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What is motion? Topic # 6 From the smallest particle to the biggest bang Topic # 6 What is motion? Chapter Objectives: Students must have a complete understanding of the following objectives in order to continue moving forward in this unit. Recognize that movement is observed according to a frame of reference. Describe motion and calculate speed and velocity. Relate acceleration to motion and calculate acceleration. Describe momentum. Vocabulary Learning key terms will aid in developing a better understanding of the material presented in this topic. Frame of reference Motion Speed Velocity Acceleration Momentum Working with examples of motion Solve the following problems. SHOW ALL WORK. Remember to include the correct units!!!!! 1. A student practicing for a track meet ran 250m in 30 sec. a. What was her average speed? b. If on the following day she ran 300m in 30 sec, by how much did her speed increase? 2. A car traveled 1025 km from El Paso to Dallas in 13.5 hr. What was her average velocity? 3. How fast was a plane flying if it traveled 400km in 30 min? 4. A student walks 10 blocks to a computer store. a. How long will it take him to reach the computer store if he walks 3 blocks in 2 min? b. What is his average velocity. 5. If the average speed of a car is 45km/hr, how far can it travel in 40 min? 6. The speed of light is 3x108 m/sec. How long does it take light to travel the 149x109 m distance from the sun to the earth? 7.A driver starts his parked car and within 5 sec reaches a velocity of 54 km/hr as he travels east. What is his acceleration? 8. Falling objects drop with an average acceleration of 9.8 m/sec/sec/ or 9.8 m/sec2. If an object falls from a tall building, how long will it take before it reaches a speed of 49 m/sec? Speed, Velocity & Acceleration Use the following terms to identify the motion represented in each graph or diagram. CONSTANT SPEED ACCELERATION AVERAGE SPEED DECELERATION Velocities in same direction Velocities in opposite directions 1.______________________ 2.______________________ 3._______________________ 4.______________________ SHUT IT DOWN… It’s race day at E222 !! The cars are fast but are their owners ready to place the pink slip on the line? Today we will race our cars and determine who is the fastest in the class…the king of the strip! This lab activity is designed to incorporate the principles of speed, acceleration and velocity. Students will race their cars down the track, at specified markers; the time will be recorded and graphed to determine the cars acceleration, speed and velocity. The fastest cars from each class will race to determine the “King of the strip!” Procedure: Each student will determine the mass of his/her car by weighing the car using the triple beam balance. Record the mass on data sheet. The student will place his/her car at the top of the track, and released. The student whose car is racing will clock the time of his/her car from the start of the race to the finish. Two other times will be recorded on the track to aid in calculating the car’s acceleration over time. The student will record all data in data section of lab. Students will calculate their car’s; Speed (speed=distance/time), Acceleration, (A=final velocity-initial velocity/time) Momentum, (Momentum=massXvelocity) Students will graph their results showing their cars acceleration over time. RaCe Day DaTa… Insert all data in the corresponding blocks Trial# #1time #2time #3time Mass Trial# Speed Acceleration Momentum Graph your hot rod’s performance… On graph paper, plot your cars acceleration based on the demo graph that was done in class. Plot all three trials on the same graph (use different color ink). Good Luck Racers!!!!!! The Elegant Universe Complete the questions that discuss the four forces on this page. 1.____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________ 2.____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 3.____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 4.____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________ 5.____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________ Running RAMP-id Determining the speed of a ball on different ramp styles. We have been discussing motion and how to measure motion based on speed and velocity. Motion can be described as a change in the position of an object over time. To measure this change we use the speed equation; S= d/t . In this mini-lab you will determine the speed of a steel marble as it moves down an incline. After gathering the data, distance of incline & time it took the marble to complete its path, you will then calculate the speed of the marble and determine if there is a difference in the slope of the incline relative to the average speed of the marble. PROCEDURE: Measure the distance of each ramp length to determine the distance the marble will have to travel. Place information in data table. Place the marble at the top of one ramp. Hold marble until the timer is ready. Release the marble when the timer say go. Timer is to start the clock when the ball is released, and stop the clack when the ball hits the end of the ramp. Place the time the marble took to reach the bottom in the data table. Do this three times for each ramp. Calculate the speed for each trial on each ramp. Place the calculations in the table. Questions to ponder. 1. Which ramp did you predict prior to the experiment would yield the fastest speed? 2. Which ramp if any had the fastest speed? Why do you think this occurred? Ramp Distance Time Speed color Blue Blue Blue Green Green Green Red Red Red Yellow Yellow Yellow Can I be in the Olympics? Calculating the speed of a runner. Some of the greatest athletes in the world are sprinters, and one of the fastest events is the 100m dash. We know that the athletes that run this event are fast but exactly how fast in terms of speed are they? In this experiment we will be determining how fast students are by having their 100m dash times recorded and their speed compared to a former world record holder. Good luck!!! Procedure: Measure out a distance of 100m on a track or field and mark off using cones. Students are to line up at the starting line and wait till they are signaled to go. The students time will be recorded by all students and the speed of that student will be determined by using the speed equation S=d/t Students will then compare their speed with other students in the class and compare the speed they got to the world class sprinter. Student Distance Time Speed 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m 100m Calculations of Motion Solve the following problems. Show all of your work. Remember to include correct units. 1. A jogger runs the first 1000m of a race in 250sec. What is the jogger’s speed? 2. A space shuttle travels in orbit at 21,000 km/hr. How far will it travel after 5 hrs? Problems 3 & 4 refers to the table below, which summarizes Jack’s ride on his new skateboard. TIME (sec) DISTANCE (m) 0 0 1 5 30 10 70 15 90 20 120 3.What was Jack’s speed from T=5 sec to T = 10 sec? 4.What was Jack’s average speed for the entire ride? 5. A car accelerates from 0 to 72 km/hr in 8 sec. What was the car’s acceleration? 7. A science student drops a rock down a mineshaft. It takes 3 sec for the rock to hit the bottom of the shaft. What was the speed of the rock just before impact? 8. A space ship is traveling at 20,000 m/sec. At T=5 sec the rocket thrusters are turned on. At T= 55 sec, the space ship reaches a speed of 24,000 km/sec. What was the ship’s acceleration? Super Car Comparison In this graphing lab you will compare the performance of three of the world’s fastest super cars; the Ferrari Enzo, the Saleen S7 and the Lamborghini Murielago, to determine which vehicle has the fastest acceleration from 0-60 to 0-130 mph/sec. You will also graph the acceleration of each of these vehicles on a graph to compare the results and determine which is the fastest supercar. You will be using the acceleration equation A= final velocity – original velocity/time. Ferrari Enzo Acceleration mph Seconds sec 0 – 30 1.5 40 2.0 50 2.7 60 3.3 70 3.8 80 5.0 90 5.8 100 6.6 110 8.0 120 9.2 130 10.3 Saleen S7 Acceleration Seconds 0-30 1.6 0-31 2.1 50 2.6 60 3.3 70 4.4 80 5.1 90 6.1 100 7.6 110 8.8 120 10.2 130 12.4 Lambrorghini Murcielago Acceleration Seconds 0-30 1.7 40 2.4 50 3.0 60 3.8 70 5.6 80 6.3 90 8.2 100 9.5 110 11.0 120 13.7 130 15.9 ***Calculate the acceleration of each vehicle and graph distance vs time. Running RAMP-id Part 2 Determining the momentum of a ball on different ramp styles. We have been discussing motion and how to measure motion based on speed and velocity. Motion can be described as a change in the position of an object over time. We have now also learned about momentum. To measure momentum we use the equation; p = mass X velocity. In this mini- lab you will determine the momentum of a steel marble as it moves down an incline. After gathering the data, distance of incline & time it took the marble to complete its path, you will then calculate the velocity of the marble and determine if there is a difference in the slope of the incline relative to the average momentum of the marble. PROCEDURE: Measure the distance of each ramp length to determine the distance the marble will have to travel. Place information in data table. Determine the mass of the marble by weighing the marble on a triple beam balance. Place the marble at the top of one ramp. Hold marble until the timer is ready. Release the marble when the timer say go. Timer is to start the clock when the ball is released, and stop the clack when the ball hits the end of the ramp. Place the time the marble took to reach the bottom in the data table. Do this three times for each ramp. Calculate the speed for each trial on each ramp. Place the calculations in the table. Then calculate the momentum of the marble for each ramp. Questions to ponder. 3. Which ramp did you predict prior to the experiment would yield the greatest momentum? 4. Which ramp if any had the greatest momentum? Why do you think this occurred? Ramp Mass Distance Time Speed Momentum color of marble Blue Blue Blue Green Green Green Red Red Red Yellow Yellow Yellow Qualify for Race Day Students will have to answer the following questions correctly in order to qualify for Race Day. 1. What is the difference between Speed And Velocity? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________ 2. A car travels a distance of 250 meters in 5 seconds. What was the car’s speed? 3. If a car has a constant speed of 10 m/s what would the graph of the car’s speed look like? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ____________ 4. If a Miata had a mass of 1500 kg and was moving at 25 m/s hit a truck that had a mass of 3000 kg and was moving at 5 m/s, which vehicle had more momentum? Why? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ________

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posted: | 10/22/2011 |

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