EXPANSION

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					MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY
  EXPANSION (1848-1876)
 (MID-VICTORIAN EXPANSION)
Colonial Possessions 1815-1870
Queen Victoria (1819-1901)
     (r. 1837-1901)
          Main developments
• Liberalism
  – Repeal of Corn Laws (1845), Navigation Laws.(1846)
  – End Monopolies (Levant Co. 1823, East India Co.,
    1838)
  – Repeal remaining duties (1860)
• Gold Discoveries
  – In the world:
     • 1831-1840: 20,300 kg
     • 1866-1870: 191,900
• Railroads
     • Until 1850: 23,000 miles
     • 1850-1870: 100,000 new miles
   Spread of Railways in Ten Selected Countries
(Length of line open [in kilometers [1km = 5/8 mile])

                   1840       1860    1880    1900
     Austria-
                     144      4,543 18,507    36,330
     Hungary
     Belgium         334      1,730   4,112    4,591
     France          496      9,167 23,089    38,109
     Germany         469      11,089 33,838   51,678
     Great
                    2,390 14,603 25,060       30,079
     Britain
     Italy            20      2,404   9,290   16,429
     Netherlands      17        335   1,846    2,776
     Russia           27      1,626 22,865    53,234
     Spain                -   1,917   7,490   13,214
     Sweden               -     527   5,876   11,303
Suez Canal, 1869
Gatling machine Gun 1861
Charles Darwin, 1809-1882




                            Karl Marx, 1818-1883
  World integration (mid-19th c)
• World Trade
  – 1800-1830 grew by 30 percent
  – 1840-1870 grew by 500 percent
• International Migration
  – 1800-1840 1 million Europeans to the US
  – 1840-1870 9 million Europeans to the US
• International Investment (British credits abroad)
  – By early 1840s £160 million
  – By early 1870s over £ 1 billion
Phileas Fogg’s route in Around the World in Eighty Days
                 by Jules Verne (1872)




     London-Brindisi-Suez:                       7 days
     Suez-Bombay:                               13 days
     Bombay-Calcutta:                            3 days
     Calcutta-Hong Kong-Yokohama-San Francisco: 41 days
     San Francisco- New York:                    7 days
     New York-Liverpool-London:                  9 days

				
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posted:10/22/2011
language:English
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