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					                                                                                                                                           Session 6B2


     PRACTICING ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES AT MICRO TO NANO SCALES
              THROUGH HANDS-ON LABORATORY TRAINING

                                                                 Jane P. Chang1

Abstract  As the era of Nanotechnology dawns, the                            characterization and design of experiments. Students form
traditional engineering education training becomes                            teams with electrical engineers and material scientists in the
inadequate in preparing the students for the challenges                       laboratory to carry out the entire process flow in making
presented by this industry’s dynamic environment, and                         solid sate devices, including capacitors, p-n junctions, and
insufficient to meet the employer’s criteria in hiring new                    complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors.
engineers. This paper describes a new laboratory course to                         Each course module focuses on either a unit operation
train students in Semiconductor Manufacturing and Nano-                       of the chemical processes, theory of electronic devices, or
fabrication. This new laboratory course is a six credit unit                  device testing. For example, the course module on ion
course that comprises of four hours of lectures and four                      implantation focuses on the theory of ion stopping including
laboratory hours each week to provide both knowledge and                      nuclear stopping and electronic stopping, the detailed
training in semiconductor manufacturing. The laboratory is                    mathematical formula that describes the concentration
equipped with photolithography, materials processing, thin                    distribution of the implanted ions in amorphous materials as
film deposition and etching, cleaning, and various metrology                  a Gaussian distribution, and the students are trained to use a
tools, and the students learn first hand how to fabricate                     Monte Carlo based software, Trim [1], to learn the dynamics
semiconductor devices by various combinations of these                        during ion implantation process.
techniques. These advanced material processing steps are
essential to the next-generation microelectronic devices,                                              TABLE I
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and bio-chips.                                   WEEKLY LECTURE AND LABORATORY OUTLINE

Index Terms  Laboratory course, microelectronics,                              Week       Lecture                         Laboratory
nanotechnology.                                                                 1         Introduction to Device           Define N-well for PMOS
                                                                                          Fabrication and Chemical         devices and active area for
                                                                                          Processing                       CMOS devices
                           INTRODUCTION                                         2          Optical Lithography             Gate oxide growth
                                                                                           Crystal Growth                  Polysilicon deposition
The continuous advances in microelectronic and                                  3          Silicon Oxidation               Define polysilicon gate
telecommunication technologies rely heavily on the                                         Wafer Cleaning                  Etch gate oxide
engineers capable of innovative design of integrated circuits                   4          Diffusion                       Ion implantation to form
(ICs), synthesis of new materials, and processing and                                      Ion Implantation                Source and Drain of
                                                                                                                           MOSFET dvices
integration of these materials. To prepare the undergraduate                    5         Simulation Lab (TRIM)            Deposition of interlayer
students for a truly dynamic and challenging academic or                                  Midterm                          dielectric (SiO2)
industrial career, the students should receive training and                     6         Film Deposition                  Define contact areas to
education in semiconductor manufacturing with a focus on                                  (I):semiconductors               gate, course, and drain
                                                                                          Film Deposition
their experimental experience. This paper introduces a new                                (II):dielectrics/metals
hands-on laboratory course to provide a systematic                              7         PN Junction                      Aluminum deposition and
education for engineering students in Semiconductor                                       MOS Capacitors                   etching
Manufacturing and Nano technology.                                              8         MOSFET Devices                   Device testing (diodes,
                                                                                          Electrical Characterization      capacitors)
                                                                                9         Film Patterning (etching)        Device testing
                    HANDS-ON LABORATORY                                                   Metallization and                (MOSFETS)
                                                                                          Interconnection
This new course is a six credit unit course that comprises of                   10        Design of Experiments (I)        Poster presentation
four hours of lectures and four laboratory hours each week                                Design of Experiments (II)
to provide both knowledge and training in semiconductor                         Final     Final exam                       Lab report
manufacturing. The lectures are organized into modules and
instructed in parallel with the laboratory work. In the first                     As this is an experimentally oriented laboratory,
seven weeks of the quarter, the course focuses on theories                    students need to be trained to use delicate vacuum
and models for various chemical processes. In the last three                  equipment, sophisticated thin film processing systems,
weeks, the course focuses on electronic device                                specialized metrology and spectroscopic techniques, and

1
    Jane P. Chang, University of California, Department of Chemical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90095, jpchang@ucla.edu


International Conference on Engineering Education                                                        August 6 – 10, 2001 Oslo, Norway
                                                                           6B2-17
                                                                                                                            Session 6B2

electrical testing devices. All of the above mentioned                                        ASSESSMENT
activities take place in a dedicated student micro-fabrication
laboratory, ~700ft2, is located inside the Nanoelectronics           In its first offering in the Spring quarter of 2000, the
Research Facility at UCLA. It is a class 1000 HEPA filtered          semiconductor manufacturing laboratory course attracted the
clean room with temperature and humidity control where               maximum number of students (15 students) that the facility
students conduct photolithography, wet cleaning, wet                 could safely accommodate. The students appraised the
etching, and all metrology measurements.                             course and the instructor with an excellent overall rating of
                                                                     8.42/9.00. The students are very positive about their learning
                                                                     experience and some of their feedbacks are :
                                                                     •    The material covered a broad range of topics related to
                                                                          the objective of the course
                                                                     •    The instructor is masterful in objectives
                                                                     •    The lecture notes were very helpful and well organized
                                                                     •    We wish to do more practical work in the lab sessions
                                                                          With students’ positive feedback and the large number
                                                                     of students who are interested in this option, renovations
                          FIGURE 1                                   over the summer of 2000 made it possible to increase the
LECTURING IN NANOLAB ON INTEGRATED CHEMICAL PROCESSING (LEFT);       number to 20 students per quarter and the lab course is now
AND STUDENT LEARNING ELLIPSOMETRY FOR THIN FILM THICKNESS            offered twice a year to accommodate the large number of
MEASUREMENT (RIGHT).
                                                                     students interested in majoring in this option (up to 40
                                                                     students a year).
     With the theory of the fabrication processes from the
                                                                          Recently, this laboratory course has also been
lectures, students predict process parameters such as field
                                                                     incorporated into the Chemical Engineering Degree program
oxide thickness and color, gate oxide thickness, junction
                                                                     and accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering
depths and doping levels, sheet resistances, polysilicon
                                                                     Technology. With students’ positive feedback and the large
thickness, aluminum thickness and sheet resistance, and
                                                                     number of students who are interested in this option,
make comparison with actual measurement when possible.
                                                                     renovations over the summer of 2000 made it possible to
The device parameters include measurements from diode,
                                                                     increase the number to 20 students per quarter and the lab
MOSFET, and other devices such as bipolar junction
                                                                     course is now offered twice a year to accommodate the large
transistor and ring oscillator. The laboratory report is an
                                                                     number of students interested in majoring in this option (up
integral component of the student overall performance in the
                                                                     to 40 students a year).        This option was also recently
class. Starting with an executive summary, students include
                                                                     featured in an article titled “Learn to Make Your Own
an introduction, a concise summary and discussion of their
                                                                     Semiconductor Device” in the NSF Engineering On-Line
fabrication process and experimental results including
                                                                     News [2]: “In its first offering by Chang, the course
process measurements and device measurement. At the end
                                                                     attracted the maximum number of students that the facility
of the course, each team also presents a poster that covers
                                                                     could safely accommodate. Renovations over the summer
one important process used in manufacturing integrated
                                                                     made it possible to increase the number to 20 students per
circuits. The presentation includes a description of the
                                                                     quarter (40 per year) … the lab lets students fabricate their
chemistry and physics of the material processing, the state-
                                                                     own integrated circuits in the school's clean room facility …
of-the-art technology used in that particular field, an
                                                                     This experience is invaluable, and ensures them great career
estimate of the market size of the technology, and the current
                                                                     opportunities.”
research and development.

                               0.03
                                                                                        ACKNOWLEDGMENT
                                                                     I acknowledge the NSF Career Award (CTS-9985511),
                                                  VG = 12 V
                               0.02                                  UCLA Office of Instructional Improvement, Lucent
                              ID (A)               VG = 9.25 V
                                                                     Technologies, Intel, Applied Materials, AMD, and Vitesse
                               0.01
                                                                     Semiconductors, and UC-SMART.
                                                  VG = 6.5 V
                                                   VG = 3.75 V                                REFERENCE
                               0.00
                                   0            5              10    [1] J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and
                                               VD (V)                Range of Ions in Solids, Pergamon Press, New York 1985.

                          FIGURE 2                                   [2] NSF Engineering Online News, Learn to Make Your own
STUDENT FINAL PRESENTATION (LEFT); AND DEVICE FABRICATED AND THE     Semiconductor      Device,    November      2000,     at
CORRESPONDING ELECTRICAL RESULTS (RIGHT).
                                                                     http://www.eng.nsf.gov/engnews/2000/00-04SemiConductorDevice/.



International Conference on Engineering Education                                             August 6 – 10, 2001 Oslo, Norway
                                                                    6B2-18

				
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