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					Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

                                              TABLE OF CONTENT



  Foreword ....................................................................................................................... vi
  Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................... vii
  COLLEGE OF DRYLAND AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES .. 1
  1. “Improving water resource planning at the scale of micro-damcatchment in Tigray,
  Northern Ethiopia” ....................................................................................................... 1
  2. “Women Learning Women (WLW): Women –led Documentation and Community
  Information Centers in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia ...................................... 4
  3. Soil quality an index of sustainable yield for farmers in the dryland ecosystem of
  Ethiopia .......................................................................................................................... 7
  4. Weed Vegetation diversity and stability in church forest in Northern Ethiopia: Effects
  on plant species evenness, diversity and ecosystem function. ................................... 9
  5. Rural town and the development of rural areas: within rural-urban linkage. . 11
  6. Response of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties to Soil test based fertilizer
  application in Kafta Humera, Western Tigray, Ethiopia ....................................... 13
  7. Improving Africa Civet Farming to become Sustainable and Human: Optimizing
  Husbandary Practices in Oromia and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia ....................... 15
  8. Local Seed Business Project ................................................................................... 17
  9. Women and Food Science: Technology National Visibility ................................ 20
  10. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrologic Response of Geba Catchments,
  TekezBasin,Ethiopia…………………………………………………………………23
  11. Using nematodes as bioindicatos for soil health in different land use of
  Tigray…………………………………………………………………………………25
  12. Availability of Selected Soil Nutrients in Relation to Land Use and Landscape
  Position in Central Tigray, Ethiopia ......................................................................... 27
  13. Domestication process of indigenous fruit and fodder trees/shrubs in dryland areas-
  Its implication on food security; Souther Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. .................. 30
  14. Relative Comparison of Soil Carbon Storage Variability in Land Use Systems in the
  Tigray Region of Ethiopia ........................................................................................ 32
  15. Analysis of meteorological drought and its impact on major crop yield in Southern
  Tigray 34
  16. Woody species composition and socio-economic importance of dryland agro forestry
  and its impact on soil property: implication on biodiversity conservation and food
  security: a case of Kilte Awulalo, Tigray………………………………...36
  17. Productive Safety Net Program, Food sufficiency and graduation: It is working in
  rural households of Tigray. ........................................................................................ 38
  18. Irrigation Scheduling at Specific Growth Stage of Onion (Allium cepa L.) under
  variable Fertilizer Rates in different soil types in Enderta District,
  Tigray…………………………………………………………………………………41
  COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS .................................................... 43
  19. Restoration and sustainable management of frankincense forest in Ethiopia: a bio-
  economics analysis of controlled tapping and exclosures of Boswellia papyrifera.43
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

  20. Impact of resettlement on food security and environment: case of Tigray Region
       46
  21. Impact of organic farming technologies on household welfare in semi-arid
  Ethiopia……………………………………………………………………………. 48
  22. Firm Dynamics and Gender Inequality: Evidence from MSEs in Tigray, Northern
  Ethiopia…………………………………………………….......................50
  23.”Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: a perspective on drought
  prone areas” .............. …………………………………………………………….. 52
  24. Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy options for Ethiopia…………...54
  25. “Governance of Association of Micro and Small Enterprises (AMSEs): With specific
  reference to Mekelle and Wukro, Tigray, Ethiopia” .............                                      …………………57
  26. “Structure, conduct and performance of grain trading in Tigray and its impact on
  demand for commodity exchange: The case Maychew, Mekelle and
  Himora………………………………………………………………………………..59
  27. “Assessment of tourism demand, contribution and its constraints in Tigray, Northern
  Ethiopia.” ..................................................................................................................... 61
  28. “Financial Performance analysis of multipurpose cooperative societies in South
  Eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia” ............................................................................. 63
  29. “Evaluating the technical efficiency of microfinance institutions. The application of
  DEA”………………………………………………………………………………….66
  30. “Vegetable channel choice and its impact on rural vegetable producers’ income: Case
  study of Enderta and Hintalo-Wajirat Wereda, Tigray,
  Ethiopia”..................................................................................................................….67
  COLLEGE OF LAW AND GOVERNANCE .......................................................... 70
  31. “The voice of the bameless in the penitiaries: Case study on the situation of children
  living in Tigray prison” .............................................................................................. 70
  32. “The impact of reallocation of land on the society in South-Eastern zone of Tigray
  with particular emphasisi on womens right.” .......................................................... 72
  33. The government market regulating power in Tigray; with special emphasis to the
  Mesebo Cement factory and transport service the law and the practice.”............ 74
  34. “The role of international humanitarian organization and the condition of Eritrean
  refugees in Ethiopia. The case of ............................................................................... 75
  Shimelba”..................................................................................................................... 75
  35. Towards enhancing the role of small and micro enterprises in Tigray: The legal
  challenges and opportunities.”................................................................................... 76
  36. Criminal Liability of Medical malpractices case study in Tigray” . ................ 77
  37. The role of academicians in enhancing rule of law: Analysis on Proclamation
  No.165/2000 E.C of the Tigray proclamation” ......................................................... 80
  38. Decisive issues in voters’ behaviors in Ethiopia and the contribution of political
  parties for voters to make informed decisions.” ...................................................... 81
  39. Theory and Practice of BPR in MU the case of College of Law and Governance.
       82
  40. The Efficacy Decentralization in Enderta wereda in the Context of
  institutionalization of Good Governance and Ethical principles Issues, Achievements,
  Impediments and opportunities Governance. .......................................................... 83

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


  COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCEINCES ..................................................................... 84
  41. “The Contribution of Health Services Extension Program in Promoting
  Comprehensive Primary Health Care in Tigray, Ethiopia: The Case of Maternal Health”
       84
  42. “Pattern of risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among University
  students in Ethiopia: The case of Mekelle University students” ............................ 92
  43. “Kilte-Awlaelo /Wukro Demographic and Health Development program” ... 96
  COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .............................................................................. 99
  44. “Assessing Information Technology (IT) Related Jobs Opportunities” .......... 99
  45. “Intercultural Virtual Seminar for Africa” ..................................................... 101
  46. “Development of Multipurpose Hospital Bed” ................................................ 103
  47. “Analysis of how and why improving quality could or could not lead to cheaper
  prices, the Ethiopian context ” ............................................................................... 104
  48. “Customization of Virtual reality modeling to support TVET IT Program . 106
  49. “Compact block forming machine (Hydra form block making machine)”... 108
  50. “Low cost washing Machine” ........................................................................... 110
  51. “Software Development for Garment Machineries” ....................................... 112
  52. “Low cost Box solar Cooker”: Community Trials & Development of Trial Small-
  Scale Production Facility .......................................................................................... 114
  53. “Design & Development of Small-scale Hydroelectric Generator Turbine” 116
  54. “Solar Powered Small Home System for Off-grid Remote Communities” ... 118
  55. “Design & Manufacturing of Mosquito Killer Machine” ............................... 120
  56. “Designing for Development: An Analysis of the Quality of Low Cost Housing in
  Urban Region of Ethiopia” ...................................................................................... 122
  57. “Determination of optimal spacing between power transmission cable and
  transmission poles for Mekelle Town”.................................................................... 124
  58. “Assessment and Identification of Wind Energy Resource for Rural Application in
  the Geba Catchment”. .............................................................................................. 126
  COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE ........................................................ 128
  59. “Serological and parasitological survey of Leishmania donovoni in dogs in Kafta-
  Humera, Tigray, Ethiopa” ....................................................................................... 128
  Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/01/2009 ................................................... 128
  60. “Hematological Profile of local Chickens in Alamata Woreda, south Tigray”                                            .
       130
  61. “Seroprevalence and outbreak investigation of Foot and Mouth Disease in Tigray”.
       132
  62. “Study on parasitic genera diversity of stray dogs in Mekelle City ............... 134
  63. “Studies on the efficiency of Progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) on
  controlled reproduction in crossbred dairy cows.” ............................................... 136
  INSTITUTE OF PEDAGOGICAL SCEINCES .................................................... 138
  64. “Prospects and challenges of teachers continuous professional development
  programme at secondary schools of Tigray region” .............................................. 138
  65. “The link between secondary school and higher education teaching and learning
  process; the quality dilemma, the case of MU and Tigray region.” ..................... 141

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

  66. “The role of supervision in enhancing quality of education in primary and secondary
  schools of Tigray region, Ethiopia.” ........................................................................ 143
  67.” Heritage Management Plan for Aksum” ........................................................ 145
  68. “Built forms Social Consciousness and Tradition among the Erob Community of
  Eastern Tigray” ......................................................................................................... 147
  69. “A Profile of the career of Ato Tsegaye Berhe Implication for the documentation and
  preservation of Intangible cultural Heritages” ...................................................... 149
  COLLEGE OF NATURAL AND COMPUTIONAL SCIENCES ....................... 151
  70. “The Adigrat AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research)
  Magneometer Project”. ............................................................................................ 151
  71. “The Adigrat AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research)
  Magneometer Project”. ............................................................................................ 153
  72. “Evaluation of the bio-efficacies of indoor residual insecticide sprayed (IRS)
  walls/surfaces and study on physical status, utilization and bio-efficacies of long lasting
  insecticide treated nets (LLINs) used against Anopheles mosquitoes in malarious areas of
  Tigray region, Ethiopia” .......................................................................................... 156
  73. “Ethnobotanical Survey and Laboratory Evaluation of Efficacies of traditional
  Mosquito Repellent Plants against Anopheles Mosquitoes in Tigray Region Ethiopia”
  .    158
  74. “Adoption of improved beekeeping technology for poverty allevation in North West
  Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Impacts and Challenges” ............................ 161
  75. “Correlates of Profitability of Large and medium Scale Manufacturing Industries in
  Ethiopia: An evidence from panel data regression model”. ................................. 163
  76. “Preliminary geological and geochemical investigation for gold near Workamba and
  Hawzein , Tigray, Ethiopia”
  ………………………………………………………………………………………166
  77. “Geological investigation and characterization of the industrial minerals and rocks of
  Hashangi area: Implicaiton to ceramics industry”. ............................................... 169
  78. “Assessing the Training System of Tigray Athletics and Football Projects”. 171
  79. “Physichemical analysis of drinking water in urban areas of Tifrai, Northern
  Ethiopia”. ................................................................................................................... 172
  80. “Identification of challenges in the quality of teaching mathematics and physical
  sciences in high school of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia”. ......................................... 175
  81. “Reusing possibilities of MU Endayesus Campus Wastewater by Removing Nutrients
  and Microorganism Using Vertical Sub-surface Constructed
  Wetlands”…………………………………………………………………………178
  COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCINCES AND LANGUAGE ...................................... 180
  82. Biographic research: A study program as part of the research project of
  TPLF/EPRDF-DERG civil war, 1974-1991” .......................................................... 180
  83.” Psychosocial and Academic Antecedents of Attrition: The Case of Female Students
  at Mekelle University”. ............................................................................................. 182
  84. Assessing the effectiveness of Amateur Tourist Guides (Tigray Region in focus
       ………………………184
  85. “Biographic research: A study program as part of the research project of
  TPLF/EPRDF-DERG civil war, 1974-1991”. ......................................................... 187

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

  86. “Psychosociail and Academic Antecedents of Attrition: the Case of Female Students
  at Mekelle University”. ............................................................................................. 189
  87. “Assessing the effectiveness of Amateur Tourist Guides (Tigray region in focus)”.
       191
  88. “An exploration of the use of Irob language and its maintenance among the students
  of Irob-Saho community in the Tigray regional state”. ........................................ 194
  89. “Modeling land use optimization at Lake Hashenge watershed in the Northern
  Highlands of Ethiopia. A geo-information and earth observation based approach”.
       197
  90 . “An assessment of employability skills: Implications for University-Industry
  linkage”. ..................................................................................................................... 200
  91.“Enhancing the role of indigenous knowleage of rural women of Tigray in ensuring
  household food security in Tigray region: The case southern eastern zone of Tigray”.
       203
  92. “ባህሊዊ የግጭት አፇታት ስርዓት የፎክልር ሚናና ተቋማዋ የፍትህ ስርዓት ጥመረት በራያ ኣዘቦ ና ኣካናኒው”
  …………………………………………………………………………205
  93.“Team work: Its implementation in class room teaching in line with BPR
  recommendation: The case of Mekelle University”. .............................................. 206
  94.“Learner-centre instruction at Mekelle University: Perception, Practices and
  Prospects”. ................................................................................................................. 210
  95.“English as Medium of Instruction for Grade 9 in Tigray: Challenges and Prospects”.
       212
  96. “An assessment of gender based violence in Ethiopia higher Institution: the case of
  Mekelle University”. ................................................................................................. 214
  97.“Poverty, Gendr and Psychosocial Attributes of Safe sex Behavior. A conceptual
  Framework to Understand the HIV/AIDS Infection Status of Women in South Eastern
  Zone of Tigray”. ........................................................................................................ 216
  98.“Pedagogical value and suitability of ELT textbooks towards preparatory senior high
  schools’ language instruction in Tigray region”. ................................................... 219
  99.“The role of Media fro Rural Development: Standardizing the women coverage in
  Dimts Woyane Tigray”. ............................................................................................ 222
  100. “Approaching literacy problems through participatory means: A case of Saho-
  Ethiopia orthography standardization” ................................................................. 223
  101. “Renewed Leadership Capacity and facilitation of decentralized management
  thought implementation of BPR at Mekelle University”. ..................................... 225
  102. “Preliminary Investigation of an unidentified liver disease study in North Western
  Tigray”. ...................................................................................................................... 228




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




                                          Foreword
It is known that the Mekelle University was undertaking several research and development
studies initiated by members of the academic staff. Some are completed and others are in the
process. Currently all the faculties have embarked on research at different scales. This is a step
forward in the right direction.
This profile of the research projects is an attempt to document and present the existing studies for
reference purposes. I belive the information contained, and the several database available within
MU, can be of benefit to researchers and students, thereby enhancing the teaching learning
process. The Publication and Consultancy Coordination Office is commended on the task
undertaken in producing this document.


Mitiku Haile, (PhD)


President of Mekelle University
2010




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




                                   Acknowledgements
It is now more than ten years since Mekelle University has began to consolidate its research
efforts. Such efforts were directed at contributing to the quest of truth and knowledge in general,
and poverty alleviation and food security in Ethiopia in particular. In this regard, so much has
been achieved when compared to the age of establishment of the University. Though we are
proud of these achievements along way still remains to ensure development in our country. This
publication consists of the summary of research projects. We strongly believe that the
compilation and publication of this material will facilitate and encourager inter-departmental,
inter-faculty, inter-institution and inter-University initiatives, and thereby forge strong linkages
at all levels.


I would like to thank all principal investigators/coordinators, research team members,
Department Heads, Deans and Officers who have responded duly to our call to synthesize this
research registry. Moreover, the continued support of the University Management while
producing this document in highly acknowledged. Last but not least, we are highly grateful to all
our sponsors particular NORAD II Project for funding most of the research projects and other
partner organizations that made it possible to carry out these research activities at Mekelle
University.


Abdelkader Kedir (PhD)
A/Associate Vice President for Research and Graduate Program 2005



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




                                                                      viii
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

   COLLEGE OF DRYLAND AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL
                                       RESOURCES
1. “Improving water resource planning at the scale of micro-damcatchment in
Tigray, Northern Ethiopia”


Project Registration Number: CDANR/DG-CD/01/2009


Objectives:
The project aims to contribute to capacity building for water resource planning for local
communities. More specifically in collaboration with a local NGO and a water resource agency
methodologies will be developed to:
      evaluate the efficiency of SWC in water resource management
      characterize the hydrological units of small catchments, emphasizing spatial patterns in
       water transfer and losses
      provide hydrological engineers with an improve methodology to design water harvesting
       projects in this drought prone region


Short Project description:
Ethiopia, one of the most populated countries in Africa is suffering from chronic famine, rapid
population growth and land degradation. Poverty and famine in Ethiopia are mainly associated
with accelerated degradation of soil and water resources. Land and water degradation are
particularly pronounced in the northern part, where the research area, the Tigray region is
situated. Tigray region is one of the most drought prone areas in the country, which imposes a
serious threat to the local development. Food security is appallingly low in the area, with more
than 50% of the rural population depending on food aid 6 months after harvest in years with
normal rainfall distribution. One of the challenges for Ethiopia during the 21st century will be to
optimize the management of the available land and water resources, in order to secure food
production and local sustainable development for the ever-growing population.


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Numerous studies have demonstrated the enormous soil and water conservation (SWC) efforts in
Tigray since the 1980‟s. It is now beyond doubt that SWC efforts effectively protect the soil at
the field scale and even at the hill slope scale. Some evidence starts to appear that SWC also
influences sediment yields at the catchments scale, recharge of shallow ground water and base
flow of rivers. However, this evidence is largely anecdotic. The main problem in quantifying
these off-site effects is that a strict comparison before and after the treatments is often
impossible. Paired catchments are hard to find and rainfall variability excludes the short-term
comparison hydrological and erosion parameters before and after the implementation of SWC
works. The main questions that need to be addressed when evaluating the efficiency of SWC
with in catchments are related to the connectivity of water and sediment. Local developments
such as terracing, increasing recharged of shallow aquifers, pumping from shallow aquifers,
building check dams in intermittent water courses and         construction of micro dams have
numerous impacts on the water balance. These impacts are not limited to the field or hill slope
scale, but can propagate through entire catchments. Examples from traditional management
techniques and more recent community initiatives indicate that local ownership of SEC measures
is essential in order to guarantee their functioning and plan their off-site effects. Practical
examples of problems in planning of the implementation of SEC schemes are abundant. Some
micro dams on limestone leak, but appear to recharge the shallow groundwater downstream. In
other cases, the implementation of SWC in the upper part of reservoir catchments has lead to a
reduction of the water retained by the micro dams and therefore the potential for irrigation. It is
evident that planning of all components of the lateral and vertical flux of water can only be
achieved for natural hydrographical units or catchments. The catchments of the micro dams in
Tigray, built between 1994-2002, ranges from 2.5 to 24 km2. These catchments are examples
where the success or failure of local planning of water resources can be studied and guidelines
for best practices can be formulated.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
      The Department of Land Resources management and Environmental Protection
       (LaRMEP), Mekelle University, Ethiopia; Dr Nigussie Haregeweyn, Phone +344-
       409018. Fax: +344-409304.
      Relief Society of Tigray (REST), Ethiopia; Dr Mulugeta
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

      Tigray Bureau of Water Resources Development (BWRD), Ethiopia; Mr. Samson
      The Department of Earth and Environmental Science at Katholieke University Leuven,
       Belgium; Prof. Dr. Jean Posen, Phone +32 16 326425. Fax+32 16 32 29 80
      The Department of Geography at University catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium;
       Prof. Dr. Bas van Wesemael Geography Department. Phone +32 10 47 20 56, Fax +32
       10472877
      The Department of Geology at, FUNDP< Belgium; Prof. Dr. Vincent Hallet
       Phone:+3281724476, fax;+3281724471


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr Nigussie Haregeweyn, Department of LaRMEP

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Nigussie Hargeweyn,
Two PhD students yet to be recruited from Mekelle University, Two local M.S.C students yet to
be recruited from REST and BoWRD, Tigray.

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of LaRMEP

Amount of fund: £ 394,321.15.

Source of fund: The Commission Universities pour le development (CUD), Belgium.

Project duration: 01 September 2008-31 August 2013.

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



2. “Women Learning Women (WLW): Women –led Documentation and
Community Information Centers in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia


Project Registration Number: CDANR/APC/02/2009

Objectives:
      To experiment with new documentation methods that are led by women farmers in order
       to see whether and how this form of documentation can complement that done by
       researchers, adding value by giving the women „s perspectives
      To motivate women to use tele centers when looking for information
      To contribute to learning by all stakeholders about the potentials, constraints and
       challenges of documentation led by women farmers.
      To build the capacity of young women through Training-of Trainers (ToT) workshops on
       use and application of ICTs, information-retrieval techniques and business management
       training.
      Develop a simple booklet and visual audio package of learning materials in local
       language for use by rural women in Tigray with low literary skills.


   Short Project description:
   Farmers in any community have their own knowledge that is necessary for their agricultural
   work, which is the main mode of production in rural areas. However, practices in agriculture
   and natural resource management vary from group to group, according to the specific
   environmental and cultural settings. It is becoming obvious that successful development of
   agriculture and other forms of community development, including natural resource
   management, depend on effective interaction between knowledge and experience of local
   farmers with knowledge and experience of development agents and researcher. When
   farmers face environmental and cultural constraints while trying to improve their livelihoods,
   they develop new ideas and solutions either by doing informal experiments or by learning
   from the experiences of other farmers and agencies. NGOs, government organizations,
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

   community-based organizations and other development organizations are increasingly
   recognizing the significance of such local innovation building on indigenous knowledge for
   the enhancement of the quality of the life of the community, Hence, they seek to work with
   innovative farmers by involving them in planning and implementing joint projects.

   These organizations have been trying to document the local innovations and experiences of
   the farmers, e.g. during the second phase of the Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation
   Project (ISWC II). This project, which was intensively engaged in Tigray Region of Ethiopia
   and was coordinated by Mekelle University, exerted considerable effort in making farmers to
   further develop their own innovations in farming and soil and water conservation practices.
   The reasons for focusing on women innovators is that is that the women‟s practices are
   always kept in the domestic sphere, their innovations are not well publicized and insufficient
   attention has been given thus far in PROLINNOVA to increasing the confidence of women
   to innovate. Mekelle University has experience in organizing farmers‟ traveling seminars and
   village-level workshops on local innovation, where farmers could share their experiences.
   However, it was often difficult for women to leave their homes to be able to take part in these
   activities. This FLD/ICT project will give the women an opportunity to document their
   innovations and practices and to share with other people in their own and other communities
   by incorporating photographs they have taken themselves into the booklets they want to
   compile. The MU researchers also visited Abrha Atsbha in eastern Tigray to become more
   familiar with the initiatives there with respect to a community information center with ICT
   tollos and facilities such as computers and internet available to villagers. The newly
   established information centre will be used as multipurpose community tele-centers to
   provide convenient access to exchange information through regional radio, TV news etc.
   Although an effort has been made to offer computers and internet access services to the
   village, it was also interesting to find that girl and boy dropouts from secondary school had
   been given land to help them concentrate on their village and work on the land instead of
   hanging around in the streets of neighboring cities. According to the village leader, 70% of
   the 40 beneficiaries were female. However, the groups were facing difficulties in planning
   and marketing from their gardening enterprises.


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Lemelem Hailemichael Female Journalist
from VORT (Voice of Revolutionary of Tigray)
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Fetein Abay (Dr), Department of DCHS
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Gebregorgis Gebrecherkos
cooperative, college of Business and Economics, Mulugeta Negassi camera man from CCM.
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences

Amount of fund: 7000.00 Euro

Source of fund: Gen NARDIS

Project duration: One year

Status: Completed




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

3. Soil quality an index of sustainable yield for farmers in the dryland
ecosystem of Ethiopia


Project Registration Number: CDANR/IFS/03/2009

Objectives:
      Assess C sequestration potentials and its impact on soil quality (Chemical structure, and
       labile and non-fractions)
      Identify techniques for reducing the risks of large-scale soil degradation, prevalent in the
       region, and
      Validate or devop models to product C sequestration potential and soil quality leading to
       improved soil productivity and reduced C emissions in dry land agro forestry systems of
       Tigray, Ethiopia.


Short project description
Many studies suggested that agricultural soils may function as either a source or sink of
atmospheric CO2 (Carbon dioxide). Land misuse and soil mismanagement can cause depletion
of soil organic carbon (SOC) with an attendant emission of COS into the atmosphere, whereas,
appropriate land-use and soil management can lead to an increase in SOC, there by potentially
mitigating the current increase in atmospheric CO2 and retarding large-scale soil degradation and
improving soil productivity. This project is designed to investigate the effects of agro forestry
systems with regard to carbon sequestration and improving soil productivity in Ethiopia. They
study will be conducted in dryland ecosystems of Tigray following appropriate participatory
methods. Different agro forestry systems commonly practiced in the region will be selected. The
experimental trials will have randomized Complete Block design with the selected agro forestry
systems as treatments. The results of the study will contribute to the development of best
management practices and prediction tools for SOC management in the region.
Collaborating organization and Contact person: Tigray Regional state Bureau of Agriculture
and Rural Development (BoARD) Mekelle, Tigray, Relief Society of Tigray (REST)
Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Aweke Mulualem

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved Research Team Members: Mr.Agazi Hailay

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Mr.Agazi Hailay, Mr.Tesfay Berihu, Mr.

       Hailemariam Amdu

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental

Protection (LaRMEP)

Amount of Fund: 11,500 USD (Br 128,479.15)

Source of fund: International Foundation for Science (IFS)

Project duration: 3 years

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

4. Weed Vegetation diversity and stability in church forest in Northern
Ethiopia: Effects on plant species evenness, diversity and ecosystem function.



Project Registration Number: CDANR/MU/04/2009

Objectives:
      To measure the area coverage of church forests;
      To assesses the woody species composition of church forest;
      To compares the church forest species composition variability with respect to altitudinal
       gradients;
      To compare woody species composition among church forest,
      To assess the isolation effect on species dominance, evenness and area-species
       relationships.


Short project description
As part of PhD project of forest utilization and protection in Northern Ethiopia: Effects on plant
species evenness, diversity and ecosystem function, assessment of church forest woody species
diversity and stability in Northern Ethiopia will be carried out. The church forest will be
selected from south eastern, eastern and southern Tigray, Ethiopia and we will work on 30
selected church forests with three replications. The objectives are (i) to measure the area
coverage of church forests; (ii) to assess the woody species composition of church forest; (iii) to
compare woody specie composition among church forest, and (iv) to assess the isolation effect
on species dominance, evenness and area- species relationship. In the selected sites species
identification, counting and recording per quadrant will be carried out. The tentative samples
sizes (quadrants) with respect to life stage of the plants are: 20x20m2 quadrants for adult trees
will be used to describe in the randomly selected quadrants. Nested sampling will adapt for the
saplings and seedlings. In our study, we define seedlings with stems less than one meter and less
the 3 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) (Jenkins and Parker 1998). In this study, both Shannon
Wiener index (H) and Simpson‟s diversity indexes (D) will be considered for evaluating the

                                                                                                 9
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

diversity for comparison. Evenness will be calculated using Shannon Wiener index and
compared with species richness in evaluating the degree of disturbance. Sorensen‟s similarity
coefficient (Q/S) will be adapted to compare the similarity of the classification. The assumption
of under utilization of church forest will be evaluated based the species relative abundance of
live steams and dead stumps. Total area of church forest coverage (ha), number of species
(individual ha-1), density (individual ha-1) and basal area (m2 ha-1) will be assessed. The research
will be carried out from July 2009-October 2010) and the expected cost of the research will be
36500 (thirty six thousand five hundred forty five ETB.

Collaborating organization and Contact person: Professor Stein R.Moe, Department of
Ecology and Natural Resources Management (INA), University: Norwegian University of Life
Sciences (UMB), Norway
 Professor Orjan Tot land, Department of Ecology and Natural Resources Management (INA),

University Norweigan University of Life Sciences (UMB), Norway

Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Asmelash Berhane

Involved Research Team Members: Professor Mitiku Haile, Department of Land Resources

Mangement and Environment Protection (LaRMEP):

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental

Protection (LaRMEP)

Amount of Fund: 36,500 ETB

Source of fund: MU Research fund

Project duration: May 27th, 2009-June 30th, 2010

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

5. Rural town and the development of rural areas: within rural-urban linkage.



Project Registration Number: CDANR/IFS/05/2009

Objectives:
The study is with the objective of analyzing the role of rural towns (and the functions in these
towns)
            to the improvement of rural income (through migration and employment),
            the adoption and use of inputs by farm households, and
            Role of productive activities on employment and income of town/rural households.


Short project description
In Mekelle University, Scientific research in rural development has been carried out since the
past few years and capacity has been developed. The theme of this project fits well to the broad
research theme-rural development-of Mekelle University, Rural towns & rural areas are part of
the same functional economic system; as a result different types of economic linkages exist
among them. In the literature, there have been arguments that dichotomy between „rural‟ and
„urban‟ areas often overlooked the link among them. Within this argument, modern
development thinking holds that rampant economy in rural towns scattered around rural areas
could be pivotal in bringing about economic growth. In this regard, there arises a need to
seriously consider rural towns as tools for rural development taking into account the economic,
social and resource linkages among town economies and rural areas. With this project, we aim
to identify, estimate, simulate and analyze the effects of development of rural towns and the
functions in these towns on rural households‟ employment, income and technology adoption.
Data for the study include longitudinal and cross section that are going to be partly collected
from rural areas and selected rural towns in Tigray. Farm household-level survey data and
survey data from productive activities in towns will be collected through structured
questionnaire. These data will then be used to identify role of town functions, estimate and
simulate relationships and analyze the contribution of towns on employment, income and
technology adoption. As tools of analyses, we use advanced econometric techniques, Such as

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

static and dynamic Panel data and discrete choice models. In the end, we aim to obtain vital
qualitative information and quantitative parameters for the stakeholders involved (such as
farmers and policy makers) in order to strengthen the contribution of rural-urban linkage to rural
household employment and income and ultimately rural economic growth. Another output is
contributing knowledge to the literature through publications.
The study will have a time span of 26 months for completion. And notably, it will contribute a
useful insight to the rural-urban linkage the benefits that rural households get from rural towns.


Collaborating organization and Contact person: Not Applicable

Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Tewodros Tadesse, Department of NREM

Involved Research Team Members: Tewodros Tadess, Department of Natural Resources

Economics and Mangement, Email: tewodroslog@yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Natural Resources Economics and Mangement

Amount of Fund: 127,477 Birr (10221 USD)

Source of fund: International Foundation for Science (IFS)

Project duration: 26 months

 Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

6. Response of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties to Soil test based
fertilizer application in Kafta Humera, Western Tigray, Ethiopia

Project Registration Number: CDANR/SNV/06/2009

Objectives:
              To conduct soil test     based fertilizer recommendation for sesame optimum
               production,
              To examine sesame varieties and mineral fertilizer interactions,
              To study NP use efficiency of sesame
              To optimize sesame yield productivity and
              To determine economics of fertilization

Short project description

Ethiopia‟s climate and soils are suitable for growing various oilseeds. Fifteen are currently
grown, but only eight have economic significance. These latter are noug, linseed, mustard,
rapeseed, sesame, groundnut, safflower, and sunflower. Of these, sesame has a unique role in the
Ethiopian economy. Sesame is cultivated in the lowlands of western Ethiopia. It is the major
cash crop for small farmers and is exportable. It is also a good rotation crop for cotton grown in
the wash valley and Gode. However the soils in Kafta Humera Woreda have been farmed
continuously for the past forty years, with out crop rotation and use of appropriate fertilizers.
This inappropriate farming practice leads to serious fertility deterioration there by the yields of
sesame is being dec lined. Therefore Soil test based fertilizer application in Kafta Hum era for
sesame will be conducted with the objectives of soil test based fertilizer recommendation for
sesame optimum production, examining sesame varieties and mineral fertilizer interactions,
optimizing sesame yield productivity and determining economics of fertilization
The study will be conducted in Kafta Humera Woreda where the total area is 591995.7 ha. Agro
ecology of the woreda is hot to warm semi-arid lowland plains. Several composite surface soil
samples will be collected so as to determine soil physical and chemical characteristics. Field
experiment will be carried out in a split plot design with four replicates. The main plot

                                                                                                13
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

treatments will be NPK fertilizer rates; Sub plots will be occupied by two diverse sesame
cultivars, the local Hire and improved cultivar Adi.
Date will be collected on growth characters and yield attributes, yield and yield contents,
chemical traits of sesame seeds, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency and the cost to benefit
of sesame production. Data will be subjected to statistical analysis of variance as described by
Snedecor and Cochran. Mean values of the recorded data will be compared by using the least
significant differences (L.S.D.5%) using SAS (2000).
The output of the proposed study will help sesame subsistence and commercial farmers by
recommending optimum rate of NPK for booming sesame productivity.

Collaborating organization and Contact person: Yohannes Agonafir, SNV-Ethiopia

P.O.Box: 40687, Addis Ababa

Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Daniel Gebrekidan, Department of DCHS

Involved Research Team Members: Daniel Gebrekidan, DCHS,Dr. Fasil Kebede,

LaRMEP,Dr. Charles Yamoah, LaRMEP,Dr. Solomon Habtu, LarMEP, Zelealem Hadush,

LaRMEP

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicant

Home base of the Project: Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences

Amount of Fund: 133,815.00 Birr

Source of fund: SNV, Netherlands Development Organization, Ethiopia

Project duration: One year

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

7. Improving Africa Civet Farming to become Sustainable and Human:
Optimizing Husbandary Practices in Oromia and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia



Project Registration Number: CDANR/NARF/07/2009


Objectives:
      To introduce and verify different kinds of traps for African civet capturing and suggest
       improved ways of transporting mechanisms
      To house civets in different sized man made enclosures and cages to identify the best
       condition and recommend for modern African civet farming practice.
      To assess and introduce effective and humane captive civet management strategy (Car,
       hygiene, handling, musk extraction, etc)
      To evaluate musk production in captive civets under different feeding regimes.
      To assess the economic impact and valuation of civet farming to rural livelihoods and the
       role of women in civet farming.


Short project description
The present project aims to evaluate different improvements in husbandry practices. Two types
of cages will be tested; the traditional cage and an improved larger one. Three diet regimes will
also be tested; the traditional diet, a protein-rich diet as recommended by modern zoos and an
intermediate diet. The impact of these different treatments will be measured in terms of overall
civet health and in terms of musk production. The impact of trapping will be assessed by
measuring civet density in areas used by trappers, in comparison to undisturbed forests. A small
experiment will also be carried out to investigate possibilities for captive breeding.
The policy framework around civet farming is currently not promoting production.
Internationally, Ethiopia is under pressure to improve sustainability and animal welfare, before
considering trade. Domestically, there are some policy considerations that may need tested
against criteria of sustainability. For example, a license to keep civets doesn‟t normally specify
the number, and keeping females is always forbidden, so that breeding is not possible.
                                                                                               15
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Authorities have asked civet farmers to organize themselves in cooperatives and unions, but have
not given any assistance in doing so, whilst farmers are reluctant to do so by themselves. These
complex policy issues can only be addressed by integrated actions and negotiations; the present
project can re-dynamise the sector and give the necessary information as scientific backing to
any management intervention.

Collaborating organization and Contact person: Mekelle University, Wondmagegne Daniele
Whibesilassie, Jimma University, Shiferaw Mulugeta


Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Wondmagegne Daniele, Department of Animal,
Rangeland and Wildlife Sciences

Involved Research Team Members:
1. Wondmagegne Daniel, Department of Animal Rnageland and Wildlife Sciences,
   wondu97@yahoo.com
2. Dawit Woubishet, department of Natural Resource Economics and Management,
   hello3dayz@yahoo.com
3. Genet Fessha Mengestu, Department of Animal Rangeland and Wildlife Sciences,
   genet04@yahoo.com
4. Dr. Hans Bauer, MU-IUC Coordinator, bauerlion@yahoo.com
5. Fessiha Kassahun (DVM), College of Veterinary Medicine
Implementation/Steering Committee members:

Home base of the Project: Department of Animal, Rangeland and Wildlife Sciences

Amount of Fund: 399,600.00 Birr

Source of fund: Rural Capacity Building Program (RCBP), National Agricultural Research

Fund (NARF)

Project duration: Three years

Status: On-going



                                                                                             16
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




8. Local Seed Business Project

Project Registration Number: CDANR/WI/08/2009


Objectives:
The project aims to accelerate the transition from farmer group, community or cooperative based
seed production towards farmer groups in various types of organizations becoming commercial
in their approach. It further aims to support these organizations becoming autonomous in their
operations within the seed system. They operate within a community/local setting, i.e. where the
commercialization is at kebele or wereda levels and the seed quality is of an informal status or is
quality declared. However, by gradually commercializing seed beyond woreda or even district
levels they may enter the formal system (thus producing certified or other forms of quality
declared seed). In essence, the project aims to strengthen farmers‟ organization‟s independent
role within the local seed systems, and above all enforce their commercial orientation.


Short project description
The local seed Business (LSB) Project is one of the projects operating in four (Oromiya, Tigray,
Amhara and southern) regions of Ethiopia. The Tigray LSB project is coordinated by Mekelle
University home based at the Department of Crop and Horticultural Sciences. It aims to
document and strengthen the establishment and running of commercial seed businesses that
operate at local (Kebele, Wereda) levels. The project will operate at four innovation sites of
Axum, Mekhan, Atsbi and Habes. It includes three components.
1. Document and analyze ongoing projects in which several types of farmer groups with partner
organizations develop into local seed businesses
2. Provide seed technology, business and organizational advice in order to accelerate their
 development and contributing to their viability.
3. Study through MSc students of several Post Graduate Programs of the partner Higher
 Learning Institutions several aspects of the local seed businesses.

                                                                                                17
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



In close cooperation with its national partners, the Royal Netherlands Embassy has expressed its
commitment through several components to strengthen the seed sector in Ethiopia taking an
integrated approach. Therefore it is undertaking an Integrated Seed Sector Development Program
with four components:
          Supporting the commercial seed sector
          Promote and strengthen local seed businesses
The project focuses among the range of seed systems in Ethiopia on the following sub-sectors as
identified by the Concept Note on Integrated Seed Sector Development:
          A sub-sector that purchases seed from the public organizations (Ethiopian Seed
           Enterprise (ESE) and through BoARDs, or through intermediary (Public or
           commercial) organizations affiliated to these public entities;
          A sub-sector of farmers‟ seed systems that guarantee availability and some basic
           quality of seed for many smallholder farmers, and that conserve crop genetic
           resources;
          A sector that has difficulties in sourcing seeds to all corners of the country on its own
           and that is at times dependent on seed aid;
          Within the public sector of seed production, the Ethiopian Seed Enterprise (ESE),
           Oromia Seed Enterprise (OSE) and BoARDS contact farmers, farmer groups and
           cooperatives within the context of the so-called farmer or community based seed
           production schemes (F/CBSPS). These schemes constitute a significant share of the
           overall production in certified seed production of food crops in Ethiopia.

Collaborating organization and Contact person: Regional Bureau of Agriculture, Mulugeta
Balema, Process sub owner on Technology Dissemination and Extension, Relief Society of
Tigray (REST) Mebrahtu Head of the Agricultural Department, ISSD Coordinator, Mr.Joep
Project Investigator(s) Project Coordinator: Dr. Fetein Abay, Department of DCHS
Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address:Dr Ibrahim Fitwy Assistant
Coordinator, DCHS head,Mr. Gebreeziabher Miruts Seed expert employed by the project on
contact basis, Mr Kassa Agribusiness expert employed by the project on contract basis, Beyene
Tedla Cooperative Department , employed by the project on contact basis
                                                                                                 18
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural since (DCHS)

Amount of fund: 23,467 Euro

Source of fund: Netherlands Embassy through Wegeningen International

Project duration: September 2009-December 2012

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



9. Women and Food Science: Technology National Visibility

Project Registration Number: CDANR /NUFU/09/09


Objectives:
a. Long term objective
The long-term major objective of the project is to improve the quality and relevance of
university teaching in the filed of Food Science and post harvest technology at mekelle
University, through strengthening teaching and research. Development of curriculum for the
future Department of Food Science and Post-harvest Technology (FSPT) Department at Mekelle
University will have a Long-term effect on implementation of the agriculture-led
industrialization policy of the country.


b. Short term objective
The immediate objective of the project is to develop a curriculum and the establishment of food
science and Post- harvest technology department at Mekelle University; bridging the gap
between requirement and capacity of human capital at the Department of Food Science and Post
-harvest Technology of Mekelle University. Further objectives are the provision of equipment
and materials needed for laboratory and filed particular; conduct research in food science and
Post -harvest Technology, supporting the local knowledge and capacity and the adaptation of
technologies to address the problems of food insecurity; and upgrade the educational level of
diploma and certificate holding women in the agriculture sector.


Short Project description:
Household food security depends on the ability of the household to produce or procure enough
food to ensure and adequate diet for all its members at all times. The call for foods that are rich
in protein energy and micronutrients available in sufficient quantities and accessible to people in
need all the year round is still presenting a great challenge to the country. An increased focus on
food safety is also badly needed. The food science department will thus have an essential role in
improving the nutritional well being and hence the food security at household level through
                                                                                         20
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

modernizing the traditional household food technologies , the application of proven processing
technologies, preventing post harvest losses, development of new concepts and dissemination of
research results. The project considers three main aspects: In order to achieve the three main
aspect mentioned above the project consists of four major sub projects.
Sub project 1. Nutritional quality and production potential estimation of semi-wild food
sources, and their marketing (1 PhD, and 1MSc).


Sub project 2. Post- Harvesting Methods and Traditional Food Product Development
A) Post harvest processing, and marketing potentials (1PhD (Tanzania) and 2 MSc (
    Ethiopia), one full and one with research grant only)
The existing post harvest processing methods and their effects on the nutritional quality of
neglected food plants will be studied. The economic situation of the existing post harvest
situation will also be analyzed (economic analysis will be handled by one MSc student). Once
the critical points in the post harvest situation, where food spoilage and market imbalance have
been identified, appropriate low cost, low input processing methods to improve longevity
without losing the nutritional quality of the food items will be explored. Outputs will be
developed so as to enable women cooperatives to get involved and utilize the outputs. Food
safety aspects of the processing chain will be studied probably using the HACCP protocol
recommendations put forward where improvements will be deemed necessary.
B) Indigenous methods of food preparation and fermentation process (1PhD) and one
MSc)
Some of the traditional foods in Ethiopia have potential for wider marketing as health foods,
ethnic specialties in Ethiopian restaurants in the country and abroad, and /or as fair trade
products. Some essential nutrients may be lost during food processing and storage. On the other
hand, some traditional processing techniques are also known to reduce toxic elements of the
food. So, research detailing the appropriate storage and processing of foods to reduce
micronutrient losses at the household level is important. The identification d evaluation of
optimal methods to preserve the nutrient value and enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients
will be explored. Four unique pulse based foods in Tigray, namely shiro (a ground powder that
is made into stew and other preparations). Dekeko( a unique variety of pisum sativum cultivar
abyssinicum). Hilbet (a mix of beans and fenugreek with special properties enabling wiping)
                                                                                         21
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

and Siljo ( a fermented food prepared at fasting times eaten cold) will be studied by the PhD
student. In a similar manner one MSc study will look at the unique local fermented drink Duqua
(Local drink prepared by women) from malted barley and finger millet. Kollo an organic barley
snack produced and sold by women as a tasty and nutritious snack for travelers and it is also
used for guests at parties and receptions and in hotel bars. A collaboration synergy with the
NUFU Barley project will be made to study the nutritional quality of Kollo. Outputs will be
developed so as to enable women cooperatives to get involved and utilize the outputs.


C) Small scale dairy production, processing and marketing (1 PhD)
Dairy processing creates products from milk that usually have an extended shelf life in
comparison with milk. Various steps in the traditional technologies contribute to the safety, good
taste and extended shelf life. Several products are produced in the Tigray region but their
technologies are poorly documented and their microbiological safety is not known. Women also
use the sap from Ficus carica as a coagulating agent and it is possible that this could be used for
preparing hard cheese with a long shelf life. The cost-effectiveness of the traditional technology
for fermented milk and cheese will be examined, and the potential for transfer of technologies
used in other countries will be assessed. The use of „hurdle technology‟ for improving the safety
of the products will be a focus of the research. Marketing practices and distribution channels will
be identified and consumer pattern will also be characterized


Collaborating organization and contact person(s) (full address): Hawassa College of
Agriculture Dr.Kebede Abeagaz , Head of Food Science Department (0912201734),Women
Association of Tigray, Tirfu Kidanemariam Chair woman (0914301074),Saba Teka Head of the
Risedebri Teke Abera Senior Citizen and /or Enewani Baltina, representative of the women
cooperatives, (0914754378),Women Affairs Office, Mekelle City, Zemeda Haileselasie
(0914007156), Tigray Regional Bureau of Agriculture, regional and different level offices


Principal Investigator (s) Project Coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr. Fetien Abay, Department of DCHS



                                                                                                22
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Hailmariam Tekle Program Head
of Food Science Technology, Department of Dryland crop and Horticultural Sciences (DCHS)
(0914123254)e-mail: hailet-2004@yahoo.com, Aregawi Etay, Department of Dryland Crop and
Horticultural Sciences (DCHS),Afework Mulugeta, College of Natural and Computational
Sciences, email: afomz@yahoo.com, Dr. Girmay Tesfay, Dean College of DANR (0914707200)
e-mail: girmay-tesfay@yahoo.com
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences (DCHS)

Amount of fund: 5,175,500 million NOK (Norwegian Kroner)

Source of Fund: NUFU (Norwegian programme for Development, Research and Higher

Education)

Project Duration: 2009-2012 (Four Years)

Status: On-going

.




.


10. Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrologic Response of Geba
Catchments, Tekez Basin, Ethiopia                                     .

                                                                                         23
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/10/09


Objectives
General objective

       To develop a better understanding about the impact of climate change on the hydrologic
        response of the Geba catchment, Tekez basin Ethiopia.

Specific objectives

       To develop and evaluate climate scenario data of temperature and precipitation for Geba
        catchment from 2010 to 2110.
       To quantify the possible effects of climate change on the selected hydrological
        parameters (Surface runoff and ground water recharge) of the study area
       To suggest possible adaptation measures against this impact


Short project description:
The project will investigate the climatic change in the future of 100 (2010-2110) years and its
effect on the hydrologic responses (Surface runoff, Groundwater recharge and Water budget).
The study site will be Geba catchment which is found in Tekeze basin, Northern Ethiopia,
Tigray region. Therefore, the findings of this research are expected to address some of the
scientific information gaps in managing the land and water resources caused by climatic change.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s) (full address)
Collaborating organization: Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental
Protection (LaRMEP)
       Contact person(s) (Full address): Dr. Nigussie Haregewyne
        Department of LaRMEP, Phone No +25914707498

Principal Investigator(s) Project Co-ordinator(s) at MU: Samuale Tesfaye Baye: Department
of LaRMEP

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not Applicable

                                                                                            24
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Implementation /Steering Committee members: not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of LaRMEP

Amount of fund: 44,073.75 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget of 2002

Project duration: 7 months

Status:
.
.
.
.
.




.




11. Using nematodes as bioindicatos for soil health in different land use of
    Tigray
                                                                          25
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/11/09

Objectives
       To determine the abundance and density of nematodes in different land use systems of
        north Ethiopia and
       To assess the role of nematodes as bio-indicator of soil health


Short project description
Soil health is defined as “the capacity of a soil to function within an ecosystem, to sustain
biological productivity, maintain environmental quality and promote plant and animal health”
(Doran & Parkin, 1996). Soil dwelling nematodes are well suited to the role of bioindicatos for
soil health, being numerous and diverse with a wide range of trophic survival specialisms and
acting as integrators of soil properties (Neher, 2001). They are also easy to extract from soil
relative to other microorganisms (Yeates & Bongers, 1999). There is increasing pressure on
irrigated small scale farmers to optimize their fertilizer use to avoid loss of nutrients from the
root zone of their crops. There may be other benefits from balancing agricultural inputs with
crop needs, such as the reduction in plant-parasitic nematodes (Kimpinski & Sturz, 2003).
However, there are few ecological tools sensitive enough to detect changes in soil management.
Soil dwelling nematodes and the indices derived from analysis of their community structure may
be able to demonstrate that changes in soil management are either beneficial or deleterious to the
soil ecology. There is a need to ensure that nematode indices are related to physical and
chemical measurement of soil properties. This proposal investigates how soil dwelling
nematodes can be used to investigate differences in plant systems and the relationship between
soil nematodes and other soil physical and chemical properties in irrigated fields and other
major land uses of Enderta Dry Midlnad zones of Tigray.




Collaborating organization and contact person(s) : Department of Land Resource Mangement

and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University. Contact person Dr. Fassil Kebed, Associate

Professor of Soil Science, E-mail: fyimamu@gmail.com.
                                                                                               26
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU: Dr. Fassil Kebede, Department of

LaRMEP

Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address:Dr. Dereje Assefa, Assistant

Professor    of    Crop    pathology,Department     of    Dry    land   Crop   Science,   E-

mail:derejeaa@yahoo.com,Dr. Gajanada Khwairakpam, Associate professor of Environmental

Science, Department of Land Resource management and Environmental Protection, E-

mail:gajkh@yahoo,com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource management and Environmental

Protection

Amount of fund: 35,000 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget, MU

Project duration: One year

Status: On-going




.




12. Availability of Selected Soil Nutrients in Relation to Land Use and
Landscape Position in Central Tigray, Ethiopia

                                                                                          27
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/12/09

Objectives:
       Assess the effects of land use and landscape on the availability of soil nutrients
       Investigate status of soil deterioration and
       Determine the relationship among soil nutrients.


Short project description:
Soil fertility is a major factor in determining soil productivity. This fact necessitates the
characterization of the spatial and temporal variabilities of soil nutrients in relation to site
features. Under similar agroecological environments land use and cultural practices become the
dominat factos affecting soil properties and crop production (Nnaji et al.,2002). People through
their crop production practices influence course of the formation and the physico-chemical status
of the soil at any given time (Asadu, and Enete, 1997). Akamigbo (2001) observed that at any
given time land use is a resultant interplay of available land resources with cultural, social and
economic conditions of the past and present development. Ogunkunle and Egghaghara (1992)
reported significant different between land use types in soil pH, extractable P,K,Ca, Mg, total
nitrogen , organic matter and bulk density. It was also observed that soils formed over the same
parent material and under the same climate and relief had dissimilar bulk densities due to
cultivation (Akamigbo, 1999). Land use information is therefore critical for a wide Varity of
decision making purposes. Unsuitable land use often leads to sub-optimal use of land and
agricultural investments and this triggers processes such as degradation. Most soil studies on
land use are broad-based and on degradation (Mbagwu and Abeh, 1998; Akamigbo, 1999; Dixon
and Asadu, 2001). But understanding how much nutrient resources vary across landscapes has
become the focal point of much ecological research (Benning and Seastedt, 1995) and land use
being an integrator of several environmental attributes which influence nutrients export (Young
et al.,1996), it becomes necessary to investigate their sole and interactive effects on soil
nutrients.




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Department of Land Resource
Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, contact person Dr. Fassil
Kebede, Associate Professor of Soil Science, E-mail; fyimamu@gmail.com.


Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr. Fassil Kebede

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:
Dr. Kiros Meles, Assistant professor, Department of Animal and Rangeland Science,
Mekelle University, E-mail; Kirhadgu@gmail.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental
Protection

Amount of Fund: 25000 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget,

Project duration: One year

Status: On-going


.
.
.
.




.




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

13. Domestication process of indigenous fruit and fodder trees/shrubs in
   dryland areas- Its implication on food security; Souther Tigray, Northern
   Ethiopia.

Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/13/09

Objectives:

The overall objective of this study will be to assess of domestication process of indigenous fruit
and fooder trees/shrubs species and to analyses their potential in contribution to food security.


Short project description:

Although in dryland areas there is a frequent failure of agricultural crops and grasses due to low
rainfall trees and shrubs can support the livelihood of the people as an alternative. Foods from
wild or farmland trees/shrubs in drylands constitute an important component of food supply
which is essential for food security. Trees and shrubs contribute to food security directly in the
form of fruits, seeds and other edible parts or indirectly by maintaining and restoring soil
fertility and water resource increasing agricultural production (Sene, 2000). Indigenous
trees/shrubs are good source of fodder in dry land areas as grasses dried out in a short period of
time due to short rainy season (FOA, 1993). Despite the variety, importance and richness of
foods from indigenous trees and shrubs in Africa, progress has been very slow in designing and
implementing measures to increase the contribution of wild plants to food production and food
security (Sene, 2000). The domestication of important indigenous trees/shrubs (fruits and fodder
species) and integration in agro forestry system have several benefits beside their food and
fooder supply. However, studies on the domestication process (the species locally selected, the
level of domestication) on the indigenous fruit and fooder tree/shrub species is lacking in Tigray
region. Therefore, this study is aimed to present information on the potential of indigenous fruit
and fodder trees/shrubs in contributing to food security in dry land areas.


Collaborating organization and contact person(S): Not applicable

                                                                                                    30
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU: Etefa Guyassa, Department of
LaRMEP,

Inovlved    Resaerch    Team     Members      from    MU     and      address;   Etefa   Guyassa
Etefag@yahoo.com 0914043574 Department of LaRMEP ,Ato                    Kidane Gidey Kidane
75@yahoo.com 0914700599 Department of LaRMEP ,Ato Alemayehu Tadesse                  Department
of ARSW

Implementation /Steering Committee member: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource Mangement and Environmental
Protection (LaRMEP)

Amount of fund: 25,000.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Eight (8) months

Status: On-going




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



14. Relative Comparison of Soil Carbon Storage Variability in Land Use
Systems in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia                                    .


.Project Registration Number: CoDANR /RB/14/09


Objective:
Our objective is to compare primarily soil carbon storage in pasture, forest plantation and
cropped lands. Our hypothesis is that proper use of land stores more carbon in the soil there by
emitting less carbon into the atmosphere.


Short project description:
Examples of inappropriate land use systems are rampant in most agricultural systems worldwide
(Gregorich and Anderson, 1985). These include deforestation, overgrazing, continuous cropping
systems on marginal lands which significantly contribute to less carbon in soils and high
atmospheric CO2 (Eswaran et al., 1993). Semiarid areas like the Tigray region of Ethiopia are
noted for day time elevated temperatures, low and variable rainfall patterns, culminating in rapid
oxidation of soil carbon (SC) with low nutrient retention capabilities. The consequences are
poor soil structure that is prone to surface crusting, reduced infiltration rates, and wind and
water erosion, thus exacerbating the potential for soil degradation and low crop productivity
(Nyssen et al., 2000). Our objective is to compare primarily soil carbon storage in pasture, forest
plantation and cropped lands; our hypothesis is that proper use of land stores more carbon in the
soil thereby emitting less carbon into the atmosphere.

Collaborating organization and contact person (s): Not Applicable

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project

Charels Yamoah(PI), Department of LaRMEP




                                                                                                32
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:Charles Yamoah, Fassil Kebede,

Etefa Guyassa and Birikti Sibhatu, Department of Land Resource Mangement & Environmental

Protection,

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource Mangement & Environmental

Protection

Amount of Fund: 26,500.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget, MU

Project duration: 7 months

Status: On-going




                                                                                     33
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




15. Analysis of meteorological drought and its impact on major crop yield in
        Southern Tigray

Project Registration Number: CoDANR /RB/15/09

Objectives
General Objective:
Contribute to the enhancement of food security and improved livelihood through the planning
drought mitigate strategy and emergency support measures during drought event. This study
also aims to contribute a better basis for drought early warning system.
Specific Objectives:
        Develop drought indices based on precipitation data.
        Develop standard precipitation index (SPI) on different time scales which is better for
         determining drought onset, duration and intensity.
        Assess the extent to which the production system is rainfall-dependent
        Evaluate the performance of SPI for monitoring agricultural drought at watershed scale
         using major crops yield


Short Project description:
Meteorological drought is often described in terms of drought indices, which are simple to use
and simultaneously absorb great amount of precipitation data, temperature data, ground water
content data, etc. one of them will be used in analysis of meteorological drought in southern
Tigray: Standardized precipitation index (SPI). SPI can be calculated on different time scales,
which is better for determining drought onset, duration and intensity. The need for drought. This
could be achieved by developing different drought indices that are capable of characterizing
                                                                                              34
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

drought at different spatial and temporal scale. This the purpose of this to analyses
meteorological drought in southern Tigray with the use of standardized precipitation index (SPI)
and the research also will assess dependence of major crop yields in the region on hydro
metrological variables.




Collaborating organization and contact person (s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator (s) at MU: Yohannes Hagos, Department of

LARMEP

Involved Research Team Members from MU and Address: Yohannes Hagos E-mail: Yoha-

bag@yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Land Resources Mangement and Environmental

Protection

Amount of Fund: 46,126.20

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget, MU

Project duration: Seven months

Status: On-going




                                                                                             35
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




16. Woody species composition and socio-economic importance of dryland
   agro forestry and its impact on soil property: implication on biodiversity
   conservation and food security: a case of Kilte Awulalo, Tigray
                                                      .

Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/16/09

Objectives
The over all objective is to evaluate potential of dry land agro forestry practice for biodiversity
conservation, soil fertility improvement and its socio-economic importance
Specific objectives
       To assess the woody plant composition, structure and analysis role of agro forestry
        practices in biodiversity conservation:
       To investigate the socio-economic importance of agro forestry systems for livelihood
        development in dry land areas;
       To evaluate the effect of agro forestry practice on top soil properties;
       To assess famers‟ strategies for management of woody species diversity in agricultural
        landscapes


Short project description:

In Ethiopia, in Tigray, Northern part of the country, serious environmental degradation in the
form of deforestation and loss of biodiversity and soil fertility is one of the most prominent

                                                                                                36
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

features. Though agriculture is the basis of the economy of the country, productivity is
significantly limited because of the severe land degradation. In Ethiopia the promotion of agro
forestry practice is among the strategies proposed to reverse the natural resource degradation and
to increase productivity. There is increasing evidence that despite the overall diminish in the
extents of biodiversities of the natural forests; traditional planting or retaining trees on-farm land
by farmers in the form of agro forestry are getting increasing and have given refuges for a
considerable number of native woody species in Ethiopia (Motuma 2006; Biruk, 2006).
Diversified, compatible and desirable species of trees/woody perennials in agroforesty can result
in marked improvement in soil fertility by increasing soil organic matter content (Rao et al
1998), despite agroforesry practice in Tigray region studies on its potential in biodiversity
conservation, its impacts on soil fertility and its socio-economic importance is lacking in the
region. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assessment and characterize woody vegetation on
farmland and investigate their role for soil fertility and for socio-economic to fully understand
the potential of agro forestry practice in contributing to ecological maintenance and food
security.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not Applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator (s) at MU: Etefa Guyassa, Department of

LaRMEP

Involved      Research    Team      Members       from     MU      and    address:Etefa      Guyassa

       etefag@yahoo.com        0914043574, Dr. Kindeya G/hiwot,

       Kindeyag@yahoo.com 0344408627,Dr.Fasil Kebede. And

            fyimamu@gmail,com, Dr. Charles Yamoahyamoahcf @yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental

Protection (LaRMEP)

Amount of fund: 27,000.00 birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget, MU
                                                                                                   37
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project duration: Eight (8) months

Status: On-going




17. Productive Safety Net Program, Food sufficiency and graduation: It is
working in rural households of Tigray.

Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/17/09

Objectives
Within the framework of the PSNP, the overall objective of this project is to envisage the
determinants and impact of Productive Safety Net Program on food sufficiency (security). As
part and parcel of the general objective, this research project aims to achieve the following
specific objectives as well:
            To investigate the major determinants of graduation from Productive Safety Net
             program
            To examine the impact of Productive Safety Net Program beneficiaries and non-
             beneficiaries on food sufficiency (Security)
            To analyze the existing poverty profile of the beneficiaries of the Productive Safety
             Net Program, and
            To Suggest alternative improvement strategies of Productive Safety Net Program


Short project description:
Ethiopia is facing difficult challenges in addressing food insecurity and achieving more
sustainable livelihoods for its population. Recognizing this fact, the government initiated and
formulated a development strategy known as Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP). The
                                                                                               38
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

objectives of PSNO are to provide transfers to the food insecure population in chronically food
insecure woredas in a way that prevents asset depletion at household level and creates assets at
community level (Gilligan et al., 2008).
The Tigray region, in which the study is going to be conducted, is one of the areas to be covered
by this program, PSNP, with identified 911,451 rural community inhabitants in 31 woredas as
target beneficiaries who are chronically food insecure, and face annual food deficits (TFS`CO,
2005). In some areas, people are very vulnerable to the negative consequences of any variability
in rainfall or other negative events. During an emergency situation their ability to survive
depends on the mining of their already limited capital and assets including, physical assets (tools
and oxen), natural assets (land and water) and human capital (mainly labor). The mining of
assets occur when families take last resort actions such as taking children out of school, selling
productive assets and household goods in order to survive. These survival strategies result in
long-term negative impacts. Households must rebuild their capital and assets to become
productive again after the drought (shocks) has passed; consequently, the economic impacts of a
crop failure are long-term and result in lifelong reductions in earnings. With each shock,
families and communities become less able to cope and fall farther into food insecurity.
Albeit the PSNP is currently the largest operating social protection in sub-Saharan Africa
outside of South Africa outside of South Africa (Camilla et al., 2009), there have been just some
attempts to evaluate the PSNP, to our knowledge the only systematic attempts at evaluating the
PSNP was made by Gilligan et al. (2008) at early stages of the program having 18 months life
span especially in Tigray region, where the study is going to be taken place. As an input to
undertake the research, both primary and secondary data will be used. An approximate number
of 450 households will be selected in four woredas of the Tigray region for survey. The required
data will be extracted by making use of structured questionnaire. The envisaged output will be
analyzed econometric techniques (Heckman two-stage) to identify determinants of graduation
from PSNP and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) to compare PSNP beneficiaries and non-
beneficiaries.
The project would take an approximate time span of six and a half months. The output of the
research will benefit the stakeholders involved (households, policy makers, regional and
national governments in identifying the major determinants of graduation from PSNP, impact


                                                                                                39
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

assessment of PSNP on food security and suggesting some alternative improvement strategies
for the program. Beside these, we also intend to contribute to the literature.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): None

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinators) at MU: Tewodros Tadesse Department of

NREM

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Tweodros Taddesse, Department

of Natural Resources Economics and Mangement, Email: tewodros tadesse@ymu.edu.et, Yibrah

Hagos, Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Science, Email: niatna2002@yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department: of Natural Resources Economics and Management

(NREM)

Amount of fund: 29,760 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budge of MU

Project duration: December /20/2009 up to June 2010

Status: On-going




                                                                                       40
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




18. Irrigation Scheduling at Specific Growth Stage of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
       under variable Fertilizer Rates in different soil types in Enderta
       District, Tigray


Project Registration Number: CDANR /RB/18/09

Objective:
To schedule irrigation frequency under different fertilizer rates and variable soil condition


Short project description:
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetable crops grown in Ethiopia. The productivity
is affected by many cultural practices; among these fertilizer and water are main limiting factors.
Therefore, the present work is initiated to determine irrigation frequency of onion under variable
soil condition of different fertilizer rates. Treatments will be considered of fertilizer four nitrogen
levels (0, 46, 92, 138) Kg/ha, four levels of phosphorus (0, 46, 92, 138kg P205/ha) in different
two dominant soil type of the area. Treatment will be laid out in factorial combination of
Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Soil information, crop
data and climate condition will be used for simulation by BUDGET model. Agronomic and soil
data will be collected as information. At the end of the experiment the appropriate irrigation
interval and fertilizer rates will be determined for producers. Agronomic parameters of the crop
soil analysis and weather data will be taken for generating the information
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not Applicable


                                                                                                    41
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-oordinator(s) at MU: Negash Aregay Department of

Dryland crop and Horticultural Sciences

Involved Research Team Members from Mu and address: Negash Aregay, Mekelle

University, Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences

E-mail: negash20@yahoo.com, Mobil No. 0914-750014

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Dryland Crop and Horticultural Sciences (DCHS)

Amount of fund: 38,610.00 ETB

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget MU

Project duration: 6 months

Status: On-going




                                                                                         42
 Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




                COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
19. Restoration and sustainable management of frankincense forest in Ethiopia:
    a bio-economics analysis of controlled tapping and exclosures of Boswellia
    papyrifera.



 Project Registration Number: CBE /IFS/01/09

 Objectives

 The objectives this study is:
             To assess the effect of forest management in excolsures on frankincense quantity and
              quality, flowering , seeding and regeneration of B. paprifera trees (here after
              biological variables):
             To assess the effect of controlled tapping on biological variables;
             To generate data on the biological variables and develop frankincense yield models
              for the different management regimes;
             To assess and analyze the value added by the different agents in the supply chain of
              frankincense;




                                                                                               43
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

           To estimate and compare the monetary value of exclosures and open for free grazing
            Boswellia forests and identify the effects of the management systems on the value
            added by the different actors in the supply chain of frankincense;
           To estimate and compare the effects of controlled tapping on the monetary value of
            exclosures and open Boswellia papyrifera forest areas and identify the effects on the
            value added by the actors in the supply chain; and
           To assess the socioeconomic characteristics of rural households engaged in tapping
            frankincense.


Short Project description:
Boswellia papyrifera, a frankincense bearing tree, occurs mainly in the Sudanina and Sahelian
regions of Africa. It is a multipurpose species with cultural, Socioeconomic, ecological and
environmental importance. However, its population is declining due to over tapping for
frankincense, overgrazing and conversion of land for agriculture. This has become an ecological
concern and the species is specified as endangered by TRAFFIC (The Wildlife Trade Monitoring
Network) and needs conservation priority. Forest rehabilitation efforts through exclosures (land
use method in which degraded forests are excluded from free grazing and fuel wood collection)
are taking place in Northern-Ethiopia. However, overtapping is still practiced in exclosures.
Since few studies looked into the effect of management on frankincense yield and poverty
reduction this study aims at evaluating the bio-economic effects of exclosures and controlled
tapping on the sustainability of B. papyrifera in Ethiopia. Data collection will include
observations in experimental sample plots, a household survey and secondary data. The
economic implications of the biophysical effects observed in the experimental plots will be
analyzed using economic valuation methods and value chain analysis. The household survey data
will be analyzed using an econometric model to compare the income level of households
involved and not involved in frankincense tapping. Expected results (Research articles and
policy recommendations) will contribute to the design of sustainable use policies for the species
and improving rural livelihood in Ethiopia.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Prof.Dr.Ir.Erik Mathijs, Division of
Agricultural and Food Economics, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences,Katholieke
                                                                                              44
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan, 200E-bus 2411, 3001 Heverlee,Belgium,E-mail: erik.
mathijs@ees.kuleuven.be, Prof. Dr. Ir.Bart Muys,Divison of Forest, Nature and Landscape
Department    of Earth    and Environmental      Sciences   Katholieke   Universiteit   Leuven,
Celestijnenlann, 200E-bus 2411,3001 Heverlee, Belgium
E-mail: bart.muys@ees.kuleuven.be, International Foundaiton for Science, Karlavaegen 108,
       5th Floor, SE-115 26 Stockholm, Sweden Athanassia Fourla
Program administrator for Water Resources/Social Sciences, E-mail: athanassia. Fourla @ifs.sc,
    VLIR-MU-IUC, Socio-economics project
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Mesfin Tilahun, Department of Economics

Involved Research Team Mebembers from MU and address: Not Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Economics

Amount of Fund: USD 11,993

Source of Fund: International Foundation for Sciences

Project duration: three years. (August 2009-July2012)

Status:




                                                                                            45
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




20. Impact of resettlement on food security and environment: case of Tigray
Region


Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/02/09


Objectives
            Describe the food security conditions of households
            To identify the environmental implications of the resettlement program
            To assess the impact of the program of food security and livelihood changes.
            To examine the contributing socioeconomic factors
            To identify policy implications


Short project description:
Tigray Regional State is located in the northern part of the country. The highland part of the
region has been the home of the majority of its population. It is characterized by high population

                                                                                               46
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

pressure, small farm size, landlessness, drought, resource degradation, depletion of soil fertility
and traditional farming practices. Consequently, significant size of the population is suffering
from food insecurity and poverty due to low level of agricultural production and productivity.
The Regional Government has implemented resettlement program in the western part of the
region, which is said to be scarcely populated having the capacity of carrying more people. This
study takes samples from both locations so as to assess the livelihood implications
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principal investigator (s) Project co-coordinator(s) at Mu since the beginning of the
project:     Aleme   Araya,    Department     of   Economics,     E-mail:    betalem@yahoo.com
Phone: +251-914-706531
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:
1. G/her G/Yohannes, Department: Economics E-mail:geredst@yahoo.com
        Phone: +251-914-701636, Alemat Hagos, E-mail: alemathn2006@yahoo.com                      ,
Department of Economics, Jemal Ahmed, E-mail: Jemu122@yahoo.com                 Phone: +251-914-
708220, Department of Economics

Implementation/Steering Committee members: The college established a Jury to evaluate
research proposals submitted for funding. Part of the evaluation, the proposals have been
presented in the college Research Review Day. The same procedure is expected to be followed in
its finalization.

Home base of the Project: Department of Economics

Amount of fund: 45,139.00 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Seven months (Nov, 2009 to July 2010

Status:




                                                                                                47
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




21. Impact of organic farming technologies on household welfare in semi-arid
Ethiopia                                                          .

Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/03/09


Objectives
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of organic farming technologies
(Compost and conservation tillage) on crop yield and household welfare, specifically, we aim to:
       Assess the impact of organic farming technology ( organic fertilizer-compost and
        conservation tillage) and inorganic (chemical) fertilizer on crop yield and household
        welfare



                                                                                             48
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

       Compare the impact of compost, conservation tillage and chemical fertilizer on crop
        yield
       Investigate overall determinants of crop productivity in semi arid Tigray


Short project description:
There are several; studies on farming technology adoption and impact evaluation in Ethiopia
(Hagos et al, 2009; Kassie et al, 2008 Kassie, Yesuf and Kohlin, 2008; Gebreegziabher, 2008;
Pender and Gebremedhin, 2006; Hagos, 2003; Gebremedhin et al, 1999, Shiferaw and Holden,
1998 are a few among others). Most of these studies however focused on fertilizer use, improved
seeds, physical conservation structures, water management technologies. There is very little
evidence on the adoption and impact of organic farming technologies in Ethiopia, the two
exceptions are (Kassie et al, 2009 and Kassie, Zikhali and Pender, 2009).
Kassie et al (2009) investigate adoption determinants of organic farming practices (compost and
conservation agriculture) and found that both plot and household characteristics influence
adoption decision. They also found gender and location specifiy of a given technology adoption,
Kassie, Zikhali and Pender (2009) analyzed the impact of conservation tillage on productivity;
compared productivity impacts of conservation tillage with productity impacts of chemical
fertilizer. They revealed that      both conservation tillage and chemical fertilizer enhance
productivity though conservation tillage is superior in enhancing productivity. Thus, this study
would like to contribute to the scanty literature in the following regards; One, provide robust
empirical evidence of organic farming technology impact on crop yield and household welfare
from Semi Arid Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Two in contrasts to Kassie, Zikhali and Pender
(2009), we examine the impact of compost on crop yield and compare the yield from compost
with both conservation tillage and chemical fertilizer. Three, Kassie, Zikhali and Pender (2009)
implicitly assume homogenous impact of organic farming technology on crop yield, this is not
necessarily true given difference in biological characteristics of each crop, this study investigate
the effect of organic farming technologies on specific crops to get finer insight in order to
effectively inform policy making.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s) Not Applicable



                                                                                                 49
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU Since the beginning of the project:

Yesuf Mohammednur, Department of Economics , Bereket Zerai, Department of Marketing

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Economics

Amount of fund: 27,434 birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 months starting December 2009 to June 2010

Status:




22. Firm Dynamics and Gender Inequality: Evidence from MSEs in Tigray,
Northern Ethiopia                                                          .


Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/04/09


 Objectives
The overall objective of this study is to explore the MSE dynamics and the effect of MSE on
reducing gender inequality and enhancing women economic empowerment in Tigray,
Specifically, it attempts to:
       Describe the level of new MSE entering (births), surviving and exiting in Tigray
       Identify the factors behind new entry, survival and exit of MSE

                                                                                           50
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

      Examine the group formation process, risks involved in group formation, group types and
       MSE performance conditional on group formation process and group type
      Assess the effect of MSE on reducing gender inequality in terms of wage gap
      Investigate the role of MSE on improving women bargaining power in their household
       decision making
      Draw policy implications to foster MSE development in a way that alleviates poverty,
       unemployment, gender inequality and enhance women empowerment

Short Project description.

There are several works on the role of contribution of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) in
poverty alleviation, employment generation. etc both in Tigray and Ethiopia. For instance,
Woldehanna and Oskam (2002). Negash and Kenea (2003) and Wole (2004) to mention a few.
These studies largely focused in painting the static profile of MSE and their contribution.
Besides, the studies revealed only aggregate changes in the MSE that mask the dynamics of the
MSE. Though at a point in time new firms may start (Birth of MSE). Existing one may expand or
contract (Growth/Survival of MSE) and some of the firms may close (death of the MSE). This
can be clearly envisaged in dealing with the individual components of change. Little has been
known about the dynamics of MSE in Ethiopia in general and in Tigray in particular due to
paucity in the required data for such analysis. Thus, this paper explores the dynamics of MSE in
Tigray. Ethiopia. i.e., the birth survival and death of MSE and the determinants behind this
churning process. This helps in properly understanding dynamic role and properties of MSE that
can be used in crafting policy interventions that aim at employment creation and poverty
reduction. This paper aims to explore the level of new starts (births), survival and closures
(death) of MSE in Tigray; identify the factors behind birth, survival and death of MSE;
investigate the effect of MSE on gender equality and derive policy implications. To achieve this,
both primary and secondary data will be gathered. The primary data will be gathered using
modified baseline survey and /or tracer survey so as to sketch the dynamics of the MSE in
cooperation with the Tigray Regional Bureau of Trade. Industry and Transport-. MSE core
process. Methodologically, we use both descriptive statistical techniques as well as different


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

econometric models (survival model, wage earning and bargaining models) to serve our
purposes.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not Applicable

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU: Yesuf Mohamednur, Department of

Economics Seid Hassen, Department of Economics, Haftom Bayray ,Departmentof Economics

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not: Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Economics

Amount of fund: 40,920 birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 months starting December 2009to June2010

Status:




23.”Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: a perspective
on drought prone areas”                                              .

Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/05/09


Objectives
General objective:
             To study the livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change
Specific objectives:
             Identify the components of livelihoods adaptation employed

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

           Examine the livelihood impacts from climate change agents
           Determine the determinants of livelihoods stress of households
           Determine the adaptive capacities of households in the study areas


Short Project description:
Smallholdet mixed livestock-crop farming is a norm in Ethiopia where the sector, i.e.,
agriculture, remains at large contributing for 80% of labor and more than 50% of the country‟s
annual GDP. Put it in other words, the natural resource base, nonetheless fragile, is the lion‟s
tributary to the livelihood processes of household economies. However, the agriculture sector has
been hit hard by a combination of environmental and /or global stress factors, such as growing
demand for food and prices and climate change, leaving households daily livelihood basics at
stake. Since a few decades, though recently become a political and development hot spot, climate
change has been the one to blame for much of the livelihood risks in the developing countries.
Efforts dealing with this climate change induced livelihood risks are here and there at different
capacities, the most important of which is household livelihoods adaptation to the extant climate
variability and change. In fact, household‟s livelihoods risk management strategies are
heterogeneous to the effect of which policy support systems and other development interventions
need be customized to the same by promote responsive/flexible approaches caught be designed
and put in to action. The paper, therefore, aims at examining the stresses of climate variability
and change, subsequent household livelihood risk management [adaptation] strategies, adaptive
capacities of these households and related food security issues.
To help undertake analysis of this kind the Maximum Likelihood Ratio (Logit regression model)
estimator will be used to identify the most important livelihood determinant factors affecting
households and the commensurate adaptation strategies employed by the households.
Expected result: this study will ultimately identify actual climate change induced livelihood
threats: and adaptation strategies & the combination there of, and contribute to the knowledge
base for policy and other intervention necessities.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU : Solomon Petros (MSc), Department
of Cooperative Studies, Guesh Gebremeskel (MSc), Department of Cooperative Studies, Kifle
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Tesfamariam (MSc), Department of Cooperative Studies, Tekeste Berhanu(MSc), Gebrecherkos
G/giorgis (MSc) Department of Cooperative Studies,
Involved     Research     Team      Members      from    MU      and    address:Solomon       Petros
e-mail: hahulelu@yahoo.com,Guesh Gebremeskel e-mail : gueshmeskel@yahoo.com,
Kifle        Tesfamariam,e-mail :       kif2009@yahoo.com,Tekeste            Berhanu,        e-mail:
tekeste,brhanu@yahoo.com,Gebrecherkos G/giorgis e-mail: geb4002003@yahoo.com
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Cooperative Studies

Amount of fund: 25,980 birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




24. Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy options for Ethiopia



Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/06/09


Objectives
General Objective:
The broad objective of this study is to offer an evaluation of the Ethiopian Energy Sector‟s
performance in term of its contribution to sustainable development in the past 30 years.


Specific objectives:
Specifically, it aims at examining the sector‟s past and current initiatives and policy directions in
terms of socio-economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development; identifying

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

the gaps in the regulatory and institutional framework in which the sector has been functioning in
the past.


Short Project description:
One essential element of sustainable development is the provision of adequate and reliable
energy services at an affordable cost, in a secure and environmentally being manner and in
conformity with social and economic development needs. Energy is vital for eradicating poverty,
improving human welfare and raising living standards (UNDP, et al.2000). Energy policy
decisions can have a significant contribution in achieving sustainability in the economic, social
and environmental dimensions of the development process. However, most current patterns of
energy supply and use are considered unsustainable (UN, 2001).


Energy has long been top on the development agenda of many developing countries. Ethiopia is
not an exception, though its abundant resources are sufficient for production of energy in excess
of the country‟s own requirements of commercial energy. Among others, the Ethiopian Energy
sector is characterized by lack of access to modern energy services, unreliability of power
supply, low capacity utilization and high transmission and distribution losses. These defiantly
aren‟t the characteristics of sustainable energy sector.
At least, the fact that the sector is highly dependent on hydro power which is highly affected by
rain water reservoir; full dependency on imported petroleum products which are highly price
volatile and thus putting the economy at risk of supply disruptions, and significant environmental
impacts are clear reasons for concern. Moreover, as more than 94% of the population relies on
fuel wood as their main source of energy for cooking and heating, which has been associated
with massive deforestation and resultant land degradation. These cases are good reasons that call
for pause and review the sector‟s performance in the past and directions to the future; and thus
evaluate its contribution to sustainable development efforts in the country.


The general framework of analysis to be adopted in this study includes four stages. First,
Ethiopian energy policies and sector reforms which were in acted in the past 30 years will be
reviewed and the priority areas and directions will be extracted. Second, a framework of
sustainable energy system in developing countries context will be defined with respect to energy
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

indicators for sustainable development will be evaluated with respect to each indicator. Finally,
the progress of the sector will be analyzed descriptively based on the data collected from
international, continental and national databases and libraries. Besides the desktop research,
interview with officials and other stakeholders in the sector will be another data collection
method to be adopted. These data will be analyzed by using software packages of Energy System
Analysis models like Energy Plan; and excel sheet tools.


Taken together, the energy indicators for sustainable development give a clear picture of the
whole system, including inter-linkage and trade-offs among various dimensions of sustainable
development, as well as the longer-term implications of current decisions and behavior. Thus,
serve as essential tools for communicating energy issues related to sustainable development to
policy makers and to the public, and for promoting institutional dialogue. Such evaluation also
helps to identify the problems, challenges and opportunities in the sector; and identify policy
gaps, propose options and awareness.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s) :( Ministry of Mines and Energy;
Mr. Goyaye Mengistie, Head, Energy Development Follow-up and Expansion Development,
Tel. +251-116-463362, Fax +251-116-463362
P.O.Box 486, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCO)
Mr. Miheret Debebe,Tel.+251-111-560146,Fax+251-111-566403
P.O.Box 1233, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,(Ethiopian Electric Agency (EEA),Mr. Getahun
Moges,General Director of the Ethiopian Electric Agency,Tel.+251-155-507736/35
Fax.+251-155-507734, P.O.Box 22859, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, (Ethiopian Universal Access
Program, Shiferaw Telila, Director, Tel. +251-115-526987,Fax+251-155-507734
P.O.Box 41251., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,(Ethiopian Rural Electrification Office,Mrs. Azeb
Yoseph ,Director,Tel.+251-011-5158951,Fax.+251-011-543741
P.O.Box    1233, Addis Ababa,(UN-Agencies),African Union Commission,                 Mr.Philippe
NIYONGABO,Head of the Energy Division-Department of Infrastructure and Energy, Tel.(251-
11)466 5039,Fax ;( 251-11)466 5081, P.O.Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Eastern Africa Power
Pool,Mr. Jasper Oduor, Executive Secretary,Tel:+251-111 6183694,P.O.Box 100644, Addis
Ababa
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Samson Yemane, Department of Management

Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementations/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Management

Amount of fund: Birr 15,043

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 6 months

Status:




25. Governance of Association of Micro and Small Enterprises (AMSEs):
With specific reference to Mekelle and Wukro, Tigray, Ethiopia
                                                     ,

Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/07/09

Objectives
The main (general) objective of this study is to identify and document the strength and weakness
of governance system of the Associations of Micro and Small Enterprises (AMSEs).
The specific objectives include:
             To assess the strength and weakness in the governance structure of the Associations
              of Micro and Small Enterprises
             Degree of accountability and transparency in their management,



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

           Existence of relevant rules and regulations, their appropriateness as well as their
            implementation


           To examine whether they have effective and efficient internal control system that
            enhances provision of reliable financial and non financial reports.
           To suggest possible solutions for any weaknesses identified by the findings of this
            study.


Short project description:
In spite of their importance to economic growth and poverty alleviation, the micro and small
enterprises in general and those in less developed countries face different constraints and
problems during operation. Their problems include lack of access to financial resources, market,
infrastructure, and lack of managerial capacity, lack of proper governance, discriminatory macro
economic environment, etc.
Corporate governance describes how companies ought to be run, directed and controlled. It is
about supervision and holding to account those who direct and control the management. For
SMEs, it concerns the respective role of the shareholders as owners and the managers (elected
committee members in our case). It is about setting rules and procedures as to how the company
(the Association of Micro and Small Enterprises in the case of this study) is run. It is also about
putting check and balance in place to prevent abuses of authority and responsibilities and ensure
the integrity of financial results.
The paper then will assess the status of governance structure (strength and weakness) of the
Associations of Micro and small enterprises operating in two cities (Mekelle and Wukro) of the
National regional State of Tigray, Ethiopia.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the

project: Aregawi G.michael, Department of Accounting and Finance, College: business and

Economics

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Araya Hagos, Asst lecturer, Tel:

725657, Department of Accounting and Finance, Yirgalem G.selassie (Asst Lecturer), Tel:

748538, Department of Accounting and Finance

Implementation /Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Accounting and Finance

Amount of fund: Birr 29,139.00

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 8 (Eight) Months

Status:




26. Structure, conduct and performance of grain trading in Tigray and its
       impact on demand for commodity exchange: the case Maychew,
       Mekelle and Himora                                           .


Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/08/09


Objectives
General objective:
This research has a one general objective of assessing the viability of commodity exchange in
Ethiopia. Moreover it also has the following specific objectives.

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Specific objective
      To measure the transaction cost involved in normal way of making transaction
      To measure the transaction cost involved in using commodity exchange
      To asses the willingness to pay of traders for using commodity exchange
      To study structure, conduct and performance of grain traders and to link it to their
       demand for commodity exchange
      To recommend ways to make commodity exchange more viable based on critical
       thinking research result and experience of other countries.


Short project description
Commodity exchange is taken to be an integrated solution to market failures in developing
economy. And this is clearly understood in rural development strategy of Ethiopia. However
studies show that significant majority of initiatives to start commodity exchange did end up in
failure. Given these facts, the currently initiated commodity exchange of Ethiopia, if it is going
to serve as recipe of success, the gaps that exist in currently way of trading and the possible gaps
that can be covered by commodity exchange of Ethiopia, if it is going to serve as recipe of
success, the gaps that exist in current way of trading and the possible gaps that can be covered by
commodity exchange need to be identified. So this research will try to identify the structure,
conduct and performance of commodity exchange from new institutional economics prospective.
And these will be linked to the level of demand to commodity exchange. Through this process
the transaction cost advantage of different players and the impact of the current structure,
conduct and performance on demand for commodity exchange will be clearly understood.
Primary data from 150 traders located in Maychew, Mekelle and Himora, and secondary data
will be collected from Ethiopia Commodity exchange.

Collaborating organizations and contact person(s): Not Applicable

Principal researcher(s) project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Taddese Mezgebo, Department of Economics




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved research team members from MU and address: Fikadu Dereje, Department of

Economics

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base project: Department of Economics

Amount of fund: 29,145.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 months

Status:




27. Assessment of tourism demand, contribution and its constraints
       in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.

Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/09/09

Objectives
The overall objective of this paper is to explore the constraints and contribution of tourism in
Tigray Region. Specifically

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

       It assess tourism demand in Tigray
       It assesses the trends of contribution of tourism sector to the regional development in
        terms of economic, social, cultural and religion conditions
       It attempts to explore potential constraints which affect the development of tourism in
        the region
       It examine the trend, constraints and contribution of private sector to the regional
        tourism industry
       It tries to explore policy recommendation areas that may assist in curving some
        constraints

Short project description
There is no doubt that tourism, frequently refereed to as „the world‟s largest industry‟. Is big
business. By the end of the 20th century. International tourism alone was annually generating
well over U$$450 billion. Whilst total global tourism activity (international and domestic) has
been estimated to be worth some U$$3.5 trillion. Moreover. It is anticipated that these figures
will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Tourism has long been recognized as a growth
industry and current expectations of an annual increase of about 4% in international tourist
arrivals and spending suggests that. By 2020, international tourism will be generating up to U$$2
trillion a year (Sharpley and Telfer 2002).


Ethiopia is located in the Northeast of Africa. With population 73.918.505. Central Statistics
Authority (2007). The regional state of Tigray is one among the ten regions in Ethiopia. Located
in the northern part of the nation. The region is endowed for different tourist sites like
archaeological sites. Unique cultural heritages. Rock hewn and monastery churches. Historical
mosques. Etc, despite these all endowments the regions share from the industry has been low. To
date, there is no comprehensive study that assesses tourism demand. Contribution and
constraints. Thus this research aims at analyzing tourism demand. Its contribution to the
economy and the factors that constrain development of the sector in Tigray. Northern Ethiopia.
Methodologically. We propose to use both descriptive statistics and appropriate demand
modeling technique


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Collaborating organization and contact person(s):\Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Gebreegziabher G/yohannes, Department of Economics, Zaid Negash (PhD)

Department of Economics, Yesuf Mohammednur Department of Economics

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Economics

Amount of fund: 30,514 birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 months starting December 2009-June 2010

Status:




28. Financial Performance analysis of multipurpose cooperative societies in
South Eastern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/10/09

Objectives

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

General Objective:
To evaluate the financial performance of multipurpose cooperative societies in south eastern
zone specific objectives:
       To analyze the liquidity position of the Multipurpose cooperative societies
       To analyze the solvency position of the Multipurpose cooperative societies
       To study the profitability status of the Multipurpose cooperative societies
       To assess the factors influencing the financial performance of the multipurpose
        cooperative societies
       To Understand the overall financial position
       To suggest measures for improving the financial performance of multipurpose
        cooperatives. Short project description:


Short summary of the project
Cooperatives are recognized as strong vehicles and institutions of choice to bring economic
opportunities that can be used to effectively foster economic and social development. But their
potential is not fully exploited. Many Cooperatives are facing problems in managing and
utilizing their finance. The major obstacles to the development of cooperatives include:
Inadequate share capital, poor services to individual members and the weaknesses of the business
activities, market competition and lack of competent, skilled staff and leaders to efficiently
tackle these problems.
Reducing the challenges they they are facing and utilizing their potentials can help to accelerate
the cooperative sector and economic development of the country as a whole. Therefore, it is
important to examine the financial performance of the societies and come up with solutions for
problems existing. Because finance is the blood of any organization and the success or failure in
financial performance will have a significant effect to the success or failure of the societies. The
major concern of this study is to empirically analyze and evaluate the financial performance of
multipurpose cooperatives found in south eastern Zone of Tigray Region of Ethiopia, with the
objective to identify the profitability, liquidity, solvency positions, to identify factors affecting
the financial performance, assessing the financial structure and evaluate the overall financial
position of the societies and forward possible recommendations for the findings.

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The researcher will employ a multi stage cluster sampling, to select the sample out of the target
group 66 multipurpose cooperative societies found in the study area. Using probability
proportion to size 20% of each cluster group will be incorporated under the sample. Personal
interview will be conducted with two members of management committee and one accountant of
each sample unit cooperative societies. Secondary data will be collected from internal documents
of the cooperative societies such us accounting records, financial statements and reports etc and
external sources such as magazines, research papers, articles, books etc.


The researcher will use Regression analysis, Descriptive statistics such as mean, variance,
standard deviation and ratio analysis such as current ratio, debt equity ratio for analyzing the
data. The researcher will present and interpret them using tables, charts, graphs etc. As a result
after this study is conducted, the outputs will be contributing in filling the knowledge gap on the
study area, publicize as a professional input to public debate, feedback to the board of directors
of the multipurpose cooperatives, serving as a reference for students to link theoretical
knowledge with practical status and communicate with policy makers for further developments.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Solomon Petros (MSc) ,Department of Cooperative Studies , Tekeste Berhanu (MSc),

Department of Cooperative Studies, Aradom Gebrekidan(MSc), Department of Economics




Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:Haileslasie Tadele ,e-mail:

hailsht@yahoo.com,Aradom Gebrekidan e-mail: gtstm16@yahoo.com,Tekeste Berhanu

       e-mail: tekeste berhanu@yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Cooperative studies


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Amount of fund: 275,222.00 birr

Source of Fund: RPO

Project duration: One Year

Status:




29. Evaluating the technical efficiency of microfinance institutions. The
application of Data Envelopment Analysis.


Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/11/09


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Objectives
The main objective of this project is to analyze the technical efficiency of the Ethiopian
Microfinance Institutions.
Specific objectives
       To determine the level of financial efficiency of each Microfinance Institution
       To determine the level of operational efficiency of each Microfinance Institution
       To show areas of improvement in the efficiency of these Microfinance Institutions Short
        project description:
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Hailemichael Tesfay, Department of Accounting and finance, Guesh Gebremeskel, Department

of Cooperative studies

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Hailemichael Tesfay Email:

hailemichaelt2002@yahoo.com, Tel #; 0911-408223, Guesh Gebremeskel

E-mail: gueshmeskel@yahoo.com, Tel #:0914-722999

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Cooperative studies

Amount of fund: Birr 23,021.00

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget of MU

Project duration: Six month

Status:

30. Vegetable channel choice and its impact on rural vegetable producers’
income: Case study of Enderta and Hintalo-Wajirat Wereda, Tigray, Ethiopia
                                             .


Project Registration Number: CBE /RB/12/09
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



Objectives
General Objective:

The purpose of this research is to investigate the factors that determine the distribution channel
selection for vegetables and its impact on rural vegetable producer‟s income.


Specific objectives:

            To assess the nature and extent of transaction cost faced by vegetable producers.
            To identify how transaction costs affect producers‟ choice of a distribution channel.
            To identify other factors (credit, input, technology, etc) that affect producers‟
             selection of a marketing channel.
            To assess how these various channels of distribution affect the producers‟ income
             from vegetables.
            To identify what institutional arrangements are suited to improve performance of
             vegetable distribution channel and there by maximize rural vegetable producers
             „income


Short project description

The market mechanism is regarded as an engine to bring efficiency and to induce economic
growth and development. However, using market mechanisms and performing exchange is not
so easy because it requires costs (Williamson, 1990: Hobbs, 1996). Such costs of using markets
affect the participation of economic agents in the market (Gebremedhin, 2001). It also
determines their decision to select a channel in the supply chain (Gong, et al, 2007). The costs of
using markets are termed as transaction costs and they affect the gains from trade and existence
of firms or producers participation in the market (Coase, 1937). These transaction costs comprise
costs for information in search of market, negotiation and monitoring of the contracts (Hobbs,
1996). Such costs of using markets affect the participation of economic agents in the market
(Gebremedhin, 2001). It also determines their decision to select a channel in the supply chain
(Gong.et al.2007). The costs of using markets are termed as transaction costs and they affect the
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

gains from trade and existence of firms or producers participation in the market (Coase, 1937).
These transaction costs comprise costs for information in search of market, negotiation and
monitoring of the contracts (Hobbs.1996).


To minimize such transaction costs, institutions play an important role because they facilitate and
govern the relationship between traders or producers in the market mechanism. Such institutions
facilitate the participation of traders in the market and help to enforce contractual relationships
among those traders or (Williamson, 1991; North 1990). The absence of such institutions results
in thin markets or failure in markets (Maltsoglou and Tanyeri-Abur, 2005). Absence of
institutions constrains the participation of agricultural producers to benefit from market
mechanisms and in turn adversely affected the rural poverty reduction effort (Gebremedhin,
2001).


Farmers in developing or underdeveloped nations are not only characterized by high transaction
costs, but they are also constrained by lack of finance, lack of access to and lack of finance to
purchase inputs, lack of skills and technology. These constraints affected the quantity and quality
of goods produced. Institutions that are expected to fill these gaps are weak or missing. Various
forms vertical integration are shown filling these gap in developing nations and help farmers link
to markets and get credit and required inputs Similarly, rural markets in remote areas of Ethiopia
are under performing as a result of high transaction costs and lacking or ill-functioning
institutions (Gebremedhin,2007; Staal et al.,1999). As a result, it is difficult to use marketing as a
strategy to improve livelihoods. New practice in the form of new institutional arrangements such
as vertical coordination in the form of contract farming are implanted world wide and
increasingly also in developing countries. The latter occurs in the presence of a strong demand
pull from export markets.


Such institutions are benefiting producers in accessing markets by reducing transaction costs,
creating access to market, credit and inputs and improving their income (Lin and Chen, 2008;
Gulati et al, 2007. Maertens et al.2007; Miyata et al., 2007 ; Danoelou et al, 2005; Macdonald
and Korb, Korb,2003; Martinez,2002; Kherallah and Kirsten,2001). However, such practices in
sub-Saharan Africa have not brought any notable change in the lives of the rural dwellers
                                                                                      69
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

(Halldorson, 2007‟ Humphery, 2005; Barrientos et al., 2004, Kherallah and Kirsten, 2001;
Gebremedhin, 2001).


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not Applicable

Principal Investigator (s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU Since the beginning of the project:

Abebe Ejigu, , Bihon Kassa, Gebremedhin Yihdego, Department of Management,

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mangement

Amount of fund: Birr 24,487.5

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 9 months

Status:




                COLLEGE OF LAW AND GOVERNANCE
31. The voice of the bameless in the Penitentiaries Case study on the situation
of children living in Tigray prison



Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /01/2009

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Objectives:
         To assess the situations of the children in prison
         To show the problems in relation to their basic rights
         To show possible remedies for the problems
         To raise the awareness of the public


Short project description:
The research focus is innocent children residing in Tigray prison. They have sent to prison not
because of their criminal behavior but because the mother who quars the child is found to be
criminal (accused). But these children‟s are facing many problems including basic needs like
food, water, and shelter.
The research will visit most prison in Tigray access the situations of the children in these prisons.
Finally, the research out put (finding) will be distributed to the central organs including prison
administration, CRC commuttee and the legislative organs.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator (s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Eyob Awash, Department of Law

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Mehreteab G/meskel

Tel-0911804234

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Law

Amount of fund: 17,770

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget, MU

Project duration:

Status:



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




32. The impact of reallocation of land on the society in South-Eastern zone of
Tigray with particular emphasisi on womens right.

Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /02/2009

Objectives:

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

             To identify the popular attitude towards the low and its application.
             To investigate on the problems, of any on the application of the raw
             To examine the effect of the new on society specially on women.
             To suggest workable recommended to problems identified if any


Short project description:
The project, for different reasons confines itself on s single zone in Tigray. The air being to
know the attitude of the people concerned on the newly adopted low and its effect, primary data
from concerned or gave; and residents affected by the law will be basically used . The content of
the law will be conga red and contrasted at with piror laws of the region and other pertinent
Federal laws and the justifications for its adoption examined. In addition, the compatibility of the
reasons given for its adoption will be tested against the interest of to public. Based on the
preliminary assessment we, so far has under takes, there are complaints against the effect
/application of the law. Thus, attempt will be made to figure out whose the problem, if really
exists, lies, and to recommend possible way outs.
Collaborating organization and contact person (s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinate(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Mulu Beyene, Department of Law

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Zelelem Tsegaw

MU; Dept of Law Tel: (251); 912056582

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Law

Amount of fund: 15,940 ETB.

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget, MU

Project duration:

Status:


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




33. The government market regulating power in Tigray; with special
emphasis to the Mesebo Cement factory and transport service the law and the
practice.



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /03/2009


Objectives:
          To analyze the economic justification of governmental regulating power
          To indicate legal ground of governmental regulating power
          To show the practical deviation from the law and justification
Short Project description:
The project basically aims at analyzing the legal governmental interference in regulating market.
It also analyzed the justifications which rationalized to the governmental interference in
regulating market. In light with the legal grounds and economic justifications of the
governmental regulating power practical disparities will be analyzed by giving special emphasis
to the cases of mesebo and transportation authority.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Mebrahtom Fitisum, Department of Law

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Mebrahtom Fitiwi, Shewaye

Girmay , Awet Hylozgi

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Law

Amount of fund: 16,000.00 Br

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration:
Status:


34. The role of international humanitarian organization and the condition of
Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia. The case of
Shimelba.
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /04/2009

Objectives:
To investigate the major challenges Eritrean Refugees faced in shimelba in relation to the efforts
done by international humanitarian organization

Short project description:
The research indicates that there are a lot of problems that Eritrean refugees in shimelba faced
because of multifaceted factors. Even though different international humanitarian Organization
are struggling to ease the problems, still they are becoming very difficult to be alleviated.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the Project:

Getachew Zeru, Department of civics & Ethics

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Getachew zeru , Yemane Zeray,

Zelalem Tesfaye, Mulu Hadush, Assefa Leake, Department of Civics and Ethics

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Civics & Ethics

Amount of fund: 17,000.00 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget (RPO)

Project duration: One year

Status:




35. Towards enhancing the role of small and micro enterprises in Tigray: The
legal challenges and opportunities.

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /05/2009


Objectives:
The research aims at in the main
            Analyzing the exiting legal system in order to see what it lacks
            Assessing the implementation of the incentive package put in place so far
            Finding out (by way of comparative analyses) additional incentives to boost SMES
             efforts.


Short project description:
The research will focus on the issues of legal and practical relevance in Tigray state. Focus will
be given to the small and Macro Enterprises that are operational in mekelle city.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Tecle Hagos B.Department of Law

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Tecle Hagos Bahta ,Hadush Tesfa

,Fassil Alemayehu

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Law

Amount of Fund: Birr 23,500

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 5 months

Status



36. Criminal Liability of Medical malpractices case study in Tigray.

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /06/2009


Objectives:
   To consult the existing low related to Mol practice

   To find out the occurrences of Medical Molpractice

   To show the kind &extent of measures taken if any

   To find out the difficulties in Making the practical low

   To demonstrate some relevant experience

Short project description:

The study is aimed at finding out the occurrence of Medical mol practices in Tigray. Furthermore

the study deals with the type of measure so fare undertaken in such conducts. The other focal

point of the study is to dig out the difficulties faced during the investigation and trial process.

Finally relevant experiences are also indispensable part of the research from some selected

criminal systems.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Ato Shewaye Girmay Department of Low

Involved Research Team Members from Mu and address: Sheaye Grimay- mobile

0914104736, e-mail shewagkm@yahoo.com, Fana Hagos , Mulu Beyen

Implementation/Steering Committee member: Not applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Low

Amount of fund: 23,000

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

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Project duration: One year

Status:




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37. The role of academicians in enhancing rule of law: Analysis on
Proclamation No.165/2000 E.C of the Tigray proclamation

Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /07/2009
Objectives:
          Deal with the availability & affordability of advocates in Tigray
          Deal with the availability of institutions giving legal aid for free
          Deal with the impact of allowing law instructors to have advocacy license on the rule
           of law
Short Project description:
The Project starts by analyzing the practical impediments of legal representation in Tigray. This
will be made by collecting facts about the number of attorney the practice of probone service, the
availability of free legal aid institutions. Then, if there is found to be problems on promoting the
right to legal representation, we will find alternative solutions for the problem. As a major task
we will see if involvement of law instructors and other persons working in government office
will better serve the demands of the legal system or not.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not Applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Mehreteab G/meskele, Department of Law.
Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Awet Hailezgi, Department of
Law, Tel: 0914707192, Yishak Kassa, Department of Law, Tel: 0910066472
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable
Home base of the Project: Department of Law

Amount of fund: 22,392.30

Source of Fund: RPO

Project duration: 12 months

Status:


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

38. Decisive issues in voters’ behaviors in Ethiopia and the contribution of
political parties for voters to make informed decisions.

Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /08/2009


Objectives:
To investigate the voters‟ Behaviors of Ethiopia and analyses its implications for
democratization processes in our country. The role of political parties in the process is also its
objective.


Short project description:
The Project focus on the role of political parties in democratic electron and its implications for
varies behavior. Electron is one of the integral parts of democracy. This need to be developed
through the participation of citizens. This project analyzes and investigate the best way insuring
citizens participation in election and other processes of the state. The researches focus university
students as a unit of analysis.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Emnet Tadesse Department of Civic and ethics
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:
Emnet Tadesse, Tewodros Solomon, and Angesom Tekelle. All of them are members of
Department of Civic and Ethics,
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable
Home base of the Project: Department of Civic and Ethics
Amount of fund: 19,000
Source of Fund: Recurrent
Project duration: One year
Status:



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39. Theory and Practice of BPR in MU the case of College of Law and
Governance.

Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /09/2009
Objectives:
To evaluate the design and Implementation of the BPR program in MU with the purpose of the
Program in terms of achieving its stated objectives and identify existing challenges and strengths
that have been observed in the course of implementing the program.


Short project description:
The study is designed to, investigate whither the theoretical principles and concepts of the BPR
models are properly adopted to fit the contexts of higher education in general and MU in
particular. It also aimed at exploring the extent to which the sprits and contents of the BPR
program being implemented in MU are properly understood and translated in to action by the
concerned stockholders


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Zelalem Getachew Department of Civics & Ethics studies

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:

Solomon G/yohannes, Messelle Abera, Department of Civics and Ethical Studies.

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Civics and Ethical Studies

Amount of fund: 17,000

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

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Project duration: one year

Status:

40. The Efficacy Decentralization in Enderta wereda in the Context of
institutionalization of Good Governance and Ethical principles Issues,
Achievements, Impediments and opportunities Governance.

Project Registration Number: CoLG/RB /10/2009


Objectives:
To critically and analytically examine the variability and efficacy of decentralization in the
context of Good Governance & institutionalization of Ethical principles in Enderta wereda.
Short project description:
There is a prevalence of the week causal relationship between decentralization on the one hand
and good governance and decentralization and good governance is uni-directional rather than
practical institutionalization in bi-directional manner. I.e. they are not mutually correlated and
synchronized. In light of this, the newly installed decentralization at wereda level is likely to
achieve its present policy objective and programs in development and democracy mainly due to
chronic lack of institutionalization of fundamental principles of good governance and the basic
codes of conduct (Ethics).

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principla Investigato(s) project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Mesfin Seyoum, Department of Civics & Ethics
Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Mesfin Seyoum, Solomon
Abreha, Abreha Desta
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable
Home base of the Project: Department of Civic and Ethics
Amount of Fund: 17,000.00
Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget
Project duration: One year
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Status:




                        COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCEINCES
41. The Contribution of Health Services Extension Program in Promoting
Comprehensive Primary Health Care in Tigray, Ethiopia: The Case of
Maternal Health

Project Registration Number: CHS/UO-CA/01/2009

Objectives:
The aim of this study is to assess the contribution of the Heath Service Extension Program in
promoting comprehensive primary health care in Tigray region, Ethiopia. The specific objectives
are:
          To assess the extent to which the health ser vice extension program is promoting access
           to comprehensive primary heath care services.
          To assess the extent to which the health service extension program is involving
           community members in its health service and poverty reduction programs.
          To assess the extent to which the health service extension program is ollaborating with
           other sectors, particularly in relation to its poverty reduction programs.


Short Project Description:
Back ground information: Ethiopia has extremely poor health status relative to other low-
income countries, even with in sub- Saharan Africa (1). The Ethiopian Demographic Heath
Survey (EDHS) 2005 and the sixth AIDS in Ethiopia report revealed low national contraceptive
utilization (15%), high total fertility rate (5.4), high maternal mortality (673/100000), high infant
mortality rate (77/1000), law institutional delivery (6%), low ante natal care coverage (28%), and
1.32 million people were living with HIV/AIDS(2,3). Tigray region is one of the nine regions in
Ethiopia. The health status of Tigray region is not much different from the national and other

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

regions‟ heath status in the country. The EDHS 2005 clearly spelled out the poor health status of
the region. This is expressed in high infant mortality rate (67/1000), low institutional delivery
(8.6%) , high point estimate HIV prevalence (2.7%) , low family planning utilization (16.5%)
and high point estimate HIV prevalence (2.7%), low family planning utilization (16.5%) and
high unmet need for family planning (34%), high prevalence of under-five malnutrition
(Stunting=41%, Wasting=11.6%, Underweight=41.9%)(2). The health sector development
program III published in 2004 indicated the overall potential health service coverage for Ethiopia
was estimated at 64.02%. In this document Potential Health Service Coverage was calculated by
multiplying the total number of PHC facilities i.e. health center (HC), health station (HS-these
days health stations are upgraded to health centers) and health post (HP) by the respective
standard number of population to be served i.e. 25,000 for HC, 10,000 for HS and 5000 for HP,
and dividing the sum of these numbers by the total population.) However health services
converge in terms of health workers remains poor. Utilization of formal health serves has
traditionally been, and remains, and was low at about 36% per capital per year in 2004(1). The
poor health status of the country is further aggravated by the high population growth which was
2.75% in 2005(5). Reports for Tigray region in 2006 showed potential health service coverage
was 83% and 77% of utilization of formal health services(4). Since 1998, the Ethiopian
Government has formulated a series of Health sector Development programs (HSDPs): HSDPI
(1998-2001/2), HSDP II(2002/3-2004/5) and HSDP III (2005/6-2009/10) in line with the
Ethiopian plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty(PASDEP) and to
achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGS). (5). The Health Sector
Development Program I (HSDP I) which was launched in 1998 introduced a four-tier system for
health service delivery, characterized by a primary health care unit (PHCU), comprising one
health service delivery, characterized by a primary health care unit (PHCU), Comprising one
health center and five satellite health posts, and then the district hospital, zonal hospital and
specialized hospital. A PHC-unit has been planned to serve 25,000 people, while a district and a
zonal hospital are each expected to serve 250,000 and 1,000,000 people, respectively (1). In the
past, public health financing gave priority to the curative sector. This led to a considerable
increase in the number of health facilities, but with limited rates of utilization, partly because of
lack of physical access. Evaluation of the HSDP I also revealed constraints in the availability of
trained, high-level health professionals. Therefore, in response to such problems in relation to the
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

country‟s helath services the government introduced the “Accelerated Expansion of primary
Helath Care coverage” and the Health Service Extension Program (HSEP). The new health
policy focuses mainly on providing quality promotive, preventive and selected curative health
care services in an accessible and equitable manner to reach all segments of the population, with
special attention to mothers and children. The policy has a particular emphasis on establishing an
effective and responsive health delivery system for those who live in rural areas (s). In 20003 he
Heath Sector has also introduced an innovative Health service Extension Programme (HSEP).
HSEP was developed as one of the components of HSDP-II (6). It is introduced in recognition of
the failure of essential services to reach the people at the grass roots level. As such, it constitutes
all the key activities necessary for rapid development, particularly primary heath care. It is an
innovative community based health care delivery care delivery system aimed at creating healthy
environment as well as healthful living (7).The Health Service Extension Program (HSEP) is a
defined package of basic and essential promotive, preventive and selected high impact curative
health services targeting households. Based on the concept and principles of PHC, it is designed
to improve the health status of families, with their full participation, using local technologies and
the community‟s skill and wisdom. HSEP is similar to PHC in concept and principle. The
philosophy of HSEP is that if the right knowledge and skill is transferred to households they can
take responsibility for producing and maintaining their own health (5). The overall goal of the
HSEP is to create a healthy society and reduce rates of maternal and child morbidity and, ortality
(6). While the main objective of HSEP is to improve access and equity to preventive essential
health interventions provided at village and household levels with focus on sustained preventive
health actions and increased health awareness (7). The specific objectives of the HSEP include
(6):
                  To improve access and equity to preventive essential health interventions at
                   the village and household levels in line with the decentralization process to
                   ensure health care coverage to the rural areas.
                  To ensure ownership and participation by increasing health awareness,
                   knowledge, and skills among community members.
                  To promote gender equality in accessing health services



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

                  To improve the utilization of peripheral health services by bridging the gap
                   between the communities and health facilities through HEWs.
                  To reduce maternal and child mortality.
                  To promote a healthy lifestyle.
Accelerated Expansion of Primary Heath Care Services has also been endorsed as strategy in
facilitating the implementation of the HSEP. The HSEP also requires appropriate strategies and
approaches to ensure its effectiveness. These include community and private sector participation,
strengthening the roles of other providers, overall health systems strengthening and ensuring
required support. Some of the strategies designed for implementation of HSEP are enhancing
community participation and involvement, utilization of community based health agents,
increased participation from the NGO and the private sector, and intersectoral collaboration(7).
To provide coverage for the whole country, the government in 2003 has decided to accelerate the
implementation of the HSEP by training and deploying 30,000 Health Extension Workers
(HEWs) by 2009. The total number of health extension workers deployed as June 2007 is 17653,
which is 59% of the total required. There is wide regional variation in the proportion of rural
kebeles deploying HEWs. For example, Amhara, Tigray, Harrari, Dire Dawa, and Southern
Nations and Nationalities peoples Region (SNNPR) will have reached 100% coverage of HEWs
by the end of 2007, while Benishangul Gumuz and Oromia have attained coverage of 79% and
65% respectively (5).


A Kebele (an Amharic (national language in Ethiopia) world equivalent to village in English and
its equivalent word in the local language in the study area Tigrigna is “Tabia”) is the smallest
governmental administrative unit, and on average has a population of 5000 people. By 2009, it is
planned that each kebele will have a health post which will be the operational center for two
HEWs, who will be responsible for providing outreach services. Construction of Health Post and
training of HEWs are being accelerated to reach these targets. HEWs are required to spend
75%of their time conducting outreach activities by going from house to house. HEWs are
expected to assist mothers in delivering babies, providing contraceptives, and referral; services to
health centers. During house to house visits. HEWs are expected to provide health education to



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

household members (5). In general HEWs are expected to address the following sixteen
components of the HSEP which are categorized under four major areas;


   1- Disease prevention and control
                    a. HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections(STIs) and TB
                        prevention and control
                    b. Malaria prevention and control
                    c. First Aid emergency ,easures
   2- Family Health
                    a. Maternal and child Helath
                    b. Family Planning
                    c. Immunization
                    d. Nutrition
                    e. Adolescent Reproductive Health
   3- Hygiene and environmental sanitation
                    a. Excreta disposal
                    b. Solid and liquid waste disposal
                    c. Water supply and safety measures
                    d. Food hygiene and safety measures
                    e. Healthy home environment
                    f. Control of insects and rodents
                    g. Personal hygiene


   4- Health Education and communication


This study will give much focus to the maternal health component. Primarily it will assess the
contribution of the Health Service Extension Program in promoting access to maternal health
services. It will also look at the programs contribution in promoting community involvement and
intersectoral collaboration to increase access to health services and poverty reduction programs.



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

At the community level, in addition to HEWs, there are also groups of Voluntary Community
Health Workers (VCHWs). It is important that HSEP links VCHWs to HEWs and ensures each
group supports the work of the other. HEWs are most effective when working in collaboration
with VCHWS both to extend contact with families and the community, and to share different
skills. In Tigray these VCHWs include Trained Traditional Birth Attendants (TTBA). Traditional
Birth Attendants (TBA). Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs). And
Community Health Promoters (CHPs) in other regions of Ethiopia but not in Tigray Region. The
TTBAs and TBAs are primarily responsible for assisting delivery while the CBRHAs are
primarily responsible for distributing contraceptive. The CHAs are primarily responsible for
community mobilization and health information dissemination. The HEWs are different from the
groups of VCHWs in that they are employed in the government system and get monthly salary.
They are also grade ten complete and took additional one year (nine to ten months) training.
Unlike the VCHWs, all HEWs are females. The role of HEWs is comprehensive when compared
with the selected approach of the VCHWs.


The HSEP is a core component of the broader health system. While the strategies for the
interventions focus on the household and community, the success calls for coordinated action at
all levels. Particularly coordination at the Primary Health Care Unit (PHCU) which is the lowest
level of the four-tier health system in Ethiopia is very crucial. The PHCU comprises one health
center and five satellite health posts. The District (woreda). Health office coordinates and
administers the activities of the PHCU in the woreda. Health Centers in Particular have a crucial
role to play in providing referral care, technical nad practical support to the HSEP and to the
Health posts where HEWs are assigned to work. The District (Woreda) Helath Offices similarly
have an important role to play in support of the Health Centers and the Health Posts. The
government has shown high commitment in prioritizing the HSEP by ensuring it receives the
necessary financial and political support.


Statement of the Problem
Conducting periodic operational research is considered as a strategy in the implementation
guideline of the HSEP, nevertheless to date a few small-scale operational qualitative research
studies were undertaken to evaluate the implementation of Health Service Extension Program in
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

particular in Tigray region. These researches were done at initial period of the implementation of
the program. We, the investigators, have tried our level best to locate and review research studies
that assessed the contribution of the HESP program in promoting Comprehensive Primary Health
Care specifically in terms of increasing community access and community involvement in health
care and increasing intersectoral collaboration. However we were unable to locate any studies
that reviewed and assessed the HSEP from this perspective. Hence this study aims to assess the
contribution of the program in promoting Comprehensive Primary Health Care and to evaluate
its contribution to promoting access to basic health services and poverty reduction programs
through collaborating with other sectors and involving the community.

Collaborating Organization and Contact person(s):
      Mekelle University:
                     Araya Abrha: Department of Public Health, Cell phone: 0911-365195,
       arayaabrha@yahoo.com
      Tigray Regional Health Bureau: Department of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
                     Mr. Yohannes Tewlde
      Path Finder international/Ethiopia: Tigray Regional Office
                     Mr. Awala Equar


      Addis Continental Institute of public Helath
                     Prof. Yemane Berhane


      University of the Western Cape: Soth Africa
                     Ms. Nikki Schaay‟


                     Prof. David Sanders


      University of Ottawa


                     Dr. Corinne Packer

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



                     Prof. Roland Labonte


Principal Investigators/ Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the Project

         Araya Abrha: Department of Public Helath , Cell phone: 0911-365195/0914-

          704362,arayaabrha@yahoo,com

Involved Research Team Members from MU and Address: staffs in the department of public

   Health

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Public Health

Amount of Fund: 24200 Canadian Dollars, Equivalent to 210,000 ETB (Based on August 2009

exchange rate)

Source of fund: University Ottawa, Institute of Population Health, Canada

Project duration: Three Years

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

42. Pattern of risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among
University students in Ethiopia: The case of Mekelle University students



Project Registration Number: CHS/FHAPCO/02/2009

Objectives:
 The General objective of the study is to assess risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors
 among university students and to recommend HIV related interventions. The specific
 objectives are:
      To assess KAP towards risky behavior and substance use
      Identify demographic and sexual predisposing factors to risky sexual behavior and
       practice
      To identify social, economical and psychological factors which predispose to risky
       behavior
      To identify social, economical and psychological factors which predispose to risky
       behavior
      To identify academic, student administration, and campus security factors which
       predispose to risky behavior
      To identify near campus risks among students
      To identify reasons for risky behavior among university students


Short Project Description:
Background information: Adolescents make up a significant proportion of any population.
Owing to its untouched resource potentials, this segment forms the future hope of that nation as
well. This is often due to one or a combination of the following reasons: their large number, their
predominantly healthy looking appearance using the morbidity oriented disease burden
estimates, general failure to understand the needs of young people or due to multitude of
competing priorities for a limited resource (1).



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Nonetheless, today more than ever, societies and their leaders must be sensitized by the situation
in which the young people are living and attempt to fulfil their generation‟s responsibilities. To
mention a few of these situations, the current health, social/psychological and economic impacts
of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and teenage pregnancies might suffice. Many young people in
developing countries are also suffering from lack of self-esteem and future hope, victims of
different forms of violence and abuse, or are obliged to live with harmful habits like smoking,
drug abuse and alchoholism(2). Recent estimates indicate that 17.0% of the global population,
20.0% of Sub-Saharan Africa and 17.9% of Ethiopian population is composed of youth aged 15-
24 years. Nearly half of new HIV infections world wide occur among young people aged 15-24
years, changing sexual behavior in this group will be crucial in tackling the pandemic. Regular
students in universities are youth and this makes them at greater risk of HIV. Risky behavior
may be further worsened by the fact those university students are:
      Too many in number and lack of facilities (dormitories and cafeteria)
      Live in campuses with out boundaries and related security propbles
      Away from their parents and „free‟ from parental control
      Peer pressure
      Lack of youth friendly recreational facilities
      Wide spread substance use
      Economical problems and etc


BSS
Certain behaviors place people at greater risk of HIV infection. These include sex with an
infected person, substance use, and multiple sexual partners etc. Groups of people who engage in
these high-risk behaviors are considered vulnerable to infection. Hence this group of people
needs to be watched cautiously in order to control the epidemic (3). Recognizant of these the
government of Ethiopia mandates a BSS conducted every three years among Most at risk
population.


Statement of the problem



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Over the last years, Ethiopia‟s response to the AIDS epidemic has shown considerable progress
and achieved encouraging results. However, hIV and AIDS continue to pose formidable social
and economic challenges at individual, family, community and national levels.
The government of Ethiopia and its partners are working hard to contain the pandemic and the
achievements so far have been encouraging. As one of its major duties, the government has
issued a National HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control policy and several technical guidelines. In
addition, a range of institutional arrangements have been made to create effective leadership and
to coordinate the design, planning, and monitoring of activities, and to mobilize resources for
these.

The students of higher institutions that fall in the youth age category are exposed to many risky
behaviors including sexual coercion, STI including HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancy and
abortion like other youths. It is also clear that this group is on the way of transforming to
adulthood; filled with ambition; and building their future academic and social career. Therefore,
they are assets of the society, change agents in filling the gap in the past and on whom the future
generation is based. Little has been explored about the risky behavior in the context of higher
education institutions in Ethiopia, in general and in University setting in particular.

As part of monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating the impact of multi sectoral interventions
in containing the spread of HIV, the National HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office
(NHAPCO) decided to conduct Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS) among one of the most at
risk population (University students), in collaboration with selected 5 big universities of the
country. Mekelle University is one of these five universities.

Therefore, this study is conducted with the aim of pointing our risky sexual behavior and factors
predisposing to it at 5 selected universities in Ethiopia. Besides, it shows direction to design
interventions appropriate to studied populations.


Collaborating Organization and Contact person(s)
           o Mekelle University
                   o Araya Abrha: Department of Public Health, Cell phone: 0911-365195,
               arayaabrha@yahoo.com
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                   o Tesfay G/her: Department of Public Health, Cell phone: 0914-706123,
              Office:0344-416683, tesfig@yahoo.com
                   o Dr. Abdulkadir Mohammodseid, Department of Medicine, cell phone;
              0914-120303
           o Fedral HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office(FHAPCO), addis Ababa
           o Other four Public Universities, Hawassa, Jimma, Gonder and Addis Abeba.


Principal Investigators/ Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Araya     Abrha:      Department       of     public     Health,      Cell   phone:    0911-
365195,arayaabrha@yahoo.com,Tesfay G/her: Department of Public Health, Cell phone: 0914-
706123, Office;0344-416683, tesfig@yahoo.com, Dr. Abdulkadir Mohammodseid. Department
of Medicine, Cell phone: 0914-120303


Involved Research Team Members from MU and Address: staffs in the department of Public

Health

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Public Health

Amount of Fund: 205,000.00 Birr

Source of fund: FHAPCO

Project duration: one year

Status:




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43. Kilte-Awlaelo /Wukro Demographic and Health Development program



Project Registration Number: CHS/EPHA/03/2009


Objectives:
The General objective of the study is to assess the demographic and health status of the
population under surveillance. The specific objectives are:
          To assess the demographic characteristics of the population
          To assess different health issues of the population under surveillance
          To generate longitudinal data for national consumption.


Short Project Description
Current data deficiencies are large and serious in their implications for national health planning
and management. Soundly designed epidemiological surveillance in defined populations may fill
this gap. Epidemiological surveillance is an on going system for the collection of data essential
to the planning, implementation and evaluation of health programmes.


In this country where there is a serious deficiency of generating population- based longitudinal
data, there is a desire need to establish such sites in the different regions of the country. In line
with this the Butajira Rural Health Project has been established in Gurage zone which could
serve the southern region, the Dabat Rural      Health Project in north Gondar zone which could
serve the Amhara region, the Gilgel-Gibe health and development program which could serve
the Oromiya region in particular Jimma and its surrounding. The absence of population based
longitudinal study site in the northern part of the country predominately in Tigray region affects
negatively the representativeness of these established sites in different parts of the country to
give a national picture. To address these gaps Mekelle University in collaboration with Tigray

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regional helath bureau wants to initiate Kilte-Awlaelo Demographic and Health Development
Program (KADHDP). Mekelle University also strongly believes the establishment of this site
will strengthen the establishment of this site will strengthen the network of the research sites in
the country.


Aims
The program has two main objectives:
3.1. To serve as sentinel research site (woreda/district research site), to generate data which
could contribute for health planning, management and evaluation to Tigray region..
3.2. To serve as a field laboratory in the long run for post graduate students and researchers.


Collaborating Organization and Contact person(s)
   o Mekelle University: Esayas Haregot: Department of Pulic Helath, Cell Phone:0911-
       180929 esayasharegot@gmail.com, Dr. Mekonnen Yohannes: Departmetn of Medicine,
       Cell     phone:0914-708927,        mekonnenyohannes@yahoo.co.uk.Yemane              Ashebir:
       Department of Public health, cell phone:0914-750461, yemash2@yahoo.com,Dr.
       Abdulkadir Mohammodseid, Department of Medicine, cell phone: 0914-120306,
       yousraabdu@gmail.com Ethiopian public Health Association (EPHA). Addis Ababa
       CDC-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa

Principal Investigators/Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Esayas Haregot (program coordinator): Department of Public Health, Cell phone: 0911-180929,
esayasharegot@gmail.com, Dr. Mekonnen Yohannes: Department of Medicine, Cell
phone:0914-708927, mekonnenyohannes@yahoo.co.uk, Alemayehu Bayray: Department of
Nursing cell Phone:0914-703261, akishba@yahoo.com., Araya Abrha: Department of Public
Health , Cell phone: 0911-365195,arayaabrha@yahoo.com, Tesfay G/her : Department of Public
Health, Cell phone:0914-706123, Office:0344-416683, tesfig@yahoo.com,               Dr. Abdulkadir
Mohammodseid, Departmetn of Medicine, Cell phone:0914-120306, yousraabdu@gmail.com


Involved Research Team Members from MU and Address: Staffs in the College of Health

Sciences
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Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Public Health

Amount of Fund: 751060.00 ETB

Source of fund: EPHA/CDC

Project duration: One year

Status:




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                         COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
44. Assessing Information Technology (IT) Related Jobs Opportunities



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/01/2009

Objectives
The major objective of this research is tracing and indicating IT related job opportunities and
therefore the study will focus on tracing the different reasons for the unemployment of TVET
program IT graduates and will also indicate potential IT related Job opportunities for these
graduates. In doing so the study result will contribute to the government policy in the reduction
of youth unemployment.


Short Project description:
As different studies show that youth unemployment is very high in Ethiopia. It stands at about
54% of which about 49.6% males and 56.7% are females. For the entire working population,
unemployment rates are highest in the 15-19 age group followed by the 20-24 age group. The
high level of unemployment has serious implications for the types of lifestyle choice made by
youth, increasing the risk of alcohol and drug abuse, lead to unwanted pregnancy, multiple
sexual parenter, STIs and HIV infections.


In Tigray region the problem has the same feature with that of the national scenario. It is
believed that education is the skipping get from backwardness and poverty. Accordingly youths
should use this opportunity to overcome the different problems after their graduation. There
might be many reasons for that. The unemployment problem also affects Technical and
Vocational Education and Training (TVET) IT program graduates.
In Ethiopia the TVET program has begun since 1992 E.c. and at the same time the program has
began in Tigray region. The program has Certificate 1 (i.e.10+1), Certificate 2(i.e.10+2) and
Diploma (i.e.10+3) levels.



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10+1 and 10+2 programs commenced in all zones of Tigray by upgrading the previous senior
secondary schools. The program includes many fields and one of the fields was IT. The provison
of 10+3 program was begun only in Maichew Technical College at the very beginning. The
program was in the fields of Industrial, Construction and Business and one of the business fields
of study was IT. By this time there are additional two regional colleges, Adigrat and Axum,
which has 10+3 diploma programs.
Since then there are more that 4,000 graduates from the three levels of IT program in the region
and it is also founded that most of the graduates are unemployed. There are actually many
reasons for that and the basic reasons might be the poor utilization of IT recourses in the
different organization of the region. Actually to come in to conclusion this requires a study.


Based on this fact the study will focus on tracing the different reasons for the unemployment of
TVET program IT graduates and will also indicate potential IT related Job opportunities for the
graduates and in doing so it will contribute to the government policy in the reduction of youth
unemployment.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project

:Abiot Sinamo, Department of Computer Science

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Computer Science

Amount of fund: 14,000.00 birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: One year (starting from September 2008 to August 2009

Status:



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45. Intercultural Virtual Seminar for Africa


Project Registration Number: CoE/DUT/02/2009

Objectives
The project aims at virtual learning and experience sharing among the students and the staff of
the partner universities. It also aims at building the collaboration scale among the partner
universities.


Short Project description:
Students from Ethiopia, Kenya and the Netherlands correspond with each other via e-mail and
work together in mapping out a number of social technical problems in search of solutions for
those problems on different subject areas: technology transfer & assessment, solid waste
treatment and drinking water purification technology.


After the first experiment in 2007 this project is a continuation, an extension and             a
professionalization of the former project. This project was conducted in cooperation with
Tangaza College and the Technical University Delft, integrated in the curriculum and evaluated
very positively by both sides.
The results now serve as a basis for a long-term cooperation between the three partners. The
experiences and results serve as the basis for an application for the European EDULINK
program and other programs in 2009 and also as a preparation for internship projects in which
Dutch and African students work together in Kenya and Ethiopia. Master these projects are also
feasible.
During this whole process, and in every step primarily in the Netherlands, the project and the
results will be publiscised at TU Delft, the city of Delft and in national newspapers. The project
will end in 2009 with a conference about technology and sustainability focused on the social and
cultural developments in Africa.

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Collaborating Organization and Contact Person(s): Collaborating Institutions: Delft
University of Technology, the Netherlands, Tangaza College, Kenya, Mekelle University,
Ethiopia
Coordinators: Dr. Otto Kroesen, Assistant professor Ethics, Technology Dynamics and
Sustainability, Technological University Delft Dep. Technology, Policy and Management
Jaffalann 5,2600 GA Delft,+31.15.278562,Cell:+31.6.53796968
Email:j.o.kroesen@tudelft.nl, Dr. David J.Ndegwah,Senior lecturer on the bible and social
transformation, as well as research co-ordinator Institute of Socaila Ministry in Mission, Tangaza
College,P.O.Box            15055,00509,            Lang‟ata,Nairobi-Kenya,Tel+254-20-891407,
Ext.322.,Cell :+254-723-053802,Email :ndegwahdavid@yahoo.com
Ir Kassahun Yimer,Lecturer, Industrial Engineering department Tel:+251-344-409023
Mobil:+251-913-409482,Contact email: Kassahun,Yimer@mu.edu.et
Principal Investigator/Project coordinator at MU since the beginning of the project: Ir

Kassahun Yimer, Department of Industrial Engineering

Involved Research Team members from MU and address: Mr. Aregawi G/Eyesus,Mr.

Tesfagabir Kahsay,Department of Industrial Engineering

Tel: 251-344-409023

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Industrial Engineering

Amount of fund: Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project Duration: 1 year

Status:




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46. Development of Multipurpose Hospital Bed



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/03/2009


Objectives
Most hospital beds which exist in the hospitals and health services giving sectors in our country
are not standard or are not sufficient in number. Therefore it is common to see uncomfortable
situation treatment of the patients. This could be due to several reasons. Out of this the most
common reasons are due to lack of budget to get the standard beds from abroad, since it requires
hard currency, and there are not or small production sectors that can supply this standard beds
locally according to the demands that can exist.


The above mentioned problems can be solved if the hospital beds can be designed and
manufactured locally to the standards required. So in this project standard hospital beds will be
well designed and prototype will be developed in a way that can satisfy the required standards
and functions of hospital beds. It will also create job opportunity to the local small and medium
enterprises by achieving this technology transfer project. It will also contribute in solving
shortage of hard currencies required for hospital beds in our country.
Principal Investigator (Name and address): Hailay Kiros , Department of Mechanical

Engineering

Involved Research Team members from MU and address: Solomon T/Michael, Moges

Samuel, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Amount of fund: 35,200 Birr (thirty five thousand and two hundred Birr)

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget


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Project Duration: From Nov 2009 to Sep 2010

Status:



47. “Analysis of how and why improving quality could or could not lead to
cheaper prices, the Ethiopian context ”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/04/2009

Objectives
General objective
              To study and recommend manufacturing and business firms towards a better
               quality processes that would enable to save money and provide offerings at lower
               cost.
Specific objectives
            To show manufacturing and service firms that producing a better quality product
               should not necessarily come with additional cost
            To improve the general perception of end-users that cheaper products are of less
               quality
            To just the argument that if overall performance of a firm is guided towards a better
               quality (not only the product alone), the firm will be able to provide “quality for
               free”


Short project description:
This project is intended to analyze and develop a relevant model that would explain the
relationship between improvements in process quality of firms and the price of products
manufactured or services rendered. It tries to explain the “quality product is expensive versus
quality is free” paradox in the prevailing Ethiopian context.




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The objectives of the proposed project include improving the understanding of real quality
performance by manufacturing firms so that they can provide services and products processed at
better quality for relatively cheaper prices.
By the end of the study both firms and end-users will have a better understanding of why quality
is free and how the potential benefit of quality to reduce cost can be 2 utilized . It is also
expected that the general public will have a better awareness about the perception that public will
have a better awareness about the perception that quality products should always be very
expensive.


In order to perform the study, a multi-case analysis in both manufacturing and public service
sectors will be done and models developed based on the investigations. Different customer
groups will be interviewed to assess their perceptions regarding the issue under question so that
it will be included in the model to be developed.


Collaborating organizations and Contact details: Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project.

Seyoum Eshetu (MSc), Department of industrial Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation / Steering committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Industrial Engineering

Amount of fund: 17,340.00 ETB

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Eight effective months since its commencement

Status:




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48. “Customization of Virtual reality modeling to support TVET IT Program



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/05/2009

Objectives
The major objective of this research is customizing IT models for TVET IT training. In doing so
the following specific objectives will be addressed
                Students will become familiar with different IT devices.
                The training centers will save cost to be invested to buy these devices.


Short project description:
In recent years Virtual Reality Modeling has attracted a great deal of attention in different
education programs. The major reason for this is the scarcity of resources the imminent need for
making this resources available for students. VRM has a wide range of applications and in this
particular research project it will be used to develop models which will be used to support the
TVET IT training programs in Tigray region.
            In Ethiopia the TVET program has begun since 1992 E.C and at the same time it has
             begun in Tigray region
            10+1 and 10+2 programs were commenced in all zones of Tigray by upgrading the
             previous senior secondary schools.
            The program includes many fields and one of them was IT.
            The program includes many fields and one of them was IT.

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             The colleges are providing IT courses but they have scarce resources for
              demonstration
             The study there fore will focus. On customizing IT models by the technique of virtual
              reality modeling
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Abiot Sinamo Boltena, Department of Computing

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation /Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project Department of Computing

Amount of fund: 50,000 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 12 months

Status:




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49. “Compact block forming machine (Hydra form block making machine)”


Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/06/2009


Objectives
The objective of this research work is to produce the produce the prototype of compact block
making machine with in the country.


Specific objectives
          Feasibility study of the need for Hydra form blocks
          Design modification from the existing machine
          Prototype development
          Cost analysis
          Dissemination process plan


Short project description:
Looking back starting from the era of 1900 the expansion of construction works in Ethiopia has
started to be diversified in its type and application. Almost all of the construction works
undergoing in the country are using expensive construction materials of type cement and cement
products. Recently several construction companies encountered a big problem of cement supply,

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due to this big problem many construction activities are forced to be delayed and/or totally
terminated.
The forth mentioned problems can be partially solved by introducing low cost building materials
which can be the end products easily available materials. Among the most accepted low cost
building materials Hydraform blocks are becoming more familiar and economical with a reliable
strength. Recent researches and experiments show that Hydraform Technology is very
appropriate for third world countries. Even in Ethiopia a very small start has been emerging since
last year. Thus, in this project the feasibility of Hydraform Technology and the design and
manufacturing of Hydraform machine will be conducted. Thus, this proposal will create market
opportunities for local small and medium manufacturing sectors furthermore it will solve the
problem of construction companies and the society by supplying low cost building materials. The
machine can be owned by a small group or individuals and create job opportunity to others.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Asfafaw Haileselassie, Department of Mechanical Engineering ,Temesgen Kiros, Department of

Industrial Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:: Ashenafi Atsibiha

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solomon T.Michael, Department of Mechanical

Engineering

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of mechanical Engineering and Industrial Engineering

Amount of Fund: 98,975.00 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 9 months

Status:


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50. “Low cost washing Machine”

Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/07/2009


Objectives
The objective of this research project is to facilitate technology transfer process and enhance
community service of the department as well as the university, further more it helps to establish
fertile ground for the dissemination of the design as well as mass production which contribute
toward the development of local technologies.


Specific objectives
              Involve staffs and students of the department in real world engineering problems
              Develop design of low cost washing machine
              Manufacture a prototype low cost washing machine
              Reduce the cost and increase the availability of local washing machine


Short project description:
The continuous development of the urban community is calling for easier and automated support
of household services. The design and manufacture of a low cost washing machine sees as a
milestone for taking care of one of the most tedious and inefficient household activities.

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Availability of such a low cost machine will not only increase the efficiency of household
washing but also will save money in the long fun. This project will also serve as one of the
spring boards in the understanding and implementation of common household equipment thus
encouraging an adoptable transfer of technology. A reverse engineering assessment will be
carried out to be followed by a design and replacement of key components to come up with an
affordable design and manufacture of a household washing machine.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Asfafaw Haileselassie ,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anwar Mustofa Department of

Mechanical Engineering

Involved Research Team Members fro MU and address:: Ashenefai Atsibiha

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mechanical Engineering

Amount of fund: 51,895.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 9 months

Status:




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51. “Software Development for Garment Machineries”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/08/2009

Objectives
              To increase the productivity of garment industries in Ethiopia
              To improve customer satisfaction by delivering orders on time with their expected
               quality


Short Project description:
The success of companies in competing for market share in global market rests in large part on
using production systems as competitive weapons. If this is to happen, production organizations
must be flexible so that they are more responsive to customer needs, and at the same time,
capable of producing products and services that are both quality and cost competitive.


Garment industries are among the labor intensive industries known, and in almost all of the
develop countries labour has become expensive. Due to this reason, this sector has been given
for Africa as a way to involve his idle man power, and it has been considered as a chance for
Africa to participate in the global market. As a result , many international garment suppliers are

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now coming to Ethiopia and are giving orders to the inland garment industries. But due to the
cost incurred for idle man power and machinery created by the delay in arranging the
machineries manually, the garment factories are not profitable as they were expected to be. And
their customers are getting dissatisfied due to the delay in delivery and less quality of the order.
This project will strive to increase the productivity and quality of the products of garment
factories by minimizing the routine works of lay out experts and bringing them to the
approachable layout of machines possible.


Using the sciences, plant layout , method study, ergonomics etc. and using one of the
programming languages and databases, effective layout software will be prouced. This
software‟s out put will be the optimal layout of the machines for a specific garment taking the
pattern type, design of the garment, stitch type and some other parameters as an input.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
   -      Industrial Engineering Department (CoE, MU), Tel-0344409023, Computer science
          department (CoE, MU), Garment factories like Almeda Textile Factory and others

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Alula Gebresas Department: of Industrial Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Mr. Tesfagabr Kahsay(IED),Mr.

Mezgebe Atsbeha(IED),Mr. Kidane Tadesse(CSD)

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Industrial Engineering

Amount of fund: 48,153 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent budget, MU,

Project duration: 7 months

Status:



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52. “Low cost Box solar Cooker”: Community Trials & Development of Trial
Small-Scale Production Facility

Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/09/2009

Objectives
The project aims to facilitate the widespread use of box-type solar cookers in rural and poorer
urban communities in Ethiopia by:
          Taking the existing working prototype box cookers and producing optimum designs
           of cookers for use by typical Ethiopian families
          Gaining extensive experience in the use of cookers in the community, using
           community trials in two local communities
          Producing a User Manual for using the cookers-describing types of food to cook,
           cooking procedures to follow, positioning of cooker, safety precautions(due to heat
           produced), care and handling of the cooker
          Preparing a Manual for community trials-how to carry out demonstrations, teach
           individual families, gather feedback on use of cookers
          Preparing a construction manual for the construction of the cookers-materials & tools
           needed, drawings, construction & testing procedures
          Planning & operating a test construction facility for the cookers, over a trial period, in
           two locations –close to the community trials-based on two local metal workshops,
           one in each community

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Short project description
Building on the work of the existing Solar Cooker Project, the proposed project will carry out
extensive community trials with box-type solar cookers, experimenting with different types of
food and different version of the cookers, to determine the best version of the cookers for
community use, to find the best types of food and modalities for using the cooker, as well as
gaining experience in conducting community trials.


In addition, the project will prepare a trial production facility for the cookers , consisting of the
equipment and tools to build the cookers within a workshop, a standardized construction
procedure, tailored to minimize labour & materials costs. This facility will be operated for a trial
period of six months in two metal workshops close to the sites of the community trials.
To record the experience gained during the project for the benefit of similar future projects, the
project will also prepare the following manuals:
          Use Manual
          Community trials Manual
          Construction Manual


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Kwiha Kebelle, Kebelle, Office Aynealem

Keten, Ketena Office

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Dr John Paintin, Department of Elecrtricl & Computer Engineering, Dr Mulu Bayray‟,

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Moges Samual, Department of

Mechanical Engineering, Dawit Wubshet, Department of NREM

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering


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Amount of fund: 34,000 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 1 ½ years

Status:




53. “Design & Development of Small-scale Hydroelectric Generator Turbine”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/10/2009


Objectives
The objective of the research is to design and develop a small hydroelectric generating turbine.


Specific objectives
            Assessment of previously design hydraulic equipments so as to come up with the best
             alternative solution
            Analyze and determine the energy output of small hydropower potential areas in the
             region
            Size the main features of the turbine and the overall design
            Installation and testing of the system


Short Project description:
Many people in the developing world suffer from lack of modern energy services. Limited
access to modern energy services such as electricity, heating, cooking fuels paralleled with in
inefficient use of biomass are some of the many problems. The level of electrification in Ethiopia
is small when compared to other developing and developed world.
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Hydropower is the key energy contributor for electricity in the in Ethiopia. And due to its
environmental and economical benefits small hydropower is gaining attention. Small
hydropower development is among the rural electrification programmers of the country. Energy
policy for rural electrification encourages the exploitation of new source of energy. Hence
potential remote areas, far from grid, can be electrified by harnessing flowing rivers. This
extends the national objectives of rural electrification to meet power shortages.
The objective of this research is to design and develop a small scale hydroelectric generator
turbine. Emphasis is made on the design turbines that can be manufactured locally and yet have
good performance in small power generation.


Hydro turbines are usually individual products, which have to be designed according to the local
conditions such as discharge, head and given geometrical situations. This requires an individual
tallor-made design for the different components of the turbine, which causes a great demand of
engineering effort. To obtain shapes with superior hydraulic efficiency for the components the
designer must investigate many geometry variations.
By setting specific goals based on the objective the general planning, designing and building
procedures will be followed. At the end of this research a small scale turbine will be constructed
and tested using a pump with a given parameters of the turbine.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigators project Coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Petors Gebray, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Asfafaw H.Selassie

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Angesom G.Ezgi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solomon T.Michael, Department of Mechanical

Engineering

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mechanical Engineering

Amount of fund: 44153 Birr
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Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project Duration: 8 months

Status:




54. “Solar Powered Small Home System for Off-grid Remote Communities”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/11/2009

Objectives
The objective of the project is to realize availability of solar powered rooms in off-grid remote
communities.
Specific objectives
          analysis of the necessary brightness in the classroom and conference rooms
          Analysis of optimized loads
          Selection and sizing of battery and solar module
          Selection and sizing of all necessary components
          Practical realization of the system


Short Project description:
The accomplishments in civilization have largely been achieved through the increasingly
efficient and extensive harnessing of various forms of energy to extend human capability and
ingenuity. Energy is indispensable for continued human development and economic growth. As
we move towards a clean and sustainable power development, renewable energy sources remain
the best solutions.
Most developing countries like Ethiopia, with the growing demand for energy paralleled with
climate change and hiking prices for fossil fuels, are hit by power shortages. Power blackout has

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devastating effect both in economy and businesses. One thing that all people would agree with is
that the severe electricity shortage that has hit the country in recent times has become a constant
source of public and government concern.
Photovoltaic (PV) are an important energy technology for many reasons. As a solar energy
technology, it has numerous environmental benefits. As a domestic source of electricity, it
contributes to the all nation‟s energy security. As a relatively young, high-tech industry, it helps
to create jobs and strengthen the economies throughout the world. They are capable of producing
renewable power for a long period of time. Photovoltaic production has been doubling every 2
years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002, making it the world‟s fastest
growing energy technology.
This research is aimed at investigating the relevance of photovoltaic application to improve the
teaching –learning process. And equip the university with a model solar powered classes and
conference rooms to play its role in renewable and sustainable energy future. The main objective
of this research to make analysis of the brightness required and optimized loads for a selected
class room and conference rooms; then sizing the necessary components such as the solar
module, batteries, inverters, controller and other accessories.
At the end of this research a model home will be powered using power from the sun. Practical
realization of this research encourages utilization of renewable energy and creates awareness
among the community.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigato(s) Project coordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project

Petros Gebray, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anwar Mustofa

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Moges Samuel

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Solomon T.Michael, Department of Mechanical

Engineering

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Amount of Fund: 36,528.00 Eth. Br

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 8 months

Status:




55. “Design & Manufacturing of Mosquito Killer Machine”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/12/2009

Objectives
The objective of the research is to design and manufactured mosquito killer machine
Specific objectives
          To minimize the dieses effect and death rate in Ethiopia as wall as in Africa
          Designing different type of mosquito killers such that AC and DC motor driven


Short Project description
In Ethiopia generally in developing countries malaria is among the first killer disease and of
course there is a lot of work on this area on protective action but we can do more and more since
malarial adapt the anti pine and the people gate more suffer. To minimize malaria as will as to
incarcerate mosquito the killer machine is very important. Manufacturing this type of products
easily can design and manufacture in small workshop especially in our countries. Hence, this
project is intended to assess the way to introduce the design for all rural and urban area which
can usable with AC and DC volt. So that there will be helpful for the ministry of health to control
the malaria on the target of millennium.
The project includes design and manufacture the prototype
Collaborating organization and contact person(s)


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Collaborating organizations will the ministry of health. Health burro and health sectors around

Mekelle.

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Moges Samuel, Department of Mechanical Engineering

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Staff, Department of Electrical

Engineering

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mechanical Engineering

Amount of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 9 months

Status:




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56. “Designing for Development: An Analysis of the Quality of Low Cost
Housing in Urban Region of Ethiopia”



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/13/2009


Objectives
          To find out the methods concepts, principles used in the design of affordable and
           good quality housing
          Analyzing the housing efficiency related to diverse requirements such as value
           system attitudes, future house holds needs function and aesthetics


Shot project description:
Increased appeal for urban life is now causing an enormous activity in the planning and building
of urban housing in Ethiopia. And architects at present are designing the future homes for the
majority of the population- the low & medium income wage earners. Although household
requirements are increasingly diverse, the financial capacity of the majority creates a limitation
in the design and use of the condominiums. With the problem in mind, how do Ethiopia
architects use these as opportunity to design a culturally efficiency, multifunctional and
affordable housing? An in-depth analysis at the planning and design which affects the quality of
low-cost housing serves both architectural and public interest.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s)

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Tigray Region Housing Development Agency
P.O.Box 284, Mekelle Ethiopia
Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinators(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Netsanet Sorri, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address
Eden Deabanico                                     edeabanico@yahoo.com
Goitom G/Egziabher                                 goitmed2002@yahoo.com
Binaiam Tekele                                     rasbiniam@gmail.com
Ephraim Nigussie                                   ephiyab@yahoo.com
Tewoderos Tilahun                                  arctewod@yahoo.com
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Architecture and Urban Planning

Amount of Found: 24,572.00

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 6 months

Status:




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57. “Determination of optimal spacing between power transmission cable and
transmission poles for Mekelle Town”.



Project Registration Number: CoE/RB/14/2009


Objectives
The main objectives of this project are
          To develop a distribution system with optimal spacing between the lines in order to
           prevent contact among them since they are un-insulated
          To develop an optimal spacing between the transmission poles of the distribution line
          To develop a technique to measure the temperature effect in the sag of the distribution
           line
          To measure the effect of the wind power in short circuiting the distribution lines
          To develop a relationship between the spacing (between the lines and the poles) as a
           function    of    the   yearly    maximum/minimum          temperature    and    yearly
           maximum/minimum wind speed


Short Project description:


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In electric power transmission there is a bulk transfer of electrical energy, a process in the
delivery of electricity to consumers. A power transmission network typically connects power
plants to multiple substations near a populated area. The wiring from substations to customers is
refereed to as electricity distribution.
Electricity is transmitted at high voltages (110KV or above) to reduce the energy lost in
transmission. Power is usually transmitted as three phase alternating current (AC) through
overhead power lines. Underground power transmission is used only in densely populated areas
because of its higher cost of installation and maintenance when compared with overhead wires,
and the difficulty of voltage control on long cables.


Since overhead transmission lines are un insulated, design of these lines requires minimum
clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions of high wind and low
temperatures can lead to power outages: wind speeds as low as 45 km/h can permit conductors to
encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply. Oscillatory motion of
the physical line can be termed gallp or flutter depending on the frequency and amplitude of
oscillation.


In this project, it is planned to develop an optimal distribution line spacing and transmission pole
spacing to avoid short circuiting and loss of power supply due to temperature and wind force.
This is because. if the distribution lines of electric power are un insulated, the temperature causes
to sag and the wind force contacts the transmission lines and cause to short.


The proposed system will try to solve the problem of loss of power supply for Mekelle Town due
to short circuiting of distribution lines which arise from wind force and change in temperature
through out the day.


Collaborating Organization and contact person(s)
The proposed research project will be conducted in collaboration with the Ethiopian Electric
Power Authority.
Contact        person:     Muhammed        Yibre,       Phone.   no     0025192220700,        Email:
muhammed251@gmail.com, Gebremichael Te-ame Phone no.00251914703322
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Principal Investigator(s) project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Gebremichahel Teame, Muhammed Yibre Department of Electrical Engineering

Home base of the project: Department of Electrical and computer engineering

Amount of Fund: 20,198 Birr

Source of Fund: College of Engineering

Project Duration: One year

Status:



58. “Assessment and Identification of Wind Energy Resource for Rural
Application in the Geba Catchment”.



Project Registration Number: CoE/ARF/15/2010

Objectives
General Objective

The general objective of the project is to develop sustainable wind energy technology for rural
communities. It thus aims in contributing. Positively and directly, to national objectives of food
security, poverty alleviation, environmental protection and rural development.


Specific Objectives
The specific objectives of the project are:
            Assess and identify the wind energy resources around the catchment.
            Create a data base of wind speed for representative sites.
            Develop local speed maps of the sites.
            Assess the household and community services demands (such as water pumping,
             grinding mills, clinics, schools etc.) of rural communities within the catchment.

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          Assess and select appropriate wind energy technologies for rural application
          Design and develop an appropriate wind energy technology.
There are many types of wind energy conversion technologies. Among the technologies,
assessment and selection of appropriate types for the rural application will be made.


Short project description:
A research call has been announced by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research to
participate in the rural capacity building project research. A proposal was developed and
submitted to the office and after two step screening this project has got a financial award (refer
attached with this proposal document for details).

This proposal is intended to deal with assessment and identification of wind energy sources
around the Geba catchments by measurement of daily wind speed on representative sites and
producing local wind speed maps employing appropriate modeling software, assessment of
energy demand of rural communities with in the catchment and assessment and selection of wind
energy technologies for rural application.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Ethiopia Institute of Agricultural Research
on behalf of Board of Agricultural Research Fund (BoARF),Rural Capacity Building Project
Research Coordinator,Contact Person: Tigist Redda, Address: Tel: 011-464-2633, Fax 011-646-
1294, P.O.Box 2003 Addis Ababa.
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-coordinator(s): Dr. Mulu Bayray Kahsay
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Co-Investigator: Ftwi Yohanness Hagos, Department of
Mechanical Engineering
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Anwar Mustefa (M.Sc)
,anwami@yahoo.com P.O.Box 231.Tel:0344410973, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mekelle University, Hailay Kiros(M.Sc.). hailaykiros@yahoo.com P.O.Box 231, Tel:
0344410973, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mekelle University, Gebre Gebretsadik
(M.Sc.), Gebreg2000@yahoo.com, Tel:0344403022, Mekelle Appropriate Technology Research
Center, Mekelle, Fisseha Girmay (B.Sc), Tigray Region Bureau of Water, mines and Energy,
Mekelle
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Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Mechanical Engineering

Amount of fund: 400,000.00

Source of Fund: Board of Agricultural Research Fund (BoARF)

Project duration: three years

Status:

                 COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
59. “Serological and Parasitological Survey of Leishmania donovoni in Dogs in
Kafta-Humera, Tigray, Ethiopa”

Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/01/2009


Objectives
          To investigate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of Leishmania donovani using
           serology and parasitological methods.
          To forward significant strategy to control further spreading of the disease both in
           animals and man.

Short project description:
Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of great medical and
veterinary significance. Leishmania parasites cause leishmaniases, a group of diseases with
diverse epidemiological and clinical patters (from self-healing skin ulcers to severe, life
threatening visceral disease). Over the lat decade, visceral leishmaniasis has emerged as a major
opportunistic infection associated with HIV is Ethiopia. There is considerable information
pertaining to the public health importance of leishmaniases. Nevertheless, there is evident gap of
knowledge on the role of domestic animals, such as dog (Canis familiars) , in the transmission of
the parasite in Ethiopia. The dog is considered the major reservoir for many species of
Leishmania(VL0 for man. As of everywhere, dogs in Humera are usually in or next to human
houses, which favors the maintenance of the domestic transmission cycle of Leishmaniasis. As
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such, Epidemiological studies will help in developing alternative approaches to control and
prevent the disease. Unclaimed dogs in Humera town killed as part of the campaign to destroy
stray dogs will be used as sources of serum and biopsies for Leishmania species examination.
Cases will be confirmed by either (i) positive serology using direct agglutination test (DAT) titer
or by (ii) demonstration of parasistes from spleen or lymph node aspiration. The research result
will enhance the ongoing communication between veterinarians and human health professionals
for the control of Zoonoses.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Me‟decins Sans Frontic res-Holland
(MSF),Humera town municipality, Humera Veterinary Clinic, Path biology and infectious
Diseases Team, College of Veterinary Medicine, MU
Principal Investigato(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project: Dr

Abrha Bsrat (PI), Department of Veterinary Medicine

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Habtamu Taddele,Dr. Shewit

Kalayou, College Veterinary Medicine Mr. Nigus Abebe, College Veterinary Medicine,

Parasitology Laboratory ,Student Tesfay Hailu, College of Veterinary Medicine, Externship

student

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Veterinary Medicine

Amount of fund: 31,520 Birr

Source of fund: MU recurrent budget from 2002 E.c

Project duration: Seven months

Status: Completed




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60. “Hematological Profile of local Chickens in Alamata Woreda, south
Tigray”                                                                            .

Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/02/2009

Objectives
            To determine the different hematological values of local chickens
            To investigate the effects of environment on hematological values of local chickens
            To investigate the variation in hematological values arising from differences between
             sex, age, and breed of local chickens


Shot project description:
Analysis of normal hematological parameters of chicken is very essential in diagnosing the
various pathological and metabolic disorders. It can be used as a diagnostic tool in order to
assess the health status of an individual and /or a flock. However, normal hematological
information of the local chickens of Ethiopia is hardly available as researches on this line have
rarely been carried out under local condition. Therefore determination of the normal
hematological values of local chickens and effect of environment, sex, ages and breed on these
values will be the aim of this proposal. After blood is collected from the brachial vein, RBC and
WBC will be counted using Hemocytometer and differential count will be made using the
Giemsa stain. PVC will be determined using the microhaematocrit method. MCV, MCH, MCHC
will be simply calculated by ANOVA. After accomplishing this work, it expected that the normal
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hematological values of local chickens will be determined and the effects of environment, sex,
age, and breed will be investigated. In addition, further research areas will be identified.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Agricultural Bureau of Tigray
region/Alamata woreda
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Belayneh Getachew, Department of Veterinary Medicine Co-investigator: Haileliul Aleme,
Department of Veterinary Medicine
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Abebe Mekuria

, Mr. Ftene Tesema , Department of Veterinary Medicine

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Veterinary Medicine

Amount of fund: 16,759 /Sixteen thousand seven hundred fifty nine

Source of Fund: Recurrent budget of MU from 2002 E.C

Project duration: Nine Months

Status:




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61. “Seroprevalence and outbreak investigation of Foot and Mouth
Disease(FMD) in Tigray”.



Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/03/2009


Objectives
              To determine the sero-prevalence of FMD in the region
              To identify serotypes of FMDV isolated in the study areas
              To assess the risk factors affecting the occurrence of the disease by questioner
               surveys
              To identify the phylogenetic relationships between Ethiopia isolated FMDV and
               those previously isolated in Africa and other study areas of the country


Short Project description
Foot-and –mouth disease virus is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-footed animals and
is one of the most important economic diseases of livestock. The current situation of FMD in
Ethiopia is alarming. There is no national control strategy; no legislation exists for making FMD
notifiable to the veterinary authorities or for animal movement restrictions to be imposed.
Therefore, livestock are at risk from endemic strains as well as from antigenic variants prevailing
in neighboring countries. The occurrence of foot and mouth disease in the region is not also well

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as from antigenic variants prevailing in neighboring countries. The occurrence of foot and mouth
disease in the region is not also well understood with the exception of few serological surveys in
the western part of Tigray particularly with the exception of few serological surveys in the
western part of Tigray particularly humera so that in order to understand the occurrence of the
disease in our region and to propose control strategies so as to have clear data of the disease and
its associated risk factors out break investigation and sero surveillance are essential with the aim
of understanding the origin of the disease and identifying the serotypes and subtypes which
would help us in the production of effective vaccines against a specific sub types and serotypes.
In addition since the disease affects also the international trade of live animals and animal
products this research might contribute in solving such national and regional problems so that it
plays a great role in the improvement of national economy of Ethiopia via solving the animal
diseases.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): National veterinary institute
Addis Abeba University Faculty of veterinary medicine,yilkalasfaw@yahoo.com                P.O.box
34,Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-coordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Dr. Berihun Afera Tadele, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Veterinary epidemiology and economics

Amount of fund: 12,300 Birr

Source of Fund: MU recurrent budget of 2002 E.C

Project duration: One year

Status: Completed




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62. “Study on parasitic genera diversity of stray dogs in Mekelle City


Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/04/2009


Objectives
The objectives of the project are 2-folds
                To document the helminthes biodiversity in stray dogs in Mekelle city and
                To establish the structure GIT parasitic communities in the said host.


Short project description:
The dog (Canis famliaris) is a domestic animal that maintains close contact with humans and
other animals such that any lack of diagnosis or treatment against certain diseases favors the
transmission of zoonotic diseases. Among these, Parasitosis and , in particular, helminthiasis, can
become a serious animal and public health concern, as well as an economic problem. Globally,
dogs remain and important source of emerging disease in humans and animals. In Ethiopia,
thousands of dogs remain ownerless, which made them at high risk for contacting various
infectious agents. More over, dog owners in big cities of Ethiopia, such as Mekelle , have little
awareness on the need to regularly diagnose and treat their dogs. If at all, veterinarians routinely
recommend preventive and curative antihelminthic drugs as per product label directions and
based on previous studies conducted some where else in the developed courtiers. It is hence

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important to understand the parasitic genera diversity of stary dogs in Ethiopia so that sound
control strategy could be implemented to safe guard human health and boost livestock
production in the country. The objectives of the project are to document the helminthes
biodiversity in stray dogs in Mekelle city and to establish the structure GIT parasitic
communities in the said host. Stray dogs that are commonly collected in mekelle university
student cafeteria and dogs euthanized by the city municipality will be used as study animals.
Various sections of the gastro intestine (starting from esophagus to the large intestine) will be
investigated from the parasitic genera diversity and intensity. The study for the first time in
Tigray regional state will report parasites of dogs that pose livestock and public health threats.
This will in turn help local veterinarians for the development of strategies for treatment and
control of parasites, and of public health authorities concerned with monitoring the zoonotic
potential of infections in stray dogs.
Key words: gastrointestinal parasites, stray dogs, Mekelle, public health and zoonoses

Collaborating organization and contact person(s) :

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Dr. Getachew Gugsa, Department of Veterinary Medicine

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Shewit Kalayou (Co-

investigator), Dr. Yohannes Hagos (Co-investigator), Mr. Nigus Abebe( Co-investigator)

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of veterinary Medicine/Joint teams: Veterinary

Pathobiology and infectious Diseases and Surgery and gynaecology Teams

Amount of fund: 25,000 Birr

Source of Fund: MU Recurrent Budget of 2002 E.C

Project duration: Six Months

Status:



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63. “Studies on the efficiency of Progesterone releasing intravaginal device
(PRID) on controlled reproduction in crossbred dairy cows.”


Project Registration Number: CVM/RB/05/2009


Objectives
            To evaluate the efficacy of Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device for controlled
             reproduction in crossbred cows and heifers.
            To compare the results obtained with the previous two studies conducted by the
             department
            To recommend the best strategy for enhancing the reproductive performance of dairy
             cattle in Ethiopia.


Short Project description:
The project shall be conducted on a total of 30 crossbred dairy cattle (Heifers, about two years
old pluriparous cows between 60 and 90 days post calving. The animals shall be examined
clinically to make sure that they are non-cycling. All animals shall receive an intravaginal
progesterone releasing device; which shall remain in situ fo a period of 8 to 10 days. All animals

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shall receive an intramuscular administration of 500 I.U of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)
on the day of removal of the intra-vaginal device.
The animals shall be mated/inseminated twice at 48 and 72 hours after device removal.
Pregnancy examination of the treated animals shall be conducted between 60 to 90 post
insemination. The fertility results of the animals shall be analyzed statistically using standard
statistical methods and procedures.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Bureau of Agriculture Mekelle, Ethiopia
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr. Gebrehiwet Tadesse, , Prof.S.K.Khar , Department of Veterinary Medicine




Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Getachew Gugsa, CVM, Mr.

Alemselam Birhanu, CVM, Mr. Habtom Kiros, CVM

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home bas of the Project: Department of Veterinary Medicine

Amount of fund: 36,000 Birr

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget, MU

Project duration: 1 year

Status:




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              INSTITUTE OF PEDAGOGICAL SCEINCES
64.   “Prospects      and     challenges      of   teachers     continuous     professional
development programme at secondary schools of Tigray region”



Project Registration Number: IPS/RB/01/2009


Objectives:
General objective


          To know the degrees of implementation of the Continuous Professional Continuous
           Professional Development program at secondary schools
          To understand the roles of main actors on the        effective e implementation of
           Continuous Professional Development


Specific Objectives
          To assess the current status of the continuous Professional Development program at
           secondary schools of Tigray region.
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            To identify the good practices which are achieved from Continuous Professional
             Development at secondary schools of Tigray region?
            To evaluate the challenges in implementing Continuous Professional Development at
             secondary schools of Tigray region.


Short Project description:
The new Education and Training Policy of Ethiopia (1994) has given special attention to
teachers‟ development. To this effect, the Ethiopian government introduced continuous
professional development programs as a package at school level in 2007 with the intention of
securing quality education through updating the knowledge and skill of the teachers. This seems
to imply the fact that graduation at degree lelevel on the pre-service training program does not
guarantee quality education as long as knowledge is dynamic in nature.


The role of teachers‟ continuous professional development program in improving quality of
education is paramount. Hence, secondary school teachers are involved in the continuous
development program.
Nevertheless, literatures and informal discussion with few secondary school teachers have
indicated that there are hampering factors in implementing the continuous professional
development program. Accordingly, the core objective of this research project is to assess the
challenges in implementing the continuous professional development program at secondary
schools of Tigray Region. It is worth noting, here, that the researchers could not get research
works on this issue with particular reference to secondary schools of Tigray region. In order to
achieve better results, the research work will be carried out by a team consisting four members.
Collaborating organization and contact person(: Tigray Region Education Bureau, Mekelle


Principal investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at mu since the beginning of the project :
Berhane Girmay, Yohannes G/Tsadik, Haile G/eyesus, Tadesse Kahsay, Department of IPS


Involved Research Team Members from MU and address
   i.        Haile G/eyesus, IPS, mobile 0914709007, e-mail: gebreyesushaile@yahoo.co.nz
   ii.       Tadesse Kahsay, IPS, mobile 0914709601, e-mail: mussce2001@yahoo.com
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   iii.    Berhane Girmay, IPS, mobile 0914730027, e-mail : girmayberhane55@yahoo.com
   iv.     Yohannes G/Tsadik, IPS, mobile 0914767833, e-mail: gts.yohannes@yahoo.com
Implementation/Steering committee members: IPS staff members other than the researchers.

Home base of the Project: Department of IPS

Amount of fund: 28,460 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 6 months

Status:




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65. “The link between secondary school and higher education teaching and
learning process; the quality dilemma, the case of MU and Tigray region.”



Project Registration Number: IPS/RB/02/2009


Objectives:
          To assess secondary school teaching and learning process if it is different from higher
           education
          To explore a cycle of teaching and learning process which does not guarantee quality
           of education
          To examine secondary school and higher education teachers different attitude toward
           the profession.
          To compare secondary school and higher education teachers applying similar
           methods of teaching and assessment.
          To relate students similar culture of acquisition of knowledge and skill in both levels
           of education.


Short project description:
The purpose of this research is to investigate the link between secondary school and tertiary
education teaching and learning process as a quality dilemma. To this effect, researchers are
assuming that there is a cycle created which should be broken down so that effective and
efficient teaching and learning process will be established. Or else, there are different teaching
and learning process experience, maybe, existing on both levels of education. Thus, there is a
dilemma where to lay the truth and the problem which does not contribute for the production and
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maintenance of quality of education in those levels. Consequently, statement of the problem,
expected output, and research methods are developed.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Secondary Schools: Atse Yohannes
secondary school from Mekelle zone, Tilahun Yigzaw secondary school from Southern zone,
Samre secondary school from South Eastern zone, Wukro and Hawzen secondry schools from
Eastern zone , Alula AbaNega Secondary school from central zone, Humera secondary school
from western zone, and Sheraro secondary school form North Western zone, Tigray Regional
State Bureau of Education, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia


Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Alemayehu Mamo, Tsegay Girmay, Haile Tareke, Insititute of Pedagogical Science
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Alemayehu Mamo, IPS Director,
alexfelas@yahoo.com 0914722734, MU, Haile Tareke, IPS staff, 0914043278, MU, Tsegay
Girmay, ADRC Head, IPS, tsegay2003@yahoo.com 0914762890, MU.


Implementation/Steering Committee members: IPS staff members who have not been
involving in the research study will be considered as steering committee of the research.
Home base of the Project: Institute of Pedagogical Sciences

Amount of fund: 28,500.00

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Six months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




66. “The role of supervision in enhancing quality of education in primary and
secondary schools of Tigray region, Ethiopia.”


Project Registration Number: IPS/RB/03/2009


Objectives:
          To examine how supervision operates in primary and secondary schools of Tigray
          To create awareness about roles of supervision among educators and other members
           of the society.
          On the basis of the findings of the study, it will be attempted to introduce some
           possible suggestions to solve supervisory problems on the teaching and learning
           process.
          To call upon other researchers to use this study as a basis for further detailed study on
           supervision to develop understanding of educations supervision and skills within
           work.
          To assess the status of educational quality of the region


Short project description:
Supervision of activities at the school level is a key factor in ensuring the quality of an education
program. Actually, supervision has always been an integral feature of education programs in all
countries. Supervision has theoretically two fundamental roles to play on school functioning:
first, it should help to maintain system level norms for schools which are the basic units of a
larger system, schools have their own uniqueness and individuality and thus, together they have
to follow certain common patterns of organization and functioning. Secondly, supervision ought
to promote change and development of every school (and teacher).
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



This study, therefore, aims at investigating the actual functioning of the supervision system in
Tigray primary and secondary schools in terms of the two basic theories of supervision
mentioned above. It is aimed at identifying whether supervision is playing the role of enhancing
quality education in the region bu examining policies, strategies and practice of supervision.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s), Tigray Regional Education Bureau,
Mekelle, Ethiopia,18 Woreda Education Offices in Tigray selected in the study,All high schools
in Tigray,54 private schools in Tigray, Sample government elementary schools in Tigray.

Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Ayene Tamrat, Tarekegn Haileselassie, Fedil Juhad, Getachew Tefferi, Tesfay Naizgi Institute of
Pedagogical Sciences

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Ayene Tamrat (M.A).,IPS
Staff,0914708423,      Fedil    Juhad     (M.A),      Quality    Assurance      Head      ,      IPS,
0911466177,MU,Getachew Tefferi (M.A. IPS Staff, 0914748201, Tarekegn Haileselassie (M.A)
IPS Staff ,0914112530, Tesfay Naizgi (M.A) IPS Staff, 0914707985, MU

Implementation/Steering Committee members: IPS two Course Team members who have not
been involving in the research study will be considered as steering committee of the research

Home base of the Project: Institute of Pedagogical Sciences

Amount of fund: 28,500.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Six Months

Status:




                                                                                                 144
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




67.” Heritage Management Plan for Aksum”


Project Registration Number: IPHC/RB/01/2009


Objectives:
General Objective
The purpose of this research is to propose a comprehensive heritage management plan to Aksum
by investigating ways to preserve and conserve historical and archaeological sites, thereby
ensuring their transmission for the future generation, whilst supporting and enhancing ongoing
Aksum‟s old quarter regeneration and development.


Specific Objectives
          Identify the level of control (access) to the archaeological and historical sits
          Conducting comprehensive inventory of the tradionla houses that are of greater and
           historical significance
          Assessing way in which some of the old houses can be rehabilitated and be used for
           various purpose without loosing their orginal context
          Identifying tourism related economic activities


Short Project description:
The two of Aksum is a place of outstanding heritage value. The town was in existence at least
three century before the birth of Christ, predating the renowed Aksumite Empire that made the
town its imperial capital. The ancient city is the site of major archaeological sites such as the
Aksum stele and Queen Sheba palace as well of Ethiopia‟s oldest Christian sanctuary, the
Cathedral of Aksum Tsion Maryam, first built in the 4th century and still regarded to be the
spiritual home of Ethiopian Orthodox Church (Stuart Munro-Hay, 1991). Today the town of
Aksum, in addition of being an administrative and trading center, is one of the major tourist
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

destinations in the country. It has a population of more that 34,000 inhabitants. Caused by the
prolonged restriction to renovate, construct and refubsh residential houses, the state of housing in
the older quarter of Aksum is in a state of deterioration and many of the people living in the
older quarters are suffering as a result. Several plans were drawn to address questions of
livability and preservation issues by local national and international bodies (National Urban
planning Institute, 2001). Nevertheless a meticulous heritage management plan is needed that
take into account the international guidance, Ethiopian Government policy but also the reality of
the situation within the Site and its environs. The vision for the future heritage management of
plan of Aksum must be founded on retaining its heritage value, as well as recognition of other,
sometimes conflicting, issues and constraints.

Collaborating organization and contact person: Tewodros Tilahun (Architecture Department,
Mekelle University), Aksum municipality, Tigray Tourism and Cultural Commission, Tekele
Hagos (Authority for Research and Conservation of cultural Heritage (ARCCH), Hiluf
Berhe(Archaeology department, Aksum University)

Principal Investigator(s) project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Hiruy Daniel, Department of Heritage Conservation


Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address:Tilahun Teshome (GA at Dep.
Heritage Conservation),Tsedal Assress(Ass.lect at Department of .Heritage Conservation


Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Heritage Conservation

Amount of fund: 24,736.00 birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 months

Status:



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68. “Built forms Social Consciousness and Tradition among the Erob
Community of Eastern Tigray”


Project Registration Number: IPHC/RB/02/2009

Objectives:
          to identify soci-cultural constructions and societal practices that have for long tied the
           tangible and intangible heritages in the built environment
          To explore the socially constructed value meanings and symbols of the built forms
          To examine the current status of the traditions of the built environment in the Erob
           community
          To study the social representation of values and traditi
           ons in its built form and impacts by modernity
          To draw lessons from these experiences that can be applied by other societies seeking
           to comply with the preservation and developments of their indigenous knowledge


Short Project description:
Ethiopia is termed as a living Museum of all sorts of tangible and intangible cultural heritages.
The material culture in the country side villages of Tigray. Likewise are in place in witness of the
rich experience social advancement of organized social structure since time immemorial. In
tribute of this the region has been endowed by major monuments, homesteads, public spaces and
temples: each with their own significant value meaning and symbolic representations. In fact,
this tradition in the Erob land, where modern material culture slowly finds a foothold, is
demanding an immediate attention for conservation.
This project, thus, attempts to identify and popularize the key societal and cultural tenets of built
forms from anthropological perspective. Since architectural forms have complex relationships
with social political, economic and historical focus that link the philosophical ad symbolic
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factors with the social production of the physical environment, an emphasis will be given to
understand the function of this relationship with a view to assisting the policy makers and
community leaders to have informed opinion to craft a workable policy and proposals.
To do this task, the researcher examines critically important archival materials, oral accounts,
collects ideas from development workers, government authorities, community leaders, urban
planners and other relevant sources. This will be done by taking the architectural experiences of
the Erob community. Thus, it will be examined from the role of indigenous architectural forms in
development activities as a tie tread for the integration of tangible and intangible heritages.

Once the research is done, the findings will be examined to the university community and the
peoples of Ethiopia at large using various channels of communication, both printed and
electronics media. Besides, the responsible government officials will be given recommendations.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Adigrat Diocese Catholic Services,
Adigrat, Tigray Tourism Agency, mekelle, Erob Wereda Administration, Dewhan, Cultural
Association of Tigray, mekelle


Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU Since the beginning of the project:

Aklilu Habtu, Department of Heritage conservation

Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Shewit Abrham, Ato Fesseha

Berhe Department of History, Mekelle University

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home bas of the Project: Department of Heritage Conservation

Amount of fund: 26,624.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




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69. “A Profile of the career of Ato Tsegaye Berhe Implication for the
documentation and preservation of Intangible cultural Heritages”


Project Registration Number: IPHC/RB/03/2009


Objectives:
To preserve the intangible political Heritages of the country, and to document the out put to be
used by the students and to publish so that the local people can read.


Short Project description:
In spite of its significance, little work has been so far done on the history of T.P.L.F‟s prominent
leaders. This project will attempt to present an account though brief of the T.P.L.F‟s armed
struggle to document as intangible political heritage of the country by concentrating on the
profile and career of Ato Tsegaye Berhe Hadera and some other prominent political figures of
the T.P.L.F‟s oral informants who are now in office and/or ex. T.P.L.F‟s fighters are primary
informants for this project, civilians, the party‟s publications audiovisual documents.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
The office of the Tigrean peoples liberation front. The Tigray regional Information rearve this
Excellency Ato Tsegaye Berhe Hadera mekelle , Tigray Ethiopia, mob.phone 0911211037 at the
organizational and personate collaborate in due couble of this project.
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Wendu Abreha, Department of Heritage conservation
Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Tilahun Teshome: Department of
Heritage conservation GAII, Tsedal Asres: - Department of Heritage conservation, Assistant
lecturer, Lu-ul Gush, Department of Heritage conservation, Assistant lecturer
Implementation/Steering        Committee       members:       Hiruy       Daniels,   Lu-ul    Gush,

Aklilu Habtu ,Tsedal Asres ,Tilahun Teshome ,Department of Heritage conservation

Home base of the Project: Department of Heritage Conservation


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Amount of fund: Twenty six thousand six hundred ten (26610.00) Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Seven months

Status:




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   COLLEGE OF NATURAL AND COMPUTIONAL SCIENCES
70. The Adigrat AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research)
Magneometer Project.

Project Registration Number: CNCS/UCLA/01/2009

Objectives
To investigate the possible effects of African-sector equatorial ionosphere on our navigation and
communication systems to study the ionospheric irregularities in this region.


Short Project description
In a landmark experiment on December 12, 1901, Marconi, who is often called the “Father of
Wireless”, demonstrated transatlantic communication by receiving a signal in St. John‟s
Newfoundland that had been sent from Cornwall, England. Marconi‟s famous experiment
showed the way toward worldwide communication, but it also a serious scientific dilemma. Up
to this point, it had been assumed that the radio signal would be heard up to the point; it had been
assumed that the radio signal would be heard up to the point where some intervening object
blocked it. However the success of Marconi‟s transatlantic communication invalidated this
argument since radio waves apparently bend around the Earths curvature. This challenge was
settled with the discovery of an ionized layer in the Earth‟s upper atmosphere, which can reflect
electromagnetic wave back toward the Eaths. This ionized layer is called ionosphere, which
contains ionized gases produced mainly by bombardment of neutral gases by radiations from the
Sun. This means that the concentration of ionized gases in the ionosphere depend on the
characteristics of the Sun and the background neutral gases. The ionosphere affects modern
technologies such s civilian and military communications navigation and surveillance systems,
etc. This arises because many of our modern technological systems use signals transmitted to and
from satellites, which must therefore pass through the ionosphere. This can modify the signal
significantly by partially or totally reflecting or deflectin or scientillating or delaying the signal
that traverse throyg the ionosphere, and hence worsening that accuracy of our communication
                                                                                       151
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

and naviagation systems. Therefore for most reliable communication and navigation it is
necessary to correct the signals for effects imposed by the ionosphere. In order to do the proper
correction, understand the fundamental processes governing the electrodynamics and plasma
production and loss of the ionosphere is essential. Ionospheric plasma distribution is not uniform
rather it varies in space, local time, magnetic activity, season, and solar cycle. For this study we
limit ourselves to equatorial ionosphere, a region where density irregularities often observed.
These irregularities are extremely dynamic and highly disruptive, causing signal deterioration to
communication and navigation systems, While AMBER routinely observes ionosphere plasma
drifting mechanism(E*B drift), the GPS will monitor the structure of plasma at low /mid-
latitudes in the African sectors. In that case we will be able to continuously monitor the strength
of equatorial electro jet (EEJ) and thus the E*B drift, the prime cause for the formation of EA
and plasma irregularities at low /mid-latitudes in the African sector. The magnetometer at
Adigrat is one of four magnetometers that are/or will be deployed in four African countries
(Ethiopia, Algeria, Cameroon, and Namibia). Even though the possible effects of African-sector
equatorial ionosphere on our navigation and communication systems have bee widely
recognized, the study of ionospheric irregularities in this region has been almost abandoned
primarily due to the lack of ground-based instruments. On the other hand, satellite observations
have shown very unique and dynamic ionospheric density irregularities in the African
longitudinal sectors. The cause of these unique density irregularities in the continent remains a
mystery fir the scientific community, becoming a challenging problem for our navigation and
communication systems. This has created a gap of global understanding of the physical behind
the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes
severe limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. AMBER ( African Meridaian B-field
Educaiton and Research) project has been initiated by the University of California Los Angeles
(UCLA) and funded by NASA to install magnetometers in some selected regions of Africa. The
prime sciencntific objective of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electodynamics
of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and
season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanisms of ionospheric plasma (E*B
drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other one at
about 60 off the equator. With the availability of long time (more than 30 years accomplishment)
operational magnetometer at Addis Ababa (magnetic equator), which is now augmented by the
                                                                                     152
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

recently deployed Japanese magnetometer, a suitable site with 60 off the equator was sought for
the AMBER magnetometer. Thus Adigrat was the only place found in the Ethiopian territory that
can satisfy the basic criteria mentioned above. In addition to this suitable geographic location,
ADigrat is the only place at 60 geomagnetic latitude region of Ethiopia that has apposite local
facilities to safely accommodate the instrument. AMBER magnetometer was shipped to Ethiopia
via commercial airlines from USA, and the academic staff of Bahir Dar and Mekelle Universities
deployed it successfully. The installation site was in the campus of Yalem Birhan senior high
school at Adigrat. AMBER magnetometer began its operations on Agust3, 2008 and data is
collected continuously since then.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Alem mebrahtu: Department of Physics,
Mekelle University    Ethiopia,Endawoke Yizengaw , Institute of Geophysics and Planetary
physics , University of Caliiformia, Los Angelels , USA, Bayile Damite : Washera Geospace and
Radar Science laboratory, Bahirdar university , haBahdarHosanena
Principal Investigator(s) project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Alem Mebrahtu, Department of Physics


Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Tsega Berhane, Hagos
Weldegebreal, Temesgen Yirdaw, and Ashenafir Weldeemariam, Dawit Hiluf, haileslassie
Gebremariam, Department of physics, Mekelle University
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of Project: Department of Physics

Amount of fund: USD 6,365.00

Source of fund: UCLA, USA and MU

Project duration: Starting July 2008

Status: On going



71. The Adigrat AMBER (African Meridian B-field Education and Research)
Magneometer Project.
                                                                                             153
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CNCS/UCLA/01/2009


Objectives
To investigate the possible effects of African-sector equatorial ionosphere on our navigation and
communication systems to study the ionospheric irregularities in this region.


Short Project description
In a landmark experiment on December 12, 1901, Marconi, who is often called the “Father of
Wireless”, demonstrated transatlantic communication by receiving a signal in St. John‟s
Newfoundland that had been sent from Cornwall, England. Marconi‟s famous experiment
showed the way toward worldwide communication, but it also a serious scientific dilemma. Up
to this point, it had been assumed that the radio signal would be heard up to the point; it had been
assumed that the radio signal would be heard up to the point where some intervening object
blocked it. However the success of Marconi‟s transatlantic communication invalidated this
argument since radio waves apparently bend around the Earths curvature. This challenge was
settled with the discovery of an ionized layer in the Earth‟s upper atmosphere, which can reflect
electromagnetic wave back toward the Eaths. This ionized layer is called ionosphere, which
contains ionized gases produced mainly by bombardment of neutral gases by radiations from the
Sun. This means that the concentration of ionized gases in the ionosphere depend on the
characteristics of the Sun and the background neutral gases. The ionosphere affects modern
technologies such s civilian and military communications navigation and surveillance systems,
etc. This arises because many of our modern technological systems use signals transmitted to and
from satellites, which must therefore pass through the ionosphere. This can modify the signal
significantly by partially or totally reflecting or deflectin or scientillating or delaying the signal
that traverse throyg the ionosphere, and hence worsening that accuracy of our communication
and naviagation systems. Therefore for most reliable communication and navigation it is
necessary to correct the signals for effects imposed by the ionosphere. In order to do the proper
correction, understand the fundamental processes governing the electrodynamics and plasma
production and loss of the ionosphere is essential. Ionospheric plasma distribution is not uniform
rather it varies in space, local time, magnetic activity, season, and solar cycle. For this study we
                                                                                                  154
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

limit ourselves to equatorial ionosphere, a region where density irregularities often observed.
These irregularities are extremely dynamic and highly disruptive, causing signal deterioration to
communication and navigation systems, While AMBER routinely observes ionosphere plasma
drifting mechanism(E*B drift), the GPS will monitor the structure of plasma at low /mid-
latitudes in the African sectors. In that case we will be able to continuously monitor the strength
of equatorial electro jet (EEJ) and thus the E*B drift, the prime cause for the formation of EA
and plasma irregularities at low /mid-latitudes in the African sector. The magnetometer at
Adigrat is one of four magnetometers that are/or will be deployed in four African countries
(Ethiopia, Algeria, Cameroon, and Namibia). Even though the possible effects of African-sector
equatorial ionosphere on our navigation and communication systems have bee widely
recognized, the study of ionospheric irregularities in this region has been almost abandoned
primarily due to the lack of ground-based instruments. On the other hand, satellite observations
have shown very unique and dynamic ionospheric density irregularities in the African
longitudinal sectors. The cause of these unique density irregularities in the continent remains a
mystery fir the scientific community, becoming a challenging problem for our navigation and
communication systems. This has created a gap of global understanding of the physical behind
the evolution and formation of plasma irregularities in the equatorial region, which imposes
severe limitations on ionospheric density modeling efforts. AMBER ( African Meridaian B-field
Educaiton and Research) project has been initiated by the University of California Los Angeles
(UCLA) and funded by NASA to install magnetometers in some selected regions of Africa. The
prime sciencntific objective of AMBER is to understand the processes governing electodynamics
of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude, local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and
season in the African region. The most credible driving mechanisms of ionospheric plasma (E*B
drift) can be estimated using two magnetometers, one right at the equator and the other one at
about 60 off the equator. With the availability of long time (more than 30 years accomplishment)
operational magnetometer at Addis Ababa (magnetic equator), which is now augmented by the
recently deployed Japanese magnetometer, a suitable site with 60 off the equator was sought for
the AMBER magnetometer. Thus Adigrat was the only place found in the Ethiopian territory that
can satisfy the basic criteria mentioned above. In addition to this suitable geographic location,
ADigrat is the only place at 60 geomagnetic latitude region of Ethiopia that has apposite local
facilities to safely accommodate the instrument. AMBER magnetometer was shipped to Ethiopia
                                                                                       155
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

via commercial airlines from USA, and the academic staff of Bahir Dar and Mekelle Universities
deployed it successfully. The installation site was in the campus of Yalem Birhan senior high
school at Adigrat. AMBER magnetometer began its operations on Agust3, 2008 and data is
collected continuously since then.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
   1. Alem mebrahtu: Department of Physics, Mekelle University Ethiopia
   2. Endawoke Yizengaw, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary physics, University of
   Caliiformia, Los Angelels , USA.
   3. Bayile Damite: Washera Geospace and Radar Science laboratory, Bahirdar University,
   haBahdarHosanena
Principal Investigator(s) project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Alem Mebrahtu, Department of Physics

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Hagose Woldegebreal, PHD,

Tsega Berhane, Lecturer, Desalegn Ayehu, Lecturer, Ashenafi W.mariam, Lecturer, Aklilu

Getachew, Lecturer, Department of Physics, CNCS, MU

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of Project: Department of Physics

Amount of fund: ETB, 29,000.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Starting July 2008

Status: On-going

72. Evaluation of the bio-efficacies of indoor residual insecticide sprayed (IRS)
walls/surfaces and study on physical status, utilization and bio-efficacies of long lasting
insecticide treated nets (LLINs) used against Anopheles mosquitoes in malarious areas of
Tigray region, Ethiopia.

Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/02/2009
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Objectives
          To determine residual efficacy of insecticide sprayed walls/surfaces at specific time
           after spraying against laboratory colony of Anopheles mosquitoes.
          To determine residual efficacy of insecticide sprayed walls/surfaces at specific time
           after spraying against field collected Anopheles mosquitoes.
          To study the bio-efficacies of insecticide sprayed walls/surfaces of different types
           (substrates).
          To strengthen the vector biology and insect science research laboratories of the
           Department of Biology at Mekelle University
          To investigate the distribution and proper utilization of ITNs in some selected
           districts of Tigray.

Short project description:
Malaria is reported to cause a serious public health and socioeconomic impediment world wide.
Factors such as temperature increment due to global warming, increase in vector breeding sites
due to construction of dams for irrigation and hydropower generation, the development of drug
resistance by the malarial parasites, emergence of insecticide resistant by the vector mosquitoes,
migration of non immune people to malarial areas due to resettlement programs and the
deterioration of malarial control programmmes due to economic reasons greatly contributed to
the resurgence of malaria world wide. Seventy five percent of the total area of Ethiopia and 68%
of the population are estimated to be at risk of malaria infection. Seventy five percent of Tigray
region is reported to be malarious. Indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) is one of the major
malaria vector control strategy. On the other hand malaria vector mosquitoes are developing
different level of resistance to the commonly used insecticidal chemicals. The nature of spray
surface/walls and other physical parameters of an area can affect the bio-efficacy of IRS
chemical. Hence, studying the bio-efficacy of residual insecticides on sprayed walls/surfaces is
an important component of insecticide resistances surveillance in malarious areas of Tigray.
Therefore, this study aims at evaluating the residual efficacy of insecticide on sprayed
walls/surfaces in selected malarious areas of Tigray Ethiopia. Bio efficacy tests will be carried
out using WHO cone bio assay test procedures on laboratory reared and field collected malaria

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

vector mosquitoes. Log time probit regression analysis and lethal time (LT50) values will be
calculated for each wall type in the study areas, using SPSS version fifteen software.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Dr, Mekonon Yohannes (MU, College of

Medicine) e-mail: mekonnen210@yahoo.com Cell phone 0914708927,Dr. Habte Tekie (AAU),

e-mail: habtem@yahoo.com,Ato Yonas Wletaw (EHNRI), Ato Meressa Embaye, kolla Temeben

Malaria Control Office, cell Phone 0914786944.

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Zewdneh Tomas, Dr. Taddesse Dejene ,Dawit Kidane ,Department of Biology

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Yared Debebe, Kiros W/Gerima,

Mihret Hadu and Tsegabrhan Abay

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Biology

Amount of fund: 35,000.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Eight month

Status:




73. Ethnobotanical Survey and Laboratory Evaluation of Efficacies of
traditional Mosquito Repellent Plants against Anopheles Mosquitoes in
Tigray Region Ethiopia                                                      .
Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/03/2009


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Objectives

General Objective
            To document traditional use of plants as mosquito repellents and to evaluate the
             repellency efficacy of the plant materials against Anopheles vectors of malaria.


Specicific Objectives
            To identify plant parts used as mosquito repellents and ways of processing plant parts
             for mosquito repellence by the local population.
            To further evaluate repellent efficacy of widely used plants against An, arabiensis in
             the laboratory.
            To generate a base-line data on the utility of plant products as mosquito repellents in
             line with controlling Anopheles vectors of malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia.
            To establish Anopheles mosquito in sectary and bio assay test laboratory in the
             Mekelle University, Biology Department


Short Project description:
In Ethiopia, malaria is found to be the number one public health problem and a major cause of
illness and death. Like other parts of Ethiopia. tigray with about 4 million inhabitants, 75% of the
region is malarias. Repellency is known to play an important role in preventing vector borne
disease. Synthetic repellent chemicals used for control of vectors are causing irreversible damage
to the eco-system. Majority of synthetic repellents has bee reported to be toxic, not safe for
public use and high cost. Therefore, some rely on the use of botanical pesticides is an ongoing
practice. However, this indigenous knowledge on botanicals has remained largely unexploited in
Tigray upon which this extensive search to explore eco-friendly botanicals as repellent of
mosquito will be conducted. The research will be undertaken to investigate traditional use of
plants as mosquito and evaluate the repellent plants will be undertaken in two malarious
Weredas of Tigray, Kolla Temben and Alamata, from December 2009 to February 2010. In each
Wereda five villages will be selected depending on the prevalence rate of malarial, up to 25
randomly selected households will be interviewed using semi-structured questioners. Plant
specimens with promising mosquito repellent effect will be collected an species identification
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

will be done at the National Herbarium of the Department Biology, Addis Ababa University.
Voucher specimens of the plant will be deposited in the herbarium. Repellent properties of the
promising plant extracts essential oil will be evaluated as repellent against Anopheles arabiansis
under laboratory condition. Three concentrations 10, 20 and 30% essential oil extract from each
plant species in glycerin with acetone as solvent will be evaluated. The repellent trial will be
conducted in arm-in-cage experimental set up. Mean protection time will be calculated using
excel spreadsheet. The percentage protection of each plant extract will be estimated. Data will be
subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the mean percentage protection
induced by different plant extracts. Mean percentage protection between treatments and positive
control DEET will be compared by sample t-test. The significance label for both analysis will be
determined at P<0.05. This study is expected to generate a base line data on the use of botanicals
as mosquito repellents.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Dr. Habte Tekie (AAU), e-mail;
habtetm@yahoo.com,Dr.       Mekonon     Yohannes     (MU),    College   of   Medicine),   e-mail:
mekonnen210@yahoo.com,Cell Phone 0914708927, Ato Yohans Wletaw (EHNR),Ato Meressa
Embay, Kolla Temben Malaria Control Office, Cell Phone 0914786944, Ato Birhane Atsbiha,
Chemistry Department, Cell Phone: 0912061294
Principal Investigator(s) Project Co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Dawit Kidane, ,Dr. Taddesse Dejene, Zewdneh Tomas ,Department of Biology

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Yared Debebe, kiros W/Gerima,

Mihre Hadgu and Tsegabrhan Abay

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Biology

Amount of fund: 30,000.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Eight month

Status:
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74. Adoption of improved beekeeping technology for poverty allevation in North West
Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Impacts and Challenges
Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/04/2009


Objectives
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Assess extent of adoption of improved technology in beekeeping Investigate impacts and
challenges of the new technology in beekeeping and Investigate Honey yield, income and
Gender involvement in beekeeping sector

Short Project description
In order to improve the quantity and quality of honey yield, the Agricultural and Rural
Development (ARD) office and different non-governmental organizations have introduced
improved box hives. This study will look at adoption of improved box hives at the individual
farm household level. Adoption is viewed as a variable representing behavioral changes that
farmers undergo in accepting new ideas and innovations in agriculture. This project is initiated to
assess extent of adoption of improved technology in beekeeping, investigate impacts and
challenges of the new technology in beekeeping. The study will be conducted in 5 Villages in
Adsegede Tsimbla Woreda. A full understanding of the complexities involved in the adoption of
technologies and the impacts they have can only be achieved by mixing methods, such as
quantitative surveys, qualitative interview, focus group discussions. The required data will be
collected from beekeepers and extension workers of the Woreda. For obtaining the relevant
information, personal observation focus group discussions and personal interviews will be
conducted with beekeepers, extension workers and bee experts. Data analysis and presentation
will be through descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies, mean and standard
deviations; t-test and x2 will be employed to test the significance of continuous and discrete
variables, respectively. SPSS version 12 and JMP-5 software will be used to analyze the
quantitative data. The findings will be presented to Mekelle University and dissemeniated to
Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) Office of the Woreda and Tigray Regional state.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s) :Agricultural and rural development office

of Asegede Tsimbla, Telephone: 0346610005,Development agents working in the study site:

Ftsum Ayalneh and Wagnew Takele ,Cell Phone:+251-914-781801

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Gidey Yirga, Dawit Kidane , Department of Biology Betelihem Koru , Department of Natural

Resource Economics and management
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Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dawit Kidane Biology

Department,    CNCS,      Mekelle     University    P.O>BOX       3072,   Mekelle   Ethiopia:

dawitom14@yahoo.com Cell Phone+251-914-709477, Betelihem Koru Department of Natural

Resource Economics and management (NREM), Cell Phone+ 251-912-036748E-mail:

betiye97@yahoo.com

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Biology

Amount of fund: 28,000

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




75. Correlates of Profitability of Large and medium Scale Manufacturing
Industries in Ethiopia: An evidence from panel data regression model.



Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/05/2009


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Objectives
General Objective
            To analyze the profitability of Ethiopian large and medium scale manufacturing firms
             by analyzing a unique firm-level panel data set of firm performance over the periods
             1998-2008.


Specific Objective:
            Briefly examine the overall profitability performances of Large and Medium
             Manufacturing industries in Ethiopia
            Empirically investigate the major factors that determine the profitability of Large and
             Medium Manufacturing industries in Ethiopia
            To assess which, private or public, firms are on average tend to be more profitable, or
             to recognize whether or not the profitability of the private-owned and public-owned
             firms is different.
            To determine whether or not profitability is related or associated to firm covariates
             such s firm size , age , ownership, location, capital intensity, advertising intensity,
             domestic demand rate, import intensity, industries total asset, market share, inventory
             turn over, depreciation rate, etc.
            To identify the relative significance of these selected market structure
             elements/factors / determinants of firm profitability.


Short Project description
The purpose of this study is an attempt to explore the impact of various industry market structure
elements (such as: Advertising Intensity, Capital Intensity, Inventory Turnover, Firm Size, etc)
on profitability of large and medium scale manufacturing industries of Ethiopia and examine to
what extent discrepancies in industries profitability are due to variation in theses factors impact
the performance of these industries. The analysis is to be based on balanced panel data of firms
over the period 1998 to 2008. To this effect, more than one accounting measures of firm‟s
profitability is intended to be utilized: Price cost margin (PCM), before tax profit rate (BTAP),
Return on Assets (ROA), etc. Even though the results might vary according to the measure of

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profitability employed, these findings will be supposed to support those Leahy (1998), who
found that the results did not vary systematically according to estimation methods.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
   * Addis Abeba University                              * Ministry of Health
   Faculty of Sciences, P.O.Box                               P.O.Box 1234
   9086, Addis Ababa                                     Tel 251115517077/517309
   Ethiopia. Tel 251-1-156146                            Fax 251115519366
   518999.Fax 251-1-513099                               E-mail moh@ethionet.et
   E-mail:                                               Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
   Intmed@telecom.net.et                                * Ministry of Agriculture
      Agriculture and Natural                          * Central Statistics of Ethiopia
       Resources Bureau, Tigrya                          Postal Address P.O.Box 1143
       Region, BOFED, Mekele,                            Telephone 251-11-1553011
       Mr.Teklemedhin Dirar                              Email csa@ethionet.et
       Tel +251-04-402009                                Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
      Trade of Trade and Industry (NOTI)               * Ethiopian Statistical
       P.O.Box 704(Addis Ababa)                           Association, Ethiopian
       Tel: 251115514288/515411                           Statistical Association
       E-mail:moti@ethionet.et                             P.O.Box 5724, Addis Ababa
       * Regional institute of Agriculture research centre Ethiopia
       International Cooperation‟s
      Catholic University of                               * ILRI
             Leuven , Belgium                               * WHO
          University of Hasselt,                            * UNICF
             Belgium                                         * USAID


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Haftu G/hiwot G/meskel College: CNCS

Involved Research Team members from MU and address: Said Mussa (MSc.)

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E-mail: mussasaid 3226@yahoo.com, P.O.Box:3972,Department of Statistics, Yimer Wasihun

(BSC.), Department of Statistics, Fanos Ashenafi (BSc.), Department of Statistics,

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Statistics

Amount of fund: 26,994.33

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




76. Preliminary geological and geochemical investigation for gold near
Workamba and Hawzein , Tigray, Ethiopia
Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/06/2009


Objectives

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          To investigate the area (about 50km2) and produce a detailed geological map
           (1:50,000).
          To Study the geological structures like faults, lineaments or shear zones,
           regional/local and their control on the emplacement of the quartz veins;
          Identify the type and distribution of the host rocks,
          To outline type of alterations and their patterns in the study area;
          To carry out surface rock and drill core sampling in Workamba and survade rock and
           stream sediment sampling near Hawzein;
          To undertake petrographic investigation and rock geochemical analysis;
          To develop the paragenetic sequence; and
          To record the amount of placer gold being recovered by panning if any by local
           people.


Short Project description:
Ethiopia is bestowed with many mineral resources such as gold, tantalum and base metal
sulfides. They are mainly confined to the Neoproterozoic basement rocks which form part of
Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). The shield consists of a variety of sedimentary, volcanic,
ophiolitic, and plutonic and intrusinve rocks which are subjected to a varying degree of
metamorphism and deformation. During Late Proterozoic time African continent has witnessed
formation of a series of mobile belts along the margines of the stable African craton due to the
Pan African Orogeny. They include Mozambique Belt (MB), Zambezi Belte, Katanga Belt,
Damara Belt, Arabian-Nubian Shield and others in northwestern Africa. These belts have
occupied extensive areas in the continent and host a variety of metallic deposits including gold.
On the basis of the tectonic setting the deposits are categorized as ophiolitic, island arc and
cordilleran-extensional types. MB and ANS represent East African Orogeny. MB is older than
ANS and represents the reworked pre-Neoproterozic crust. ANS on the other hand represents
juvenile Neoproterozoic crust. ANS is comprised of intra-oceanic island arc and back-arc basin
complexes and micro-continents welded together along north to east trending sutures. The arc
related sutures are oriented E-NE in the north (Arabian Shield) and N-NE in the south (Nubian
Shield). Collision between ANS complexes and pre-Neoproterozoic continental blocks to the

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east and west around 750-650 Ma has deformed the ANS along north trending shortening zones
and produced major northwest trending, sinistral strike-slip faults and minor northeast trending,
dextral strike-slip faults. Among a variety of mineral deposits, gold, platinum, base metal
sulfides, tantalum, iron etc, gold form an important category and are the main target for
exploration and so far resulted in delineation hundreds gold deposits and occurrences. Majority
of them are primary load gold deposits of different size.


Gold deposits mainly occur as mesothernal gold in Ethiopia and arc mostly related to shear-zone
hosted veins within the Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences of greenschist ot
amphibolite facies metamorphic grade rocks (e.g. Legadembi). In northern Ethiopia, gold
mineralization is indicated by the presence of extensive quartz veins and panning activity for
gold by local people. There are many areas such as Shire, Hawzein, Workamba etc in Tigray
region show incidence of gold. These areas need a systematic investigation to confirm the source
and gold potential. Estimation of placer gold recovered illegally by the locals however also
provides an idea in terms of gold occurrence. The areas known for gold near Workamba and
Hawzein are presently chosen for a preliminary geological and geochemical investigation for
gold.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Dr. Solomon G/selassie and Dr. K.
Bheemalingeswara, Department of Earth Science, P.O.Box. 3066,

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr. Solomon G/selassie, Dr. K. Bheemalingeswara Department of Earth Science
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Dr. Kurkura Kabeto, Dr. Kassa

Amare and Post-Graduate students, Department of Earth Science.

Implementation/Steering Committee member: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Earth Science

Amount of fund: 35,000 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project duration: January-July 2010

Status:




77. Geological investigation and characterization of the industrial minerals and rocks of
Hashangi area: Implication to ceramics industry.




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/07/2009


Objectives
The main objectives of this research work are to map the extent and distribution of the lacustrine
clay sediments and rocks in the Hashengie area and its surroundings to log the depth of the
deposits beneath the surface. Besides to knowing the lateral distribution of the clay deposits, the
next objective is to characterize the clays in different categories based on their mineralogy and
laboratory results. Finally, one of the major objectives of this research project is to estimate the
available reserve clay deposits in the area and imply better methods of extraction and utilization
for traditional as well as modern ceramic industries.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
Petrology-geochemistry and mineral resource exploration, exploitation research and course team
both firms Earth Science Department will involve. Collaborative researchers from chemistry and
industrial engineering departments (Ato Gebrekidan Mebrahtu and Ato Idris Zerhudin) will be
involved. 5 graduating class students and 2 Master students at Earth Science department) will be
involved.
Mr. Tesfaye Gebregiorgis is a contact Person for Maychew technical college staff at final and 2 nd
stage of the research project will be involved for conducting testing of different mineral mixes
for preparation of plasters.

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Dr. Kurkura Kabeto, , Ato Aynalem Zenebe, Department of Earth Sciences

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:Dr. Kurkura Kabeto (Assistant
professor in Petrology and Geochemistry at MU Principal Investigator). Ato Aynalem Zenebe
(Lecturer, Environmental Geology). Mr. Tesfay Gebregiorgis (Master Course Student at Earth
Science Department), Dr.K.Beheema (Assistant Professor in Economic Geology at MU),
Dr.Kassa Amare (Assistant Professor in Geochemistry and Economic Geology at MU), Dr.
Solomon G/selassie (Assistant Professor in Economic Geology at MU), Dr. Dubey (Associate



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Professor in Petrology and sedminetology), and all Mineral Resources Exploration and
Exploitation team members and two master students in Economic Geology.
Implementation/Steering Committee members:
This is not applicable, however, all team members might including the department head could be
implementation team members: Dr. Kurkura Kabeto (Assistant professor in Petrology and
Geochemistry at MU principal investigator). Ato Aynalem Zenebe (Lecturer, Environmental
Geology), Mr. Tesfay Gebregiorgis (Master Course student at Earth Science Department), Dr.
K.Beheema (Assistant Professor in Economic Geology at MU), Dr. Kassa Amare (Assistant
Professor in Geochemistry and Economic Geology at MU), Dr. Solomon G/selassie (Assistant
Professor in Economic Geology at mU), Dr. Dubey(Associate Professor in Petrology and
sedimentology), and all Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation team members and two
master students in Economic Geology Program.
Home base of the Project: Department of Earth Sciences

Amount of fund: 25,000 Birr

Sources of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: December 2009 to June, 2010

Status:




78. Assessing the Training System of Tigray Athletics and Football Projects.



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/08/2009

Objectives
The main objectives of the research is to collect data about how the training system is going on
in Athletics and Football in Tigray, it will also assess the training system of Tigray Athletics and
Football Projects.


Short Project description:
This project is aims to find out the exact facts by using scientific methods on how the training
system is going on in Athletics and Football in Tigray. It will also critically assess the Athletics
and Football project in Tigray. We will prepared standard and conduct of questionnaire,
interview, field observation, and document analysis in order to collect the actual data on the
ground.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Tigrain Athletics and Foot ball federation,

Ethiopian Athletics and Foot ball federation, Woreda youth and sport affairs

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Woldegebreal Mezgebo, ,Kessae Legesse, Leku Tadesse, A. Lawrence Department of Sport

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Kessate Legesse, Lekun Tedesse,

Anthonypillai Lawrence, Department of Sport Science, MU

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Sport Science

Amount of fund: 35,000

Source of fund: 2002 academic year allocated recurrent fund

Project duration: December, 2009 to June 2010
Status:



79. Physichemical analysis of drinking water in urban areas of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/09/2009


Objectives
   a. General Objective

          To investigate the quality level and impact of human activities on the quality of
           drinking water in urban areas of Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia.

   b. Specific Objective

          to determine the extent of the quality of drinking water in urban areas of Tigray
           region
          To identify current and potential risks of drinking water contamination
          To develop data base on drinking water quality of Tigrai region


Short project description:
Ensuring quality of drinking water nowadays is becoming a challenge in every part of the world.
With respect to access to quality drinking water, Ethiopia is among the lowest in the world
Coverage between regions with in Ethiopia also varies greatly.
Drinking water quality is defined by analyzing it in terms of its chemical, physical and biological
contents. The main goal of this study is to investigate the quality level of drinking water in urban
areas of Tigrai. For this purpose drinking water samples will be collected throughout the region
from different sources. These samples will be analyzed for different water quality parameters
using spectrometry, Polarographic, chromatography and other parameter-specific (e.g. titration)
techniques. Results obtained from the analysis will be compared with Ethiopian and world health
organization (WHO) guideline values for quality of drinking water.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Municipality and water resource offices of
Alamata, Korem, Maichew, Mekelle, Wukro, Adigrat, Adwa, Axum, Shire, Humera, Water and
energy bureau of Tigray, Helath bureau of Tigray , Laboratory of Exana gold mining PLC,Addis
Ababa University, Department of Chemistry
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Gebrekidan Mebrahtu, Department of Chemistry

Involved Research Team members from MU and address: Samuel Zerabruk , Lecturer, MU,

Department of chemistry, Yirgalem W/gebreiel, M.Sc. Ezana Gold         Mining PL.C , Teklit

G/Giorgis, AGA, MU, Department of chemistry

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of Project: Department of Chemistry

Amount of fund: Twenty five thousand eight hundred eighteen birr (25,818 birr)

Source of fund: recurrent budget, MU

Project duration: Dec, 30, 2009 to June, 2010

Status:




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80. Identification of challenges in the quality of teaching mathematics and physical sciences
in high school of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.




Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/10/2009


Objectives


General Objective:
The main objective of the research is to study the challenges of teaching quality education in
mathematics and physical education in high schools and preparatory schools of Tigray.


Specific objectives:
Some of the main objectives of the research are:
          To analyze how the quality of chemistry, Mathematics and Physics teaching is going
           on from time to time and the main factors for the changes that may be observed from
           the study.
          To investigate the quality of Chemistry, Mathematics and physics teaching at the
           secondary schools of Tigray.
          To study the details of the curriculum (syllabus, teachers; guide, content , method of
           delivery, assessment techniques of the three subjects), facilities, chemicals,
           laboratories and schools environment , participation of the stakeholders, etc
          To investigate and assess the way textbooks are prepared, organized and study the
           availability of affordability of reference books of chemistry, mathematics and Physics
           at the secondary schools of Tigray.
          To study the horizontal and vertical linkages of the Chemistry, Mathematics and
           Physics curricula of the secondary schools of Tigray.
          To identify the challenges faced during the actual implementation of the Chemistry,
           Mathematics and Physics curricula (if any).



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          Identify the concepts and misconceptions in the mathematics, and physical sciences
           content of the high school syllabus
          Come out with possible solutions for the identified problems.


Short project description:


The purpose of the study is to identify the key variables that affect the quality of chemistry,
Mathematics and Physics teaching in the Secondary schools of Tigray; i.e. the research has an
objective of identifying the factors that hinder the enhancement of the Chemistry, mathematics
and Physics teaching in the secondary schools of Tigray and then proposes possible solutions for
the identified problems. The study will be conducted in the secondary schools of Tigray for the
study, 12 schools that teach grades 9-10 and 6 preparatory schools will be included. In the
process, the curriculum (content, method of delivery, assessment techniques, availability of
chemical and other laboratory equipments will be investigated). In addition, existing facilities,
school environment, participation of the stakeholders, etc will be investigated. In addition,
horizontal and vertical linkages between and among the three subjects will be assessed and then
scientifically documented.
The research will also investigate the concepts and misconceptions in the contents, the way text
books for the three subjects are prepared, organized and then distributed. In addition, the
availability and affordability of reference books will also be investigated and then documented.
In the process of the research; students, subject matter teachers, school administrators, Parent
Teacher Association (PTA) members, wereda education heads, people in the capacity building
etc will interview. Both qualitative and quantitative data will be employed in the process.
Appropriate statistical techniques will be used for analysis. Appropriate statistical software and
tools including SPSS and Stata will be used.
The study will be conducted at all zones and most of Tigray. In the study, 12 secondary schools
(that render grades 9-10) and 6 preparatory schools will be slected and these schools are
scattered through out the region.




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Collaborating organization and contact person(s)
The collaborating research institutions are:Science and Technology Agency of Tigray, Tigray
Educaiton Bureau,Adwa TTC, Abyi-Adi TTC, Axum Univeristy, Teachers Association of
Tigray,
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Hagos W/Ghebriel (PhD), Department of Physics, Ato Atakiliti Araya ,Amaha Weldu
Department of Mathematics
Involved Research Team members from MU and address: Hagos W/Ghebriel (PhD), Alem
Mebrahtu (PhD), Ato Haileselasie G/mariam, W/t Tsega Berhane, Ato knife Abrha, Ato Atakliti
Araya,Ato Getner Tweodros,Ato Amaha Weldu, Ato                 Amaha Weldu, Ato Tesfalem
G/mariam,Ato Berhanu Atsbeha, Ato G/kidan Mebrahtu
Implementation/Steering Committee members: Hagos Woldeghebriel (PhD),Department of
Physics,Ato Atakilit Araya ,Department of Mathematics ,Ato Amaha Weldu, Department of
Chemistry
Home base of the Project:Departments of Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics

Amount of fund: Forty five thousand birr (45,000.00)

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: Eight months (December 2009-June2010)

Status:




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81. Reusing possibilities of MU Endayesus Campus Wastewater by Removing
Nutrients and Microorganism Using Vertical Sub-surface Constructed
Wetlands.



Project Registration Number: CNCS/RB/11/2009

Objectives:

The long-term objective of this proposal is to determine the technical and economical feasibility
of nitrogen, N2 and microorganism removal concept based on complexity of molecular nitrogen ,
N2 transformations using constructed wetlands , Mean while, the other objective of this proposal
is to recycle the treated wastewater for different water supply purposes using constructed
wetland
.
Short project description:


Mekelle University Endayesus campus Wastewater Treatment Wetland (MUEWTW) is found
inside Mekelle University main campus. The main objective of this project is to remove
nutrients, especially nitrogen containing compounds, and microorganisms, which are harmful to
human being, from wastewater and recycle the treated water as water supply for irrigation,
fishery, flashing toilet and watering garden plants. About 360m3
Wastewater will be treated per day by this biological reactor treatment wetland.
A wetland with a dimension of 0.7 to 0.9m height, 1.5 to 2.0m length and 0.6 to 1.2m width
wetland will be constructed. The wetland will be filled with different sand grains, gravel and
other geological materials. Phragmites and Typha will be used as a wetland plant for nitrogen
uptake. Every day 3 to 4 liter of wastewater will feed the treatment wetland. Sample will be
taken from the influent and effluent once per week. The data obtained will be collected in spread
sheet. The bacterial and nutrite, ammonia, COD and BOOD are biological anc chemical

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parameters which will be measured once per week. The physical parameters like pH, EC and
TDS will be measured every day and sometime un-occasionally.
The bacterial removal is effective in the place where high temperature is available. So
MUEWTW will remove 40 to 50% of nutrients found in the wastewater.


Collaborating organizational contact person(s)
Berhanu Menasbo, Mekelle University Department of Chemistry, P.O.Box 231.
E-mail: berhanu menasbo@yahoo.com

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Berhanu Menasbo, Department of Chemistry

Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: G/kidane Meberahitu, Berhane

Atsibaha, Abraha Tadesse.

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Chemistry

Amount of fund: 55,640.00 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 7 to 8 months

Status:




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        COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGE

82. Biographic research: A study program as part of the research project of
   TPLF/EPRDF-DERG civil war, 1974-1991”
Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/01/2009


Objectives:

The objectives of the biographic research are: (1) to analyze the role of individuals in the
struggle: (2) appreciate the Ups & downs seen in the struggles; (3) assessment the socio-
economic, political & military significance of the struggle:


Short project description:

Meklle University made agreement with TPLF to launch a general historical study of the struggle
period of the organization in the seventeen years from 1974 to 1991. Accordingly, the
Department is a consultation with the university top managements has prepared group and
private proposals to launch the project. Until some preconditions cool be vertical, the department
finally agreed to begin with by biographic researchs to be conducted by the 2001 graduating
student of the department. Based on this agreement /decision 33 graduating students will study
the life history/biography of 33 TPLF fighters fro all walks of life.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): TPLF Bureau,

Ato Tweodros Hagos-0914300506 or Ato Godifay Hadush-0914748310



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Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Department of History

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not Applicable

Home base of the project: Department: History

Amount of fund: 40,050.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 1 semester

Status:




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83. Psychosocial and Academic Antecedents of Attrition: The Case of Female
   Students at Mekelle University.
Project Registration Number: CSSL/MU/02/2009


Objectives:
              Identify the psychosocial and academic factors that contributed to student
               attrition.
              State the impact of the factors on the level of attrition experienced by male and
               female students.
              State the experiences of high achievers and low achievers in relation to the factors
               that contribute to attrition.
              Compare the educational experiences between teachers and students


Short Project Descriptions:


There is a very high concern among colleges and universities about the proportion of students

that dropout before completing their studies. Most of these universities conduct extensive studies

as a way of identifying these factors and introduce various mechanisms intended to alleviate the

problem. This study plans to identify the psychosocial and academic variables that contributed to

students dropouts at Mekelle University. It will also investigate whether such compare the

experiences of high achievers and low achievers in relation to the variables identified. A

representative sample of males and females selected from low achievers and high achievers as

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

well as teachers involved in the program will be selected for the study. Possible inter-correlations

between the variables and the differential impact of these variables to attrition will be computed

using appropriate statistical procedures.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Gender Office, Ministry of Education

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Zenawi Zerihun, Psychology

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Mekonnen Alemu, CSSL,

Department of Foreign Languages, Yemane Zeray, CLG Department of Civics, Alemayehu

AMAmo, IPS, Pedagogical Science Unit, Tsehaye W.Giorgis, CBE, Department of Economics

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Psychology

Amount of fund: 28,856.00

Source of fund: 2002 E.c Recurrent budget of MU

Project duration: 3 months

Status:




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84. Assessing the effectiveness of Amateur Tourist Guides (Tigray Region in
focus
Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/01/2009


Objectives:
General objective
The study aims at assessing amateur tourist guides effectiveness in Tigray region. Specifically,
the study attempts to:
              Examine the knowledge of amateur tourist guides about the existing facts and
               historical developments of the tourism sites in the region
              Assess the extent of knowledge that the tourist guides have about the history and
               fact of the sites
              Investigate whether the guides have the necessary ethics of guiding tourists or not.
              Explore the English language proficiency of the tourist guides
              Find out the level of awareness of the tourist guides on cultural communication
               barriers.


Short project description:
Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. For many countries it is their
main source of income. Many nations rely on this dynamic industry as a primary source for
generating revenues, employment, private sector growth, and infrastructure development.
Tourism development is encouraged, particularly among the developing countries around the
world, when other forms of economic development, such as manufacturing or the exploration of
natuatual resources, are not commercially feasible (Gee, 1997:3).


Tourism is not product selling industry, as there is no actual product to sell. It is a service
renderting business. As it is a means of survival and development, there is a growing need for
providing quality service else where in the sector. These many include but not limited to helping
visitors get hosing hotels with better accommodations, enjoy recreational activities, obtain
shopping, and transportation services. Fortunately, these are major duties accomplished by a tour

                                                                                               184
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

guide. A tour guide ( or tourist guide) provides assistance, information and cultural , historical
and contemporary heritage interpretation to people on organized tours, or individual clients (
Pond,1993).
 Tourist guides are an essential part of the tourism industry in any country. Thus, it is highly
recommended to hire tour guides form the area, since they are familiar with the environment,
Not only do they know about the attraction sites; they are also kept informed of the latest
regulations bout each site. Their competence in English enables visitors to get the truth from the
local population. As a „translator‟ of social-cultural information, the guide will be able to point
out many details that are otherwise over looked. An appropriate journey and means of
transportation can be chosen with the help of he guide in order to work out a tour that best meets
the visitor‟s expectations and wishes. The guide will also organize additional assistance by
helping the visitor in identifying hotels and recreation activity and shopping.
Ethiopia is a land of wonder and attraction, with one of the richest histories on the African
continent and home to cultured and friendly people who are descended from some of the world‟s
oldest civilizations. Tigray which is the northern mist state of Ethiopia is endowed with many
natural resources and a rich cultural heritage. About 20,300 foreigners and 37,150 local tourists
visit the historical sites of the region in each year. Nevertheless, Tigray like the nation is not
benefited form tourism as it has to be for different reasons. Among the expected causes are: lack
of efficient tour guides, travel agencies, museums & other cultural activities and other recreation
activities.


A tour guide is the primary contact person with the clients. She /he should have knowledge of the
sites, ethics and English language skill. However, complaints about the effectiveness of the tour
guide service have been heard from tourists who came to visit Tigray; particularly, on their skill
of interpreting facts, English language use and ethics. This is mainly because the tourist guides
are not given regular and continues training on how to assist tourists through effective
communication. Besides, it is also difficult to say that the tourist guides have enough knowledge
on historical sites and their historical development. Thus, this study aims at assessing the
effectiveness of the amateur tourist guides.



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The study will employ, survey method to assess the effectiveness of amateur tourist guides in
Tigray region. The subjects of this study will be tourists, amateur tourist guides and regional and
wereda tourism bureau experts. To collect data questionnaire, interview and Focus group
discussion will be employed. After carefully gathering the appropriate data using the instruments
of data collection mentioned, the quantitative data gathered will be analyzed using statistical
tools and the qualitative data will also be described. Finally it will be organized using mixed
approach ( cresswell, 2003:217). Finally, there is no doubt that the finding of this study will be a
great input to the development of tourism in the country in general and Tigray region in
particular.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Tigray Regional and Wereda Tourism

bureau experts,Tourist Guides,Tourists (available)

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Mesfin Eyob, Gebre Hishe, Melakamu Abate, Department of Foreign Languages

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:Mesfin Eyob (Lecturer) , Gebre

Hishe (lecturer), Melkamu Abate (Lecturer) Department of foreign Languages

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign Languages

Amount of fund: 21,404.50 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: 7 Months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


85. Biographic research: A study program as part of the research project of
   TPLF/EPRDF-DERG civil war, 1974-1991.
Project Registration Number: CSSL/MU/01/2009

Objectives:

The objectives of the biographic research are: (1) to analyze the role of individuals in the
struggle; (2) appreciate the ups & downs seen in the struggle; (3) assessment socio-economic,
political & military significance of the struggle.

Short project description:
Mekelle University made agreement with TPLF to launch a general historical study of the
struggle period of the organization in the seventeen years from the 1970 to 1991. Accordingly
the Department in consultations with the university top managements has prepared group and
private proposals to launch the project until some preconditions could be verified, the
Department finally agreed to begin with by biographic research to be conducted by the 2001
graduating student of the department. Based on this agreement /decision 33 graduating students
will study the life history /biography of 33 TPLF fighters from all walks of life.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): TPLF Bureau, Ato Tewodros Hagos-

0914300506 or Ato Godefay Hadush-0914748310

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Department of History

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of History

Amount of fund: 40,050.00

Source of fund: Research Fund from MU


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project duration: 1 semester

Status:




                                                                      188
   Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




86. Psychosociail and Academic Antecedents of Attrition: the Case of Female Students at
Mekelle University.



   Project Registration Number: CSSL/MU/02/2009

   Objectives:
                 Identify the psychosocial and academic factors that contributed to student
                  attrition.
                 State the impact of the factors on the level of attrition experienced by male and
                  female students
                 State the experiences of high achievers and low achievers in relation to the factors
                  that contribute to attrition.
                 Compare the educational experiences between teachers and students


   Short project description:
   There is a very high concern among colleges and universities about the proportion of students
   that dropout before completing their studies. Most of these universities conduct extensive studies
   as a way of identifying these factors and introduce various mechanisms intended to alleviate the
   problem. This study plans to identify the psychosocial and academic variables that contributed to
   student dropouts at Mekelle University. It will also investigate whether such variables affect
   male and female students differentially. Moreover, the study will compare the experiences of
   high achievers and low achievers in relation to the variables identified. A representative sample
   of males and females selected from low achievers and high achievers as well as teachers
   involved in the program will be selected for the study. Possible inter-correlations between the
   variables and the differential impact of these variables to attrition will be computed using
   appropriate statistical procedures.


   Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Gender Office, Ministry of Education
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Zenawi Zerihun Department of Psychology

Involved Research Team Memebers from MU and address: Mekonnen Alemu , CSSL,

Department of Foreign Languages, Yemane Zeray, CLG, Department of Civics,

Alemayehu Mamo, IPS, Pedagogical Science Unit, Tsehaye W.Giorgis, CBE, Department of

Economics

Implementation /Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Psychology

Amount of fund: 28,856.00

Source of Fund: Research Fund from MU

Project duration: 3 months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




 87. Assessing the effectiveness of Amateur Tourist Guides (Tigray region in
 focus).



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/03/2009

Objectives:

General Objective
The study aims at assessing amateur tourist guides effectiveness in Tigray region


Specifically, the study attempts to:
              Examine the knowledge of amateur tourist guides about the existing facts and
               historical developments of the tourism sites in the region
              Assess the extent of knowledge that the tourist guides have about the history and
               facts of the sites.
              Investigate whether the guides have the necessary ethics of guiding tourists or not.
              Explore the English language proficiency of the tourist guides.
              Find out the level of awareness of the tourist guides on cultural communication
               barriers.
Short project description:
Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. For many countries it is their
main source of income. Many nations rely on this dynamic industry as a primary source for
generating revenues, employment, private sector growth, and infrastructure development.
Tourism development is encourage, particularly among the developing countries around the
world, when other forms of economic development , such as manufacturing or the exploration of
natural resources , are not commercially feasible (Gee, 1997:3)




                                                                                               191
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Tourism is not product selling industry, as there is no actual product to sell. It is a service
rendering business. As it is a means of survival and development, there is a growing need for
providing quality service else where in the sector. These may include but not limited to helping
visitors get hosting hotels with better accommodations, enjoy recreational activities, obtain
shopping, and transportation services. Fortunately, these are major duties accomplished by a tour
guide. A tour guide ( or tourist guide) provides assistance, information, and cultural , historical
and contemporary heritage interpretation to people on organized tours, or individual clients
(Pond, 1993).
Tourist guides are an essential part of the tourism industry in any country. Thus, it is highly
recommended to hire tour guides from the area, since they are familiar with the environment.
Not only do they know about the attraction sites; they are also kept informed of the latest
regulations about each site. Their competence in English enables victors to get. The truth from
the local population. As a „translator‟ of socio-cultural information, the guide will be able to
point out many details that are otherwise over looked. An appropriate journey and means of
transportation can be chosen with the help of the guide in order to work out a tour that best meets
the visitor‟s expectations and wishes. The guide will also organize additional assistance by
helping the visitor in identifying hotels and recreation activity and shopping.

Ethiopia is a land of wonder and attraction, with one of the richest histories on the African
continent and home to cultured and friendly people who are descended form some of the world‟s
oldest civilizations. Tigray which is the northern most state of Ethiopia is endowed with many
natural resources and a rich cultural heritage. About 20,300 foreigners and 37,150 local tourists‟
visit the historical sites of the region in each year. NeverthelessTigray like the nation is not
benefited from tourism as it has to be for different reasons. Among the expected causes are: lack
of Hotels & other tourist accommodation, restaurants, cafes, bars, night-clubs, lack of efficient
tour guides, travel agencies, museums & other cultural activities and other recreation activities.

A tour guide is the primary contact person with the clients,. She /he should have knowledge of
the sites, ethics and English language skill. However, complaints about the effectiveness of the
tour guide service have been heard from tourists who came to vist Tigray: particularly, on their
skill of interpreting facts, English languages use and ethics. This is mainly because the tourist

                                                                                                192
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

guides are not given regular and continues training on how to assist tourists through effective
communication. Besides, it is also difficult to say that the tourist guides have enough knowledge
on historical sites and their historical development. Thus, this study aims at assessing the
effectiveness of the amateur tourist guides.
The study will employ, survey method to assess the effectiveness of amateur tourist guides in
Tigray region. The subjects of this study will be tourists, amateur tourist guides and regional and
wereda tourism bureau experts. To collect data questionnaire, interview and Focus group
discussion will be employed. After carefully gathering the appropriate data using the instruments
of data collection mentioned, the quantitative data gathered will be analyzed using statistical
tools and the qualitative data will also be described. Finally it will be organized using mixed
approach (cresswell, 2003:217). Finally, there is no doubt that the finding of this study will be a
great input to the development of tourism in the country in general and Tigray region in
particular.

Collaborating organization and contact person(s)

Tigray regional and wereda Tourism bureau experts, Tourist Guides, Tourists (available)

Principal Investigato(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:
Mesfin Eyob, Gebre Hishe ,Melakamu Abate, Department of Foreign Languages
Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Mesfin Eyob (Lecturer) Gebere

Hishe (Lecturer), Melkamu Abate (Lecturer) ,Department of Foreign Languages

Implementation/ Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign Languages

Amount of fund: Twenty one thousand four Hundred Four Birr and Fifty cents (21,404.50 Birr)

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Seven Months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



 88. An exploration of the use of Irob language and its maintenance among
 the students of Irob-Saho community in the Tigray regional state.



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/04/2009

Objectives:
The main objectives of this study can be listed as follows:
          To disclose whether children of the target ethnic group use their mother tongue-
           Irobegna language or not.
          To show how often the students use the language
          To assess how proficient they are in the target language.
          To investigate the impact of using Tigrigna as a medium of instruction on the use and
           maintenance of the ethnic language-Irobigna
          To investigate the attitudes of the subjects towards the target language.
          To show whether the target community maintained the language or not; and
          Finally, to recommend some of the possible ways of maintaining the language


Short Project description:

Ethiopia, as a multilingual and multicultural country, has more than 80 languages that can be
categorized under different language families (i.e. Semitic, Cushitic, Omotic, Nilotic).
Nevertheless, most of these languages are not written and are endangered mainly because of the
wrong language policies that the country has come through. But, unlike in the previous regimes,
the existing Ethiopian constitutution guarantees the right and equality of all languages in the
country. In this constitution, article 39, and sub-article 2, states, “ Every Nation, Nationality and
people in Ethiopia has the right to speak, to write and to develop its own language; to express, to
develop and to promote its culture; and to preserve its history. “ The government also strongly
argues that people should learn in their own mother tongue. In line with this, the college of social
sciences and languages hhas designed Language, Culture, Society and Development as one of
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

its thematic areas. One of the rationales behind this thematic area is to ensure the use and
maintenance of endangered languages and this study is directly related to this thematic area.
It is believed that if children are learned in another language other than their first or mother-
tongue, it is likely for them to shift to the dominant language and then ultimately their first
language declines. Learning through a dominant language does have extremely negative
consequences particularly for the use and maintenance of minority children‟s first language.
They learn a dominant language at the cost of the mother tongue which is displaced, and later
often replaced by the dominant language.


Despite this very fact, in the Ethiopian context, not all languages are used as a medium of
instruction and not all languages have the writing system. Irobigna is one of these languages. Till
recently, the Irob language has no its own writing system and the community have been learning
in Tigrigna starting from grade one up to grade eight and their language is not even given as a
course in the school life of the children. Then a question arises: will different medium of
instruction lead to different language use and further language shift? To answer this question, a
comprehensive study needs to be conducted to explore the relationship between medium of
instruction, language use and language maintenance among the target community.


Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the use of Tigrigna language as a
medium of instruction in Irob wereda on the use and maintenance of the Irob language among
the students of the target community. The study will mainly employ quantitative research method
to obtain the benefits of both types of research and then to ensure the greatest possible detail
regarding the topic. This is because; data collected through different techniques are likely to
produce more valid and reliable findings than data from one source only. The data will be
collected sequentially in two stages: the first stage is a self report questionnaire to collect
quantitative data, while in the second stage a focus group will be interviewed to collect
qualitative data. Finally, the study is expected to predict whether the target language is
maintained or not and the result will definitely help both the speakers and policy makers to take
their own measure accordingly.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s) Irob Wereda Tourism Bureau, Education
bureau and High school students in the wereda
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Gebre Hishe, Mesfin Eyob ,Melkamu Abate, Department of Foreign languages

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:

1. Gebre Hishe (Lecturer), Mesfin Eyob (lecturer), Melkamu Abate (lecturer), Department of

Foreign Languages

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign Languages

Amount of fund: Nineteen thousand one Hundred Severnty Five (19,175.00) Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Seven Months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

 89. Modeling land use optimization at Lake Hashenge watershed in the
 Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. A geo-information and earth observation
 based approach.



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/05/2009

Objectives:


The general objective of this research is to study the optimized combination of land allocation
to different land uses (grazing lands, cultivated lands ( rain fed and /or irrigated farming ) and
area closure for minimized soil erosion and sediment yield and maximized people‟s net income
in Hashenge watershed located in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia.
Specific objectives include:
              Mapping and characterizing the quality of current agricultural resources and
               farming practices of Hashenge watershed.


              Model the variation in sediment yield and freshwater inflows in the
               watershed/Hashenge lake associated with regional hydrologic processes due to
               changes in land use and land cover.


              Developing different land use optimization scenarios in the Hashenge watershed
               for both ecological and farmers economical benefits using a multi-objective
               Linear Programming (LP) optimization modeling and GIS.


Short project description:
The consequence of human influence on natural ecosystems ends with either widespread
environmental problems (such as soil erosion, floods and droughts; and eventually threatening
the life of human being), or well protected environment. The major agendum in this project
focuses on the former type of human impact on environment. The Northern Highlands of
Ethiopia are one of the regions facing the most serious environmental problems. Grazing lands
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

deterioration has accelerated in current decades, primarily due to a doubling or tripling of
livestock numbers, conversion of grazing lands into cropping lands, firewood cutting. Expansion
of farming fields on sloppy fields has threatened the up slope ecological resources. This impact
accelerated soil erosion and resulted on large amount of sediment yield in watersheds.
On the other hand, future agricultural systems need to be further intensified and diversified in
order to meet multiple objectives of rural societies, such as increased income. Employment and
reduced environmental pollution. One means to achieve this is by optimizing resource use
efficiency.
This project is designed to study land use and land use related problems in Lake Hashenge
watershed. There are various land uses in the watershed. Mixed agriculture dominants the area,
with cereals and pulses the main crops, and cattle and sheep the main domestic animals. The
watershed supports a large livestock population, especially in the dry season when livestock from
higher surrounding areas migrate to the lake Hashenge depression (Jan.2009). Fish were
introduced into the lake, but for unknown reasons the harvest has not been sustainable.


Lake Hashenge is exposed to various water users; Irrigating farmers, drinking water supply and
fethers, the area around the lake is potentially suitable for irrigation (both small scale crop farm
irrigation and large scale horticulture and floriculture). Moreover, the area is of potential tourist
interest. Hover ever, no conservation policy is applied on it. The Lake appears to be negligent
from non-subsistent economic activities. The land uses around the watershed are practiced by the
traditional land holding system having no regard to the sustainability of the environmental
resources in the watershed. As the lake is a closed lake (having no outlet), it is exposed to
sedimentation and chemical fertilizer pollutom. That is, over-exploitation of the natural resources
and increasing use of agrochemicals threaten the environmental quality around the watershed
(Hailu A. and Sue E, 2006). This situation seems also to be aggravated by the continuing rapid
population growth and climate change. The quality of water in the lake seems to deteriorate
which would in effect have an adverse impact on the aquatic life in the lake constraining the
production of fish and other marine products. Further more, the lake is shrinking in size. The
volume of water in the lake therefore is declining.



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The unplanned land use practices have an impact on the environmental resource mangement of
the watershed. The land use and environmental resource management around the lake demand
serious intervention-in terms of policy and planning undertakings.
However, the conflict between environmental protection and the economic issues are challenges
facing land use planners and decision makers in many developing countries (Change et al., 1995;
Gezelius and Refsgaard, 2007). Proper environmental planning needs special consideration on
land use scenarios and optimization. Thus, modeling land use optimization at small watershed
scale is the key measure to control land resource degradation (for example, soil erosion,
sedimentation), restore the eco-environment and improve the farmers‟ living standards by
increasing the economic benefits of agriculture. Watershed optimization for each land use,
especially agriculture as one of the significant contributors to the environmental degradation, is
therefore necessary to achieve sustainable development (Seppelt and Voinov, 2002; Heilman et
al., 2003; Wang et al., 2004).
Therefore , this project focuses on modeling of land use optimization at Hashenge watershed by
taking in to account the existing land resources (Soil, vegetation) landscape, human settlement
pattern, and water resource in the watershed. The modeling will be important in terms of
strengthening the local capacity by increasing the capability to sustainable land use planning of
Hashenge watershed.

Collaborating organization and contact person (s): Not applicable

Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development, Tigray ,Ethiopian Mapping Authority (EMA)

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at mu since the beginning of the project:

Biadgilgn Demissie, Department of Geography & Environmental Studies

Involved Research Team members from MU and address:

Biadgilgn Demissie (Ato), Assefa Abegaz (PhD), Solomon Hishe( Ato), Dept. of Geography and

Environmental Studies, MU

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department ofGeography and Environmental Studies

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Amount of fund: 25081

Source of fund: MU Recurrent budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




 90 . An assessment of employability skills: Implications for University-
     Industry linkage.

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/06/2009


Objectives:
          Describe whether or not there are specific strategies employed by colleges and
           Departments to help graduates develop employability skills.
          State the types of employability skills senior students as well as former graduates
           have developed as a result of their experiences in the University.
          Identify the preferred approaches that the academic Departments at the University
           should apply to develop and assess employability skills.


Short project description:
Competence standards are given equal weight with the academic standards set to guide the
process of teaching and learning. Hence, it is important for any higher learning institution to
identify the required employability skills and state the standards of competence in such a way
that training programs can teach and assess the mastery of these skills. It is when the training
programs have clearly stated skills to be acquired by students that standards of competence can
be set. Although some programs at Mekelle University have been employing work placement as
a way of practicing these skills. It is not clear whether the types of skills to be developed are
properly identified. What is more, instructors give more emphasis to teaching the subject
knowledge. The types of assessment conducted at different levels of the training also give more
emphasis to testing the subject based knowledge and skills expected to be acquired by the
graduates. Moreover, there is no evidence to prove the effectiveness of the approaches employed
in assisting students develop the required skills. Hence, it is essential to conduct an assessment to
find out if there are clearly stated types of employability skills in the different programs and
whether graduates are assisted to acquire them.

Collaborating organization and contact person (s): Not applicable
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the Project:

Zenawi Zerihun, Department of Psychology

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Involved Research Team members from MU and address:

Assefa Abegaz, Biadglign Demissie, Department of Geography, Tsegazeab Kahsay, CSSL,

Department of Psychology

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department: Psychology

Amount of fund: 27,324.00

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: 3 months

Status:




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

 91. Enhancing the role of indigenous knowleage of rural women of Tigray in ensuring
 household food security in Tigray region: The case southern eastern zone of Tigray.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/07/2009


Objectives:
General objective
The general objective of the research is to enhance the role of indigenous knowledge systems of
rural women of Tigray in ensuring household food security and in alleviating poverty.
Specific objective
The specific objectives of the research are to:
          Assess the type and nature of indigenous knowledge system the rural women of
           Tigray are using /possess
          Identify the current role of these systems in ensuring household food security and
           alleviating poverty
          Identify the factors handicapping the rural women from fully exploiting these
           traditional knowledge systems
          Show ways that could enhance the role of the IKS in ensuring household food
           security and alleviating poverty


Short project description:
This project is aimed at identifying the nature and types of indigenous knowledge systems being
used by the rural women of Tigray (by taking the South Eastern Zone of the Regional State as
case study) and the extent of use as well as the domains of use. It is equally aimed at assessing
the contribution that these indigenous knowledge systems are making in ensuring household food
security and in assisting the poverty alleviation efforts of the region. Moreover, it is targeted at
identifying handicapping factors in utilizing the maximum out of these rich indigenous
knowledge systems are making in ensuring household food security and in assisting the poverty
alleviation efforts of the region. Moreover, it is targeted at identifying handicapping factors in
utilizing the maximum out of these rich indigenous knowledge systems possessed by the poor

                                                                                                203
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

rural women of the region. By doing so, it will identify and recommend ways of enhancing the
role the indigenous knowledge systems could play not only in ensuring household food security
but also in bringing sustainable development in the region.
Collaborating organization and contact person (s):
              Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development , Regional State of Tigray
              Women Affairs Bureau, Regional State of Tigray
              Food Security Office, Regional State of Tigray
              Bureau of Trade and Industry (Development of Indigenous Knowledge Systems
               Core Process), Regional State of Tigray
              Micro-and small enterprises Agency, Regional State of Tigray


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Fesseha Berhe, Department of History and Cultrual Studies

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:

Shewit Abraham, Department of History and Cultural Studies, Mekelle University

Implementation /Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department History and Cultural Studies

Amount of fund: Seventeen thousand seven hundred ninety five birr only (17,975)

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Seven months

Status:




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92. ባህሊዊ የግጭት አፇታት ስርዓት የፎክልር ሚናና ተቋማዋ የፍትህ ስርዓት ጥመረት በራያ ኣዘቦ ና
ኣካናኒው                                                             .

Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/08/2009

Objectives:

በራያ አዘቦና ኣካባቢው የሚነሱ ግጭቶችን ምክንያት ና ባህሊዊ የአፇታትና የዳኝነት ስርኣታቸውን መመርመር ብልም
ከወቅታዊው ተቋማዊ /ዘመነኛው / የፍትህ ስርኣት ጋር ሉኖራቸው የሚችሇውን ተግባራዊ ፋይዳ መግሇጥ በተጨማሪም
በባህሊዊ ስርኣቶቹ ውስጥ የሚከወኑ ሌዩ ሌዩ ፎክልራዊ ቅርፆችን ምንነት ማህበራዊ ፋይዳ ና ተግባራዊ ኣስፇሊጊነት
መመርመር ነው፡፡


Short project description:

ባህሊዊ የእርቅና የግጭት መፍቻ ስርኣቶች ሀገር በቀሌ በሆኑ ህጎች ና ስርኣቶች የሚዳኙ ና የሚተገበሩ ናቸው፡፡ ህግና
ስርኣቶቹም የበቀለበትን ማህበረሰብ ባህሌ ፣ ሌማድ ፣ ወግ፣ እሴት፣ ነፅርኦተ አሇም ና እምነት መነሻ ስሇሚያደርጉ ግጭትን
የመፍታትና የማብረድ ሃይሊቸው ጠንካራ ነው፡፡ ሇዚህም ነው ባህሊዊ በሆነ ማህበረሰብ ውስጥ ሀገረሰባዊ ተግባራት ና
ሌማዶች ወይም ሌዩ ሌዩ ፎክልራዊ ቅርፆች ሇምሳላ፣ እሬቻዎች ፣ምህሊዎች ፣ ርግማኖት ፣ ምረቃዎች ፣ ሀገር በቀሌ ሌማዶች
ና እምነቶች ግጭትን ከመፍታት ማህበራዊ ሚዛንን ና አንድነትን ከማሰጠበቅ ባሇፇ በግሇስቦች ና በቡድኖቸ መካከሌ ያሇን
ያሌተገሇጠ ጥሊቻ ና ቂምበቀሌ የመንቀሌ ና የማስወገድ ሀይሊቸው ከመደበኛ የፍትህ ስርኣት የተሻሇና ጠንካራ ነው የሚሇው፡፡
በመሆኑም ይህ ጥናት በራያና ኣካባቢው ማህበረሰብ በባህሌ የሚተገበሩ የዳኘነትና የእርቅ ስርዓቶችን እንዲሁም በስርዓቶቹ
ውስጥ የሚፇፀሙ ስነ ቃሊዊ ተግባራትን ፋይዳ ብልም ባህሊዊ የእርቅ ስርዓቶቹ ካሇው ተቋማዊ የፍትህ ስርዓት ጋር ያሊቸውን
መስተጋብር ሇማጥናት የሚተጋ ነው፡፡


Collaborating organization and contact person (s):በራያ ዓዘቦ ና ኣካባቢው የሚገኙ
የሀገር   ሽማግላዎች,      የሃይማኖት      ኣባቶች,ዱበርቲዎች,የህግ       ባሇሞያዎች,         የባህሌና   ስፖርት   ቢሮዎች     ና
ባሇሞያዎች,የማስታወቂያና ህዝብ ግንኝነት ጽ/ቤት ተጠሪዎች


Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

መሰሇ ሙለጌታ, ተመስገን ፇንታው, ሰይድ ይመር ኣማርኛ ት/ከፍሌ




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Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:መሰሇ ሙለጌታ ፣ መቀላ ዩኒቨርስቲ

የሀብረተሰብ ሳይንስ ና ቋንቋዎች ኮላጅ ኣማርኛ ት/ክፍሌ,ተመስገን ፇንታው መቀላ ዩኒቨርስቲ የሀብረተሰብ ሳይንስ ና

ቋንቋዎች ኮላጅ ኣማርኛ ት/ክፍሌ, ሰይድ ይመር፣መቀላ ዩኒቨርስቲ የሀብረተሰብ ሳይንስ ና ቋንቋዎች ኮላጅ ኣማርኛ ት/ክፍሌ

Implementation /Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: ኣማርኛ ት/ከፍሌ

Amount of fund፡ 24,950

Source of fund፡ መደበኛ በጀት

Project duration ፡ 7 ወራት

Status፡




 93.Team work: Its implementation in class room teaching in line with BPR
 recommendation: The case of Mekelle University.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/09/2009


Objectives:
The major objective of the study will be to:
             Assess whether instructors incorporate team work as one technique of teaching or not
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           Observe the frequency of implementation of team work
           Assess the factors which hinders instructors from using team work
           Check whether instructors and students are plying their role in team work effectively
            or not
           Identify the factors that contribute for the ineffective performance of roles in team
            work
           Check whether instructors‟ grouping techniques match with learners grouping
            preference


Short project description:
The main objective of this study will be to explore instructors‟ and their students‟ roles in
implementing team work in actual class room teaching. It will see how team work is
implemented in actual class room teaching-learning process. To this end, College of Social
Sciences and Languages in Mekelle University will be selected as a study area.
To gather information from the subjects (30% of the total number of instructors and students
with in the College) three instruments (Questionnaire, class room observation and interview) will
be used.
The 30% instructors will be selected from those who handle any courses in their departments. In
addition, 30% of the number of the students in the college of social Sciences and Languages will
be selected using stratified, simple random and systematic sampling. Simple random sampling
will be selected using stratified, simple random and systematic sampling. Simple random
sampling will be used to selected the sample instructors and students; besides, to ensure
proportionality of the two sexes as well as to take the proportional number of students from batch
and section stratified and systematic sampling will be employed.


Once the research tools are developed, experts in research areas will comment them so that
amendments might be taken later. Then after, a pilot study will be taken to make sure of the
reliability of the instruments.
Next, after collecting the data from the research subjects, both qualitative and quanititative
method of analysis will be used. Following this, based on the result obtained through the three

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instruments, valid conclusion will be made. And basing themselves on the final conclusions, the
researchers will present their recommendation as a final point.
Finally the research is expected to come up with the identification of instructors‟ application of
team work, factors hindering team wor implementation, instructors and students‟ role in team
work, and the match between instructors grouping techniques and students grouping preferences.
Similar with the BPR recommendation, after a long period of time, these days there is a shift of
focus from the mastery of knowing a subject matters (“usage”) to the mastery of using it (“use”)
in any situation. This in turn can tell us that learners are not only expected to master the target
subject concepts that they are also expected to apply / use this mastery in their situation
(Freeman, Y.S. and Freeman, D.E. 1998; Larsen-Freeman, 1986; Byme, D. 1987; Harmer, J.
1991; Brumfit, C.J. 1979).
Various Scholars tried to point out the importance of social interaction/team work from different
angles. They strongly believe that social interaction is critical for effective teaching-learning
process. For example. Rigg and Hudelson, cited in Freeman, Y.S. and Freeman, D.E, (1998),
clearly stated the importance of social interaction/team work as follows.
    a) Learners can develop their subject mastery, when they feel good about themselves and
        their relationship with the nearby people in their learning settings.
    b) A certain subject mastery will develops when its learner focuses on performing
        something together with other rather than on the subject itself.


Similar with the second point above, Rigg and Allen, cited in Freeman, Y.S. and Freeman, D.E.
(1998), comment that learning any subject means learning to do the things you want to do with
people who learn the subject, from this expression one can easily infer that working with others
is very vital in any learning situation.
The above brief explanation clearly tells us how social interaction (team work) is very crucial in
any teaching –learning context. Thus, giving meticulous consideration for social interaction in
the process of teaching-learning seems to be indispensable. In addition, scholars strongly suggest
that this interaction, especially student-student interaction, in the classroom is highly realized and
manifested more through the use of team work. Team work has a number of merits if property
handled. According to long and Porter (1985), cited in Freeman Y.S. and Freeman, D.E. (1998),


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team work increases practice opportunities and discussion among team members so that
socialization will be increased. It motivates learners for better learning.

Thus, instructors should incorporate team work as teaching technique in their actual classes so
that, the aforementioned benefits of team work would be achieved. However, instructors in
Mekelle University had been observed using team work with out proper organization.
One point we should bear in mind here might be the mere incorporation of team work in
teaching-learning process, with the absence of proper organizations, is unlikely to lead us to an
effective utilizations of its benefits. Indeed, a poorly organized and managed team work can be
regarded as ineffective as badly run lock step/teacher centered lesson (Long and Porter, 1985).
Thus, to take the advantages out of team work, it should be properly planned and organized, and
this may need instructors and their students to play various roles before, during and after the
team work. While this is the fact researches had not been a focus on the effective implementation
of tem work in Ethiopian Higher institutions. At the same time the newly implemented BPR
program in Universities, including Mekelle University, is urging instructors to incorporate team
work as one teaching technique. However, its effective incorporation had not been yet assessed.
Thus a study which will feel this gap is urgent for taking timely corrective measures. Therefore,
the present study is intended to fill this gap by focusing on the implementation of tem work in
Mekelle University.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project :

Mulat Adane , Yasin Mohammed , Department of Foreign languages

Involved Research Team Memebers form Mu and address: Mulat Adane Department of

Foreign languages, Yassin Mohammed, Department of Psychology

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign Languages and Psychology

Amount of fund: 16,534.38 (Sixteen thousand Five Hundred Thirty four and Thirty Eight cent

only)

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Nov, 2009-may 2010

Status:




 94. Learner-centre instruction at Mekelle University: Perception, Practices
 and Prospects.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/10/2009


Objectives:
The main objective of the study is investigating the students and instructors‟ perceptions about
learner-centered instruction, its actual implementation and prospects at Mekelle University.
In light with the main objective, the study will also address the following specific objectives

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          Is student-centered instruction being practiced at Mekelle University?
          What is the instructors‟ perception of student-centered instruction?
          Is there a gap between teachers‟ perception and their actual practices aof students-
           centered instruction?
          What is the students‟ role during the classroom instruction?
          What is the students‟ perception about student-centered approach?


Short project description:
This research project is concerned with investigating instructors‟ perceptions of student-centered
instruction, their actual classroom practices and the prospects of this approach at Mekelle
University. In student-centered approach students are the active participants of the process,
besides, the planning, teaching and assessment revolve around the needs and abilities of the
students ( Brumft, C.J.1979). As students‟ involvements in the lessons increases, the students‟
retaining power of the contents of the lessons also increases. Similarly, Lara (2007) states that
the goal of learner-centered instruction is the development of the students‟ cognitive abilities.
The teaching learning process at Mekelle University, however, seems to face hallenge both from
the students and instructors. First, students perceived this approach as a pretext of instructors to
leave the burden only to the students. In addition, it is also common to observe instructors
themselves dominating class room activities and talks, responding to questions themselves as
well as lecturing throughout. In short, teachers are still the lead actors of the whole classroom
teaching. As a result, students are observed to play a passive role in the teaching learning process
so that they fail to develop their skills and broaden their knowledge in their study areas. This in
turn makes students incompetent in their lives after graduation. Consequently, the current slogan
of all concerned stake holders, „quality of education‟, faces danger. So an attempt to understand
such gaps in the teaching learning process is essential and timely. On top of this, in the BPR
document of Mekelle University, the implementation of student-centered instruction across all
colleges with the aim of solving this undesirable effect is given central place. This study,
therefore aimed at assessing students‟ and instructors‟ perceptions of this teaching approach,
actual practices and its prospects at Mekelle University. The data will be gathered through the
use of three research tools: questionnaire, observation and interview. Then the data will be

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analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Finally, based on the analyzed data major
conclusion will be made. And, this will be followed by, valid recommendations.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principla Investigator(s) project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Anteneh Getachew, Mulat Adnae, Yoseph G/Hiwot Department of Foreign languages

Involved Research Team Members from MU and addrss: Not applicable

Implementation/ Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign

Amount of fund: 20,345.00 (Twenty Thousand Three Hundred Forty Five Only)

Source of Fund: Recurrent Budget,

Project duration: Nov, 2009-June 2010

Status:




95.English as Medium of Instruction for Grade 9 in Tigray: Challenges and
       Prospects.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/11/2009


Objectives:
   The main objectives of the study is to identify the challenges and prospects that students in
   Grade 9 in Tigray experience when learning through the use of English as language of
   instruction for the first time.
   More specifically, the study makes and attempt to answer the following basic questions.
          Do the students understand the contents of lessons transmitted in English easily?
          Can the students express their ideas in English meaningfully?
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

          Do the teachers have good command of English to express the main contents of the
           lessons effectively?
          How can the students to be benefited more from using English as medium of
           instruction?


Short project description:
Starting from the First Cycle of the Secondary Education (Grade9) onwards, the medium of
instruction shifts to English from the use of the students‟ mother tongue, Tigrigna in the Federal
State of Tigray. At this stage of language transition (from Tigrigna to English) , it is assumed
that there are challenges and prospects students encounter when attending subject or learning
comfortably. As a result, they fail to succeed in their academic career or become less achiever in
their school subjects. This survey study, therefore, makes an attempt to identify the challenges
and prospects students may experience as a result of being taught in English as a medium of
instruction in Grade 9. The study will use students and teachers as main sources of data. The data
gathering instruments will be questionnaire, focused group discussion, interview and
observation. After collecting the necessary data from different sources making use of these
varied data collection techniques (in order to get robust results), they will be analyzed
qualitatively and quantitatively and then they will be interpreted. Finally, the results found out
through each of the research instruments will be cross checked for their reliability.


Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Not applicable

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinatro(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Yoseph G/hiwot, Tesfaye Mesele Department of Foreign Languages

Involved Research Team members from MU and address: : Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department ofForeign Languages

Amount of fund: 20,800.00 (Twenty Thousand Eight Hundred only)

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project duration: 8 months

Status:




96. “An assessment of gender based violence in Ethiopia higher Institution:
the case of Mekelle University”.



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/12/2009

Objectives:
          To explore the type of gender based violence in Mekelle University
          To determine the degree of prevalence of gender based violence in Mekelle university
          To identify the perpetuators of gender based violence.
          To identify the cause s of gender based violence in Mekelle University
          To evaluate the institutional system in dealing with gender based violence


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Short project description:
Gender based violence/Violence against women has been recognized as a major obstacle for the
aspiration of social justice and for the achievability of sustainable development. It is the most
pervasive human rights violation that ruins lives and breaks communities. It persists across all
races, ethnic groups, religions and economic status in the world despite its difference in type and
degree. According to UN (2006) report, at least one out of every three women around the world
has been heaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime-with the abuser usually
someone known to her. However, the magnitude of the problem tends to be higher in „third
world‟ countries since the situation of economical inequality and weak institutional arrangements
exacerbates the power imbalance between men and women, which in turn increase the
victimization of women/girls.


Gender-based violence occurs in different settings including the domestic arena and public
places in either one or all of the three forms-physical, sexual and psychological harms.
Regardless of the dominant perception of educational institutions as sanctuaries, protected
environments where students explore knowledge in a mutually respectful atmosphere, various
increasing number of studies have been showing the prevalence of gender based violence in
educational intuitions (for instance, USAID,2003 and 2008: Haffejee, 2006; SCD, MOE and
MoWA,2008;). School related Gender based violence is described as any harmful practice
against girls including secual, physical or psychological. :” It includes any form of violence or
abuse that is based on gendered stereotypes or that targets students on the basis of their sex. It
includes, but is not limited to: rape, unwanted sexual touching, unwanted sexual comments,
corporal punishment, bullying, and verbal harassment‟ (USAID, 2003:10).
School related gender based violence has a multifaceted consequential effects going beyond
making girls victims both physically and emotionally to exacerbating the already existing
gender gap in education since it results lack of motivation among female students, failing grades,
absenteeism and inveased numbers of dropouts. In general, it affects the ability of female
students to achieve their educational goal which in turn determines the participation of women in
different spheres of the country.
Thus , this study will touches upon exploring the type and magnitude of gender based violence in
Mekelle University and the institutional engagement to address the problem; and after examining
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

the intuitional system , the study will also forward possible intuitional system/policy framework
to combat gender based violence and to make the university gender friendly environment.
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Azeb Assefa Mersha Department of Geography & Environmental Studies

Involved Research Tema Members form MU and address: W/ro Adeda Haileselase (MA),

Department of Foreign Language and Literature MU

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the project: Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

Amount of fund: 14,000.00

Source of fund: MU recurrent budget

Project duration: One year

Status:




97. Poverty, Gendr and Psychosocial Attributes of Safe sex Behavior. A conceptual
Framework to Understand the HIV/AIDS Infection Status of Women in South Eastern
Zone of Tigray.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/13/2009


Objectives:
The Present research has four main objectives:
          To test the premise that background characteristics influence behavior at least largely
           through the proximate determinants of perceptions of threat (susceptibility and
           severity), perceived benefits and self-efficacy




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

          To examine to what extent contextual attribute-poverty (wealth status), gender, sexual
           networks, demographic and psychosocial factors explain safe-sex behavior of women
           who belong to different marital status groups
          To see the perceived barriers of safe sex behavior and whether women have
           knowledge about HIV/AIDS protective effects of condom use and
          To examine the mediating role of psychosocial variables on safe sex practice of
           women.


Short Project Description
At present, HIV infection rates in Sub Saharan Africa are a serous problem in the continent
(WHO, 2006). In conjunction with this, a review of health education program designed to
increase AIDS-preventive behaviors among different segments of the population revealed that
many existing programs are not primarily guided by research. In addition, many programs and
interventions were designed without considering psychosocial attributes that maintain safe sex
behavior among partners, particularly women who are over-represented among the poor and
among the HIV*AIDS infected people (Wach and Reeves, 2000). Yet, several researches stress
the Importance of contextual variables (demographic and socioeconomic measures),
downplaying the psychosocial forces, so as to facilitate the development of intervention
programs because the contextual attributes (Compared to psychosocial measures) are often more
visible so that they could be used by policy makers and social practitioners for the profiling of
target groups for HIV/AIDS intervention programs.
An evidence from previous research show that behavioral interventions that are informed by
theoretical research succeed in changing individual behavior and to bring under use the
necessary skills to maintain behavioral change more frequently than health programs that are not
guided by such research (Fisher, 1992). The current research addresses these concerns by
considering psychosocial attributes and contextual variable simultaneously that can be used, on
balance, for the development of contextually and socio-culturally appropriate interventions and
sexually transmitted disease preventive programs.




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The general purpose of this research is to design intervention model of sexual risk taking
behavior that include both psychosocial and contextual measures. At theoretical and conceptual
level, the study will apply the social-cognitive theory centered on self efficacy for safe sec
behavior of women in relation to other demographic and socioeconomic variables.


The research outcomes could help social workers and policy makers to empowering women with
safe sex practice by providing with their misconceptions about HIV/AIDS transmission and by
gaining their interest and support for healthy sexual behavior. In addition, the research results
can also serve to make efforts to step up for the promotion of a positive image of condom use as
rightful and intelligent means of protection against a deadly virus.
Data will be generated through; depending on the nature of the variables; structured
questionnaires, in-depth interviews, open-ended questions and focus group discussions. After
data are gathered through such scientific research protocols data analysis and interpretation will
be framed on descriptive statistics, t-tests and Multivariate Analysis of Variance MANOVA)
using recent version of SPSS.
Collaborating organizational and contact person(s): Department of Geography and
Environmental Studies, Institute of Pedagogical Sciences, Department of psychology, Relief
society of Tigray, HIV/AIDS control and prevention Secretariat Offices , Women‟s Association
Office, Gender Office, Mekelle University, NGOs Working in HIV/AIDS and Related Issues


Principal Investigator(s) Project coordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Chalechew Wassie Wollie, Department of Psychology

Involved Research Team members (co-investigator): Yohannes Fisha, Department of

Psychology

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Psychology

Amount of fund: 25,685.00 (Twenty five thousand six Hundred Eighty five birr only)

Source of fund: Mekelle University Recurrent Budget

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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Project duration: 9 months (Full Academic year)

Status:




 98. Pedagogical value and suitability of ELT textbooks towards preparatory senior high
 schools’ language instruction in Tigray region.


Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/14/2009


Objectives:
General objective




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The general objective of this research project is to determine the overall pedagogical value and
suitability of grade 11 and grade 12 English textbooks towards this specific language program
and to the needs of respective teachers, students and textbook writers.
Specific objectives of the Project
The study attempts:
      To indirectly explore whether or not a defacto consensus exists at all over what makes a
       good/standard EFL/ESL text book among teachers, students and curriculum developers.
      To identify whether the subject matter is presented either topically or functionally in a
       logical and organized manner.
      To identify the ways the textbooks address gender, religious and ethnic issues of the
       learners contexts
      To draw up, the attractiveness and physical make up of textbooks.
      Discover what authors often consider as important elements in the textbooks
      Determine how well the materials specify prerequisite knowledge, alerts teachers to
       commonly held student ideas, assists teachers in identifying student ideas, and addresses
       misconception
      Determine how well the materials provide a Varity of supplementary exercises materials
       and contexts and makes them vivid to students, particularly through an appropriate
       number of firsthand experiences.
      Determine how well material justifies ideas, introduces terms and procedures, represents
       ideas, connects ideas, demonstrates/models procedures and application of knowledge, and
       provides practice opportunities
      Determined the extent materials encourage students to explain their reasoning, guides
       students in their interpretation and reasoning , and encourages them to think about what
       they‟ve learned .
      Assess how well assessments align with the learning goals addressed in the materials,
       assess students‟ ability to apply them, and use assessment to inform instruction.


Short project description:



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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Text books play a very important role in many language classrooms across the world. In
Ethiopian schools where there are no alternative teaching materials textbooks become the hub of
instructional process. Identifying the actual role of English textbooks shall, therefore, be timely
research topic.
Bearing this in mind, the current study is intended to identify the essence the overall design and
practicality organization of the textbooks , the layouts and designers of each unit, content and
organization of activities and tasks, the organization and integration of receptive and productive
language skills, language type and content, subject and content, methodological validity, the role
of textbooks in innovation of nationality developed grade 11 and grade 12 English textbooks as
they are currently used in Tigray Region . It is also aimed to assess the authenticity of the
textbooks in terms of their representation, subject matter, and cultural components the potential
and the limitations of materials for‟guiding‟ students through the learning process and
curriculum as well as the needs and preferences of teachers who are using textbooks


In order to achieve these objectives, five instruments of data gathering tools are going to be
employed: observation, questionnaire, interview, testing and check listing. Students and English
teachers in all preparatory high schools in Tigray currently using the textbooks and the textbook
writers who developed them will be the subjects of the study. SPSS and other statistical devices
will be applied for the analysis of the results. The data gathered from different respondents will
be compared using coefficient correlation devices.
The researchers believe that this study will reveal crucial issues pertained to the practical
considerations (price, accessories, methodology, etc.) layout and design, range and balance of
activities, skills appropriateness and integration, social and cultural considerations, subject
content, and language types represented in the textbooks . It will also disclose the practical
problems that teachers and students encounter as they use the textbooks. Therefore, curriculum
developers, teachers and their students as well as the language educational program are expected
to be beneficiaries of the research


Collaborating organization and contact person(s):Senior preparatory High schools in Tigray,
Experts from ICDR, English teachers from senior preparatory High schools in Tigray, Students
from senior preparatory High schools in Tigray
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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009


Principal Investigator9s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the projct:

Gebreyesus Teklu Bahta PhD, Fisseha Abadei (Assistant Professor), Yideg Alemayehu PhD

,Department of foreign Languages

Involved Research Team Memebers form MU and address: Gebreyesus Teklu Bahta PhD,

Fesseha Abadi (Assitant Professor), Yidege Alemayehu PhD

Implementaiton/Sterring Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign languages

Amount of fund: 23870

Source of fund: Recurrent Budge

Project duration: Period: from November 20, 2007 to June 8, 2008

Status:




99.“The role of Media fro Rural Development: Standardizing the women coverage in Dimts
       Woyane Tigray”.



Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/15/2009

Objectives:
The main objective of the study is to standardize the radio coverage on women of the Dimts
Woyane Tigray by way of an extensive impact assessment.


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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Short project description:
The research is meant to design efficient and instrumental mechanisms through which program
coverage‟s on women‟s overall life; reproductive health, sex and sexuality are standardized to
reach desired goals. To such end, an account of extensive program impact assessments and gross
needs survey shall be made to each out a significant number of rural populations in Tigray.
Collaborating organization and contact person(s): Mekonnen Amare,Mobile: 0914708410,E-

mail: mekonnenam@Yahoo.com

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the bginning of the project:

Mekonnen Amare, Tizita Kebede Department of Journalism and Communication,

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Journalism and Communications

Amount of fund: 22,500 Birr

Source of fund: Recurrent Budget

Project duration: Eight months

Status:


100. “Approaching literacy problems through participatory means: A case of Saho-
       Ethiopia orthography standardization”
Project Registration Number: CSSL/RB/16/2009

Objectives:

Major objective: to standardize Saho Writing system
Specific objectives:
          To describe the phonology of the language (inventory of phonemes, allophones and
           their realizations; their distribution and frequency in words and higher structures;
           determine the syllabic structure and supra-segmental features)

                                                                                              223
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

           To unfold Saho morpho-phonological units and features (identify the morphemes,
            allomorphs, their distributions and realizations; and derivational and inflectional
            morphemes; show the morphological processes, derivations, compounding, stem
            modifications , etc)
           To determine contents/units for the orthography standardization;
           To participate native speakers in the process of standardization and decision making
            of Saho writing.
           To prepare a manual and spelling guide for ease reference


Short project description:
Saho is spoken in Southeastern low lands of Eritrea National State with population of 144,000
and Northeastern part of Tigray Regional State, Irob wereda with the population of 32,000.
The Irob people are the target ethnic group for the present study. Their language has not been
written for long periods. The traditional heritages of the people have been passing from
generation to generation orally. Thus, a great and urgent need for documenting the language and
preparing a writing system that suits the language has come from the people. Nowadays, there
are limited studies carried out on the language and its writing system. Hence, it is recommended
that conducting linguistic works on the language‟s sound system in order to develop and
orthography which matches the language and its writing system. Hence is is recommended that
conducting linguistic works on the language‟s sound system in order to develop an orthography
which matches the language features. In addition, the writing system designed is in a trail stage
and there is an urgent need to make conventions for the various differences in the use of the
script. Therefore, the present project reviews the previous tasks carried out by the community the
present researcher and Provide professional support to standardize the script which constitute
partly to the demand required for the devel9opmnet of the language in general and writing script
in particular.
Collaborating organizational and contact person(s): Irob Development Association, Tigray

Region Education Bureau Curriculum Department, Irob Wereda Administration




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Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Esaysas Tajebe Department ofForeign Languages

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address: Not Applicable

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable

Home base of the Project: Department of Foreign Languages

Amount of fund: 26,340

Source of fund: Recurrent budget

Project duration: June 2010

Status:




 101. “Renewed Leadership Capacity and facilitation of decentralized management
 thought implementation of BPR at Mekelle University”.



Project Registration Number: ITT/CIS-VU/01/2009

Objectives:

The overall objective of the project is to build the capacity of MU management and leadership so
as to ensure optimal performance of the renewed core processes (Academic, Research and
community services) through capacitated and modern/contemporary leadership styles, structures,
                                                                                            225
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

and increased participation of all parties and the women at all level. This will contribute to
production of responsible and competent citizens who meet the quantitative and qualitative
demand for a high-level trained labor force based on the socio-economic development needs of
the country through quality education and research. This needs to have renewed leadership
capacities, decentralized system and enhanced ICT. Moreover, MU is looking forward to
capacitate women so as to assure gender balance and participation in the university management
system. Therefore, Mekelle University shall have an improved leadership capacity of
managements at all level and genders, and enhanced management information systems that
satisfy the need of customers and stakeholders of the University. Effectively equipped leaders
will ensure excellence in teaching –learning, research-community service and provide excellent
support services. (see in detail the proposal).

Short Project description:
This project will contribute to production of responsible and competent citizens who meet the
quantitative and qualitative demans for a high-level labour force based on the socio-economic
development needs of the country through quality education and research. In particular MU
intends to deliver more female graduates than is currently the case and provide more gender
specific research and community services. This needs to have renewed leadership capacities,
decentralized system and enhanced ICT.
Indicators for Overall Objective:
          Increased numbers of graduates per year, including increased members of female
           graduates
          Minimize attrition rate to 10% of female students (currently 40% of the female
           students is estimated to drop out before 1.5 year of their studies against 10% of the
           male students0 by 2012 at mekelle University
          Increased number of research products, including research on gender specific issues
          Increased ratio of students completing their studies without delays.
          Satisfaction of employers of MU-graduates, Etc.
Collaborating organization and contact Person
Number NPT/272/8 (for Mekelle University), Enhancement of leadership and management of
nine public Universities in implementing reform, decentralization and BPR-findings.
                                                                                            226
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

The Ministry of Education of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (MoE) and the Centre
for International Cooperation of VU (CIS-VU), are jointly represented for the contact by:: Dr.
Solomon Mogus, Senior advisor Higher Education, Drs. Tineke Melis
Project manager CIS-VU ( together hereafter called” the Contracting Authority”) of the one part,
and Dr. Yassin Ibrahim Vice –president for support Services Mekelle University P.O.Box:231,
251-0914-300407(Mobile), 251-344-405529(Office), Fax:251-0344-409304
Yassinibrahim2006@yahoo.com
Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinato(s) at MU since the beginning of the project
(name and address):: Dr Kurkura Kabeto, Team Leader, Institutional Transformation Team
(ITT),Department of Earth Science Telephone: 251-0911-069615 (Mobile), 251- 344-414785
(Office) , P.o.Box: 231, Mekelle University , Fax: 251- 0344-409304
Involved research Team members from MU and address:Ato Idris Zehudin and Ato

Gebrekidan Mebrahtu

Implementing steering committee members (When applicable): Prof. Mitiku Haile, Dr.

Kindeya Gebrehiwot, Dr. Abdelkadir Kedir, Dr, Yassin Ibrahim, Dr.Kurkura Kabeto

Home base of the project: Department ITT, College; Management (under the president Office)

Amount of found: £199,904.00

Source of fund: International Cooperation of VU (CIS- VU) the Netherlands

Project duration: 2009-2012

Status:




                                                                                            227
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009




102. “Preliminary Investigation of an unidentified liver disease study in North Western
       Tigray”.



Project Registration Number: UICL/OASIS /02/2009


Objectives:

The overall, aim of this preliminary investigation is to have an insight on the disease condition in
the area and to identify socio-cultural and bio-physical risk factors, and thus, to analyze soil and
water and geological samples from the affected area.


Short Project description:
                                                                                                228
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

A deadly liver toxicity problem was reported since a few years back among the inhabitants of
kushet Tsaeda Ambay, Tahtay Koraro Woreda, and several efforts have been made to address it
bio-medically by outsiders. The Oasis foundation based in shire and a group of researchers from
UK and USA have attempted to find the underlying causes for such disease, although so far to no
necessary progress have been made in terms of identification of the causative factor. Despite the
continuous efforts from regional authorities and international organizations to address the liver
toxicity disease, the problem still persists, its geographical coverage continues to expand and
more and more people are still sick and deaths from the disease continue to grow.
Through an invitation form the Oasis foundation, Mekelle University now shoulders a new
responsibility of making a preliminary survey for a comprehensive study into the issue. A
multidisciplinary team of scientist from Mekelle University is now preparing to travel to the area
and embark on an interdisciplinary research. The research groups from Mekelle University are
organized into three teams. i) Anthropological investigation team the socio-cultural construction
of the live toxicity disease has obviously been sidelined in previous studies and hence forms of a
major part of the current research , thus at MU we are considering as a major part in this study.
ii) Health team, which comprises researchers in the field of human health (toxicologists),
veterinaries and botanists. iii) Bio-physical investigation team, comprised of soil scientists and
geologist, this team will focus on bio-physical factors that may expose the people.
Collaborating organization and contact person (s) (full address)

OASIS Foundation, Ethiopia, Shire Endaselassie POB.64

The Tigray Regional state Health Bureau, Dr. Gebre-ab Barnabs, Mekelle

Principal Investigator(s) Project co-ordinator(s) at MU since the beginning of the project:

Dr. Dereje Assefa, Department: UICL College/Office: VPRCS

Involved Research Team Members from MU and address:Dr. Fassil Kebede (LaRMEP),Dr.

Kassa Amare (Geology),Dr. Kelemework Tafere (Social Anthropology),Ato Mebrahtom

G/Libanos (College of Health),Ato Taddese Beyene (Biology),Dr. Shewit Kalayu( Veterinary

Medicine)

Implementation/Steering Committee members: Not applicable
                                                                                               229
Profile of Research Projects in Mekelle University in the Year 2009

Home base of the project: Department/Office: UICL, College/Office: VPRCS

Amount of fund: 50,000.00 Birr

Source of fund: OASIS Foundation, Ethiopia

Project duration: 1-year

Status:




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