: Several supercomputers are accessible to US expert
users

• E.g.103 teraflop IBM machine @ NCSA in 2011  $200M NSF
grant
                                                              IIT Bombay
EU ICT Work Program for 2011-2012




                 • Total ICT funding for 2011-2012  9.1B
                   euro, Challenge #3 (of 8)  60M euro (~
                   `360crore)

                 • Includes funding for all device and circuit
                   technology, including modeling/simulation


                                                   IIT Bombay
      EU ICT Work Program for 2011-2012




• Strong vision of emerging H/W ‘design by simulation’ using HPC

•EU users have access to substantial supercomputing
infrastructure                                          IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
        Structure of envisaged national centre




                                                                 • Bottom layer: HPC h/w + system s/w



                                                                 • Middle ‘cloud’ layer: manages access
                          HPC H/W + S/W

                                                                 • Middle ‘cloud’ layer: manages
                                                                 resources
                           “Cloud Layer”
                          Application S/W
                                                                 • Top layer: application s/w

                                   Expert internal user: usual
External user: assigned
                                    HPC cluster experience
 computer resources



                    EU ICT Work Program 2011-2012
                                                                                                IIT Bombay
   Structure of envisaged national centre
• HPC: ~ 100 teraflops, ~ 10TB memory

• Cloud: implements multiple access levels (e.g.
 university/SME/lab)

• Cloud: provides seamless virtual computing
 experience for users

• Application software: TCAD, circuit, and system
 design

• Application software: university-provided (free), and
 commercial
                                                   IIT Bombay
   Function of envisaged national centre
• Promote in-house and remote computational nano research

• Distance learning: pool of ‘virtual TAs’ to guide remote
 users

• Would require unusually high manpower budget

• This effort would augment INUP very substantially

• Can start with ~ 100 internal + 100 NKN-connected
 external users

• SME’s to be enabled with topical computational tools for
 R&D

• Green IT -serve as a testbed
                                                      IIT Bombay
                     Outline

• Computing in nanoelectronics, and why we need
 supercomputers

• Example of computational nanoelectronics in India:
 IIT Bombay

• Global scenario in computational nanoelectronics

• Envisaged national centre: structure and function

• Enabling partnerships for a national centre



                                                IIT Bombay
            Enabling partnerships
• We have had exploratory discussions with potential
 partners

• IBM for HPC hardware, and for scientific
 collaboration

• Synopsys & Silvaco, for EDA tools and for cloud
 software

• Purdue, for mirroring of Nanohub in India

• CS department at IITB to research aspects of HPC,
 Cloud Computing

• Green IT – jointly with the NCPRE
                                                IIT Bombay
                 IBM interaction
• Numerous discussions with IBM-India

• Teleconferences & meetings w/ IBM US executives*:
 05/10, 06/10

• Hosted IBM global team at IITB for discussions: 09/10

• IBM willing to make a donation (= 1/3 of h/w purchased)

• IBM interested in collaboration, funding students,
 exchange visitors

• Areas include, but not limited to, computational
 nanoelectronics

              * The team involved in NCSA “Blue Waters” project
                                                                  IIT Bombay
                   Synopsys interaction

• Numerous discussions with Synopsys-India

• MoU with Synopsys on research in computational
 nanoelectronics

• Hosted Synopsys US IT head at IITB: 09/10

• Synopsys willing to post personnel at centre for Cloud
 admin

• Synopsys interested to fund CS research into Cloud
 Computing


                                                    IIT Bombay
                   Purdue interaction

• Discussions with Purdue Nanohub administration: 06/2010

• Purdue interested in a mirror site in India (perhaps for Asia-
 Pac)

• Would give National Centre immediate access to Nanohub
 material

• Will involve s/w synchronization from both sides

• Will involve funding agency approval from both sides

• Will require contributor assent from Purdue side
                                                           IIT Bombay
   Govt- Academia- Industry Nanoelectronics (GAIN)
             Computational Infrastructure

• A centre for computational electronics is a research
 imperative

• Such a centre would be a perfect complement to CEN

• An envisioned educational outreach program would
 enhance INUP

• It can significantly uplift nanoelectronics education in
 India

• Leading companies & universities are interested to
 partner on this
                                                      IIT Bombay

				
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