Standard Grade Computing Studies Commercial Data Processing(1)

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					            Higher Grade Computing Studies
                   6. Using Networks
Network Hardware - Hub

• Hub - A hub is used when you have one connection to the
network but want to share that connection with several
machines. A hub is a network device that is used for
connecting computers on a Local Are Network (LAN).




                                    Higher Computing
                                    Computer Systems
1                                      S. McCrossan
              Higher Grade Computing Studies
                     6. Using Networks
Network Hardware - Hub

• When you send data from
computer A to Computer B,
the Hub receives the packet
and sends it out all other
available ports on the Hub.
Both Computers B and C get
the data, C looks at the data
and realised that it is not for
itself so it ignores it.
Computer B sees and sees
that it belongs to itself.         Higher Computing
                                   Computer Systems
2                                     S. McCrossan
             Higher Grade Computing Studies
                    6. Using Networks
Network Hardware - Switch

• Switches are smart hubs that send data directly to the
destination rather than everywhere within a network.
A switch contains a much faster routing capacity than a hub.
It can handle many more requests than a hub at one time.




                                      Higher Computing
                                      Computer Systems
3                                        S. McCrossan
             Higher Grade Computing Studies
                    6. Using Networks
Network Hardware - Router

• A router is a device which joins networks together to
allow data to flow between the joined networks.
• A router is an intelligent packet sorter, which can look at the
ultimate destination for a packet and analyse the best way to
get it there.
• A router is a network device that
connects two similar networks having the
same network protocol. It also chooses
the best path between two networks
                                        Higher Computing
                                        Computer Systems
4                                           S. McCrossan
            Higher Grade Computing Studies
                   6. Using Networks
Network Hardware - NIC

• A Network Interface Card
(NIC) is slotted into the
motherboard of a computer and
provides the physical connection
and electronics to connect a
computer to a Local Area
Network (LAN). An Ethernet
card is a common example of an
NIC.

                                   Higher Computing
                                   Computer Systems
5                                     S. McCrossan
            Higher Grade Computing Studies
                   6. Using Networks
Widespread Use of Networks

• Due to advances in hardware:   • Due to advances in
   • Processors                  software:
   • RAM                             • Improved browsers
   • Backing storage                 • Operating Systems now
   • Data transfer rates             with network functions
                                     • New network operating
• Due to increased                   systems
bandwidth being available            • Improved
                                     communications software
• Due to advances in
wireless communication
                                   Higher Computing
                                   Computer Systems
6                                     S. McCrossan
             Higher Grade Computing Studies
                    6. Using Networks
Misuse of Networks

• Breaching copyright:              • Planting viruses:
    • Steal other people’s              • Some network users
    intellectual property               deliberately install
    • use other people’s computer       viruses on computer
    based resources without their       systems to cause
    permission                          damage inconvenience
    • copy or use software that         or annoyance
    has not been paid for


                                     Higher Computing
                                     Computer Systems
7                                       S. McCrossan
            Higher Grade Computing Studies
                   6. Using Networks
Misuse of Networks

• Hacking:
   • This is what happens when someone who breaks
   into someone else's computer system, bypasses
   passwords or licenses in computer programs; or in
   other ways intentionally breaches computer security.




                                     Higher Computing
                                     Computer Systems
8                                       S. McCrossan
              Higher Grade Computing Studies
                     6. Using Networks
Legislation

• Computer Misuse Act:
   • Deliberately planting viruses into a computer
   system to cause damage to program files and data
   • Using computer time to carry out unauthorised
   work
   • Copying computer programs
   • Hacking into someone’s system with a view to
   seeing or altering the information
   • Using a computer to commit various electronic
   frauds.
                                     Higher Computing
                                     Computer Systems
9                                       S. McCrossan
              Higher Grade Computing Studies
                     6. Using Networks
Legislation

• Copyright, Designs and Patents Act:
   • Copy software
   • Run pirated software
   • Transmit copyrighted software over a
   telecommunications line.




                                     Higher Computing
                                     Computer Systems
10                                      S. McCrossan
              Higher Grade Computing Studies
                     6. Using Networks
Legislation

• Data Protection Act:
   • Protects the rights of the individual about whom
   data is obtained, stored, processed or supplied rather
   than those of the people or organisations who
   control and use personal data.
   • Data users must ensure that they provide proper
   security, e.g. use usernames and passwords, use
   secure rooms.


                                       Higher Computing
                                       Computer Systems
11                                        S. McCrossan

				
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