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Physical Oceanography Tutorial 1


									                         Diploma in Industrial Laboratory Technology Yr 2
                                         G5405: Tutorial 1
                                      Physical Oceanography

Multiple Choice

 1. The height, length, and period of a wave depend upon ____________.
       a. the length of time the wind has blown        b. the wind speed
       c. the fetch                                    d. all of these

 2. Which of the following is correct regarding a wave in the open ocean?
       a. Water particles move in an almost circular path.
       b. Such waves are called waves of oscillation.
       c. Waves do not exist in the open ocean – only near the coast..
       d. None of these.

 3. Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is __________.
      a. equal to one-half the wavelength              b. equal to the wavelength
      c. twice as great as the wavelength              d. three times as great as the wavelength

 4. When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This
    process is termed __________.
        a. oscillation         b. refraction        c. translation        d. reflection

 5. The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed __________.
       a. tidal current       b. salinity current      c. beach drift            d. longshore current

 6. The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea
    level had fallen?
        a. an estuary         b. a sea stack        c. elevated marine terrace      d. a tombolo

7. Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?
      a. spit                  b. estuary              c. tombolo                d. sea arch

 8. Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ___________.
       a. associated with a submergent coast
       b. former river valleys that were flooded by a rise in sea level
       c. excellent examples of large estuaries
       d. all of the above

 9. The movement of sand parallel to the shore __________.
       a. is created by waves approaching at an oblique angle
       b. may create spits
       c. is achieved by longshore currents
       d. all of the above
10. One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ___________.
       a. on headlands projecting into the water
       b. in the recessed areas between headlands
       c. in estuaries
       d. none of the above

11. The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ___________.
       a. caused by obliquely breaking waves           b. called beach drift
       c. very unusual and seldom occurs               d. both a and b

12. A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a __________.
        a. sea stack            b. tombolo                c. coastal barrier       d. none of these

13. A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a __________.
        a. spit                  b. jetty                c. groin                d. sea stack

14. An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a __________.
       a. spit                 b. jetty               c. groin                       d. sea stack

15. A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ___________.
        a. jetty                b. tombolo               c. breakwater            d. sea stack

16. A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ___________.
        a. sea stack             b. tombolo                 c. wave-cut platform     d. spit

17. Fetch is __________.
        a. a method of shoreline erosion control
        b. the distance between the trough of a wave and the still water level
        c. the circular pattern made by water particles when a wave passes
        d. none of these

18. Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?
       a. jetty                b. groin                   c. breakwater        d. seawall

19. Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?
       a. groin                 b. beach nourishment c. seawall               d. all of these

20. Which of the following is a tidal current?
       a. spring tide            b. flood tide            c. ebb tide            d. both flood and ebb tide

21. The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from __________.
       a. salinity variations                            b. Coriolis effect
       c. prevailing winds                               d. density differences

22. A poleward-moving ocean current is __________.
       a. warm
       b. cold
       c. warm only in the Northern Hemisphere
       d. warm only in the Southern Hemisphere
23. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion
    in the Northern Hemisphere.
         a. right                b. left                  c. west                  d. east

24. Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion
    in the Southern Hemisphere.
         a. right                b. left                  c. west                  d. east

25. The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _______ tide.
       a. spring                b. ebb              c. neap                       d. none of these

26. The daily tidal range is LEAST during _______ tide.
       a. spring                b. ebb                  c. neap                   d. none of these

27. Fetch refers to ____________.
        a. the beachfront area where rapid erosion is taking place
        b. a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves
        c. the rotational movements of water particles beneath a passing surface wave
        d. ocean currents moving parallel to the beach

28. How can crashing, collapsing storm waves generate explosive forces and stresses on rocky outcrops and
    manmade structures?
       a. Oscillating, refractive waves shake the hard materials into small fragments.
       b. Pressurized water and compressed air are driven into cracks and fissures.
       c. Backwash breaks out blocks of rock or concrete and carries them out to deeper water.
       d. All of the above.

29. Erosional retreat of a ____________leads to enlargement and extension of a wave-cut platform in the
    inland direction.
        a. wave-cut tombolo                           b. wave-cut cliff
        c. wave-cut barrier beach                     d. offshore, wave-cut, breakwater bar

30. Large estuaries are more common on a ____________ coastline.
       a. submergent            b. emergent         c. stable                     d. retreating

31. A ____________ is an isolated remnant of bedrock standing above a wave-cut platform.
       a. sea spit             b. sea rampart         c. sea span            d. sea stack

32. ____________ is a strong, parallel alignment of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.
       a. Rock cleavage             b. Foliation             c. Stress streaking     d. Marbleizing

Matching. Questions 33–36; Match the tide with the appropriate description. All are level 1 questions.

            a. neap tides   b. spring tides

33. ____ Sun, Moon, and Earth form a right triangle in space
34. ____ lowest high tides and highest low tides of the month

35. ____ highest high tides and lowest low tides of the month

36. ____ Sun, Moon, and Earth lie on a straight line in space

Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the
relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

37.     a. wave height           b. wave period            c. wave refraction       d. fetch

38.     a. wave-cut cliff        b. wave-cut platform      c. sea arch              d. spit

39.     a. sea stack             b. bar                    c. tombolo               d. barrier island

40.     a. breakwater            b. groin                  c. seawall               d. beach nourishment

41.     a. spring tide           b. flood tide             c. neap tide             d. tidal flat

True – False

42. The horizontal distance separating successive wave crests is called the wave period.

43. Tidal flats are submerged during ebb tide.

44. The turbulent water created by breaking waves is called surf.

45. A baymouth bar is a manmade feature designed to control wave erosion.

46. Although the Sun influences the tides, its effect is considerably less than the effect of the Moon.

47. The energy that creates surface ocean currents comes from prevailing winds.

48. Waves in the open ocean are called waves of oscillation.

49. The addition of sand to a beach has proven to be an economical solution to beach erosion problems.

50. Elevated wave-cut platforms in Southern California are evidence that this coastal area is emergent.

51. The Gulf Coast lacks barrier islands.

52. Groins are constructed for the purpose of maintaining or widening beaches that are losing sand.

53. The largest daily tidal range occurs in association with spring tides.
54. Neap tides occur about the time of the first quarter and third quarter phases of the Moon.

55. As the tide rises, water flows in toward the shore as the ebb tide.

56. A poleward-moving ocean current is considered a warm current.

57. The Coriolis effect causes ocean currents in the Southern Hemisphere to be deflected to the right of their
    path of motion.

58. The Coriolis effect is greatest at high latitudes and diminishes toward the equator.

59. Surface ocean circulation is also called thermohaline circulation.

60. Longshore sand transport and longshore currents depend on waves impinging parallel to a shoreline.

Short Answer

61. The ____________ is the distance the wind has traveled across open water.

62. Large circular-moving currents of water within an ocean basin are called __________.

63. When a wave breaks it changes from being a wave of oscillation to being a wave of __________.

64. As a deep-water wave enters shallow water, the wave slows down and rotates toward being parallel with
    the shoreline. This process is known as ____________.

65. Currents within the surf zone that flow parallel to the shore are known as ____________ currents.

66. A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island is a ____________.

67. Low and narrow offshore ridges of sand that parallel the coast are called ____________.

68. Structures called ____________ are built parallel to the shoreline to protect boats from the force of large
    breaking waves.

69. A barrier built at a right angle to the beach for the purpose of trapping sand that is moving parallel to the
    shore is called a ____________.

70. When caves on opposite sides of a headland unite, a ____________ results.

71. What term denotes a sand bar built across the former mouth of an estuary, separating it from the open

72. The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called ____________.

73. Because deep ocean circulation is driven largely by variations in water temperature and salinity, it is also
    called ____________ circulation.

74. The low-lying zones that are alternately covered by water during flood tide and exposed following ebb
    tide are called ____________.

75. The ____________ effect causes ocean currents to be deflected to the right of their path of motion in the
    Northern Hemisphere.

Visualization Questions

79. Label the basic parts of a wave on the diagram below.

80. What type of current is illustrated in the diagram below?
81. Match the features on the illustration below with the correct answer for each one.

    A. tombolo      B. wave-cut cliff    C. spit         D. baymouth bar

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