Chapter 19: Section 4 Cloze Passage: Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words! After The War… United States: Government Agencies removed their controls from the American economy. People raced to buy goods that had been rationed. Result was inflation and it greatly increased the _______________________. Strikes: __________________________: a strike that involves all workers living in a certain location, not just workers in a particular industry Seattle General Strike: First major strike; emerged into a general strike. 35,000 shipyard workers walked off the job demanding higher wages and shorter hours. Involved more than 60,000 people and paralyzed the city for five days. Strikers did not gain any action but the strike disturbed many Americans because the general strike was a common tactic used in Europe by Communists and other radical groups. The Boston Police Strike Most famous strike 75% of Police walked off the job; Riots and looting erupted ______________________- the governor of Massachusetts sent the National Guard and when they tried to come back the police commissioner refused to accept them and hired a new force. Coolidge agreed that they should be fired because “there is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” With his action he earned widespread public support and it convinced the Republicans to make Coolidge their vice presidential candidate in the election of 1920 The Steel Strike Largest strike 350,000 Steelworkers went on strike for higher pay, shorter hours, and respect of their union. ______________________________ – head of U.S. Steel refused to talk to union leaders Blamed the strike on immigrants and foreign radicals and called for loyal Americans to come back to work. He hired African Americans and Mexicans to do the work until the strike ended. The Steel Strike, II Frequent riots between company guards and strikers: in one riot in Gary, Indiana left 18 strikers dead Early January 1920 the strike collapsed Failure of the strike set back the union and the steel industry remained unorganized until 1937. Racial Unrest African Americans had migrated north for jobs Soldiers returned home looking for work Competition for jobs and housing led to frustration This combination along with racism produced violence Summer of 1919 over 20 race riots Chicago Race Riot The worst was in Chicago African Americans went to a whites-only beach Both sides began throwing stones at each other Whites started throwing at an African American teenager so he could not reach the shore and he drowned Which led to a full scale riot Lasted two weeks; 38 people died – 15 white and 23 black and over 500 were injured The Red Scare The wave of strikes led to fear of _______________________. Americans feared the power of Communism after watching Lenin and the Bolsheviks take over Russia. Then, when Russia pulled out of the war, Americans viewed that as aid to Germany. Americans anger expanded from Germany to the Communists and their ideas. Americans associated Communism with being unpatriotic and disloyal. They believed that these ideas were spreading because of the immigrant population in the U.S. Blamed Communists ideas for labor unrest and violence The Communists now controlled an entire country. They also believed that the strikes would lead to social unrest and cause revolutions to spread in many different parts of the world including the U.S. These fears were confirmed in 1919 when the Soviet Union formed the ___________________________________– an organization for coordinating the activities of Communist parties in other countries. “Reds” – Communists _________________________- a panic by American citizens that communists would take over! April: the postal service intercepted more than 30 parcels sent to leading businesspeople and politicians that were triggered to explode when opened. June eight bombs in eight citied exploded within minutes of one another, suggesting a nationwide conspiracy One damaged the home of U.S. Attorney General ____________________________________. Believed it was the work of Communists or other revolutionaries trying to destroy the American way of life. Palmer Raids He established a special division within the Justice Dept. (The General Intelligence Division) headed by ________________________--founded the the FBI He organized a series of raids on the headquarters of various radical organizations Evidence pointed to no single group as the bombers They concentrated on foreign residents and immigrants Government detained thousands of suspects and __________________ nearly 600 of them Most of the time disregarded the civil liberties of the suspects Entered homes without search warrants People were mistreated and jailed for indefinite period of time and were not allowed to talk to their attorneys At first he was viewed as a national hero but when they could not produce hard evidence and failed prediction of violence on May Day he lost much of his credibility. Americans now associated radicalism with immigrants and that led Congress to limit immigration. End of Progressivism Cox and FDR wanted to continue with Wilson’s progressive ideals Republican Harding called for a return to “normalcy” With all the devastation with WWI and the problems of labor and racial unrest hit the Americans hard and they hoped to but all the problems including economic troubles behind and build a more prosperous and stable society Harding won the election easily!
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