Docstoc

Diapositivo

Document Sample
Diapositivo Powered By Docstoc
					      INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF SCIENCE TEACHING

EUROPEAN SUMMER SCHOOL FOR PRIMARY SCIENCE TRAINERS

             ERICE, SICILY : 9 – 14 JULY 2005




                                                Afonso, ERICE, 2005
   Learning Science in Elementary School

   The development of scientific concepts and the influence of everyday
                          knowledge when learning science




Margarida Afonso

margarida.afonso@ese.ipcb.pt

Centre of Educational Research, University of Lisbon

College of Education of Castelo Branco



                                                            Afonso, ERICE, 2005   2
Conceptual framework




                       Afonso, ERICE, 2005   3
                            The Problems



       In which way are the several aspects involved in the What and the
 How    children   should   learn   Science   (programme,   textbooks         and
 pedagogic practice of the teachers) interlinked and combined?



     To what extent is it possible and advisable/desirable to raise the
level of conceptualisation and development of scientific concepts in the
learning of Science?


    What and How should teacher training be so that it is possible to
raise the level of conceptualisation and development of scientific
concepts in the learning of Science?


                                                             Afonso, ERICE, 2005    4
                         Theoretical Basis



Several authors maintain that high levels of scientific literacy involve,
                        amongst other aspects:


The understanding of concepts of a high level of abstraction;


The understanding of the inter-relations between the different types of
scientific knowledge and between them and non-scientific (common
sense) knowledge;


Understanding the true nature of scientific knowledge and the
difference between scientific knowledge and non-scientific knowledge



                                                              Afonso, ERICE, 2005   5
                                     Theoretical Basis


                                       CONCEPTS

     Scientific concepts are generalisations of some type of similarity found in
different objects or events that allow us to understand the order of the physical
and natural world that surrounds us. [...] Concepts of high level of abstraction are
related to a wide variety of different phenomena (Harlen & Jelly, 1993).

     Learning concepts involves:

     ● Generalising knowledge and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied;

     ● Establishing relations between the different scientific knowledge that is being
broached,   differentiating   the   essential/more   relevant   aspects    from       the less
important/less relevant aspects.

         SCIENTIFIC – NON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE RELATIONS

      Relations between scientific knowledge that is being broached and common
sense knowledge (for example: knowledge from the daily life of the students).

                                                                          Afonso, ERICE, 2005    6
                                        Methodology – Instruments
           Relation between discourses - Intra-disciplinary science relations – The Concepts…


  Indicators              Independence/Isolation                          Dependence/Relation
                            between discourses                             between discourses

On the analysis    The subjects already dealt with are             The topics already dealt with are
 of the study      never       mentioned    in      the            always the starting point for
    topics         study/discussion of new topics. The             broaching new subjects.
                   inter-relations between different
                   topics are ignored

On the tasks or     Situations that relate the different
activities to be
                    topics are never predicted                      The tasks/activities always relate
     done                                                           several topics.


                     It is difficult                                         It is easy to
                      to develop                                                develop
                       concepts                                                concepts




                                                                                     Afonso, ERICE, 2005   7
                                     Methodology – Instruments
                    Relation between discourses – Scientific/Non-Scientific knowledge




                      Independence/Isolation                                Dependence/Relation
    Indicators
                        between discourses                                  between discourses


    On the         Exclusively scientific knowledge is                Non-academic knowledge                  is
analysis of the    broached. The relationship between                 constantly   inter-related              to
 study topics      the two types is ignored                           academic knowledge


On the tasks or    Situations that relate academic to                 The tasks/ activities always relate
activities to be   non-academic knowledge are not                     the two types of knowledge
     done          foreseen


                   It is difficult to                                                   It is easy to
                        develop                                                            develop
                       concepts                                                           concepts




                                                                                        Afonso, ERICE, 2005        8
                        Global Presentation


Curriculum                     Textbooks                     Pedagogical Practice




                Concepts                   Inter-relations between
                                                  knowledge
                (Scientific)
                                    (Scientific/Non scientific - Common sense)


                Learning/Scientific Development
                           of students




             IMPLICATIONS IN TEACHER TRAINING

                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   9
             Global Presentation – The Content

Curriculum                         Textbooks                  Pedagogical Practice




      1. The living organisms of                 2. The physical aspects of
          their environment          2nd Year       the local environment

                                      4th Year

         3. Make experiments with                4. Make experiments with
                   water                                    air




                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   10
The curriculum




                 Afonso, ERICE, 2005   11
                                             The curriculum
                             1. The living organisms of their environment
             2nd year                                                        4th Year
A Observe and identify some of the more common plants that
   exist in their immediate environment
•   recognise different environments where plants grow
•   know the parts that make up the more common plants
    (root, stem, leaves, flowers and fruit)
•   record the variations in the appearance, during the year,
    of a bush or a tree
•   observe and identify some of the more common animals
    that exist in the immediate environment
•   collect information about the way of life of those animals
    (what they eat, how they reproduce, how they move
    about…)
B    What the weather is like (record the daily atmospheric
    conditions)
1. recognise some of the
2. relate the seasons of the year to the characteristic weather
     conditions
3. recognise the existence of air (make experiments)
4. recognise air in movement (wind, air currents …)
                                                                            Afonso, ERICE, 2005   12
                                    The curriculum
                        2. The physical aspects of the local environment
                                                         4th Year
            2nd Year
                                            1.        Recognise     and      observe
1. what the weather is like (record the     phenomena:
daily atmospheric conditions)                     - of condensation (clouds, fog,
                                            dew)
2. recognise some of the weather                  - of solidification (snow, sleet,
conditions (rainy, hot, cold, windy…)       frost)
3. relate the seasons of the year to the          - of precipitation (rain, snow,
characteristic weather conditions           sleet)
                                            2. make experiments that represent
4. recognise the existence of air           phenomena of:
(make experiments)                                 - evaporation
5. recognise air in movement (wind,                - condensation
air currents …)                                    - solidification
                                                   - precipitation
                                            3. understand that rain water
                                            infiltrates the soil giving origin to
                                            ground water
                                            4.        recognise      springs     and
                                            watercourses.
                                                                    Afonso, ERICE, 2005   13
                                       The curriculum

                             3. Make experiments with water
                                                                      4thYear
         2nd Year



                                                          ● Observe the effects of the
                                                          temperature on water (ebullition,
                                                          evaporation, solidification, fusion
                                                          and condensation).

                               4. Make experiments with air
         2nd Year                                                      4thYear




●  Recognise the existence of air (balloons,
syringes…)                                                ● Trough  experiments recognise
● Recognise that air has weight (use balloons and         the existence of oxygen in the air
balls with air and empty)                                 (combustion)
● Experiment on the behaviour of objects in the
presence of hot air and cold air (light objects over
a heater, St. John balloons…).


                                                                          Afonso, ERICE, 2005   14
                                    Theoretical Basis

                                       CONCEPTS

     Scientific concepts are generalisations of some type of similarity found in
different objects or events that allow us to understand the order of the physical
and natural world that surrounds us. [...] Concepts of high level of abstraction are
related to a wide variety of different phenomena (Harlen & Jelly, 1993).

     Learning concepts involves:

     ● Generalising knowledge and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied;

     ● Establishing relations between the different scientific knowledge that is being
broached,   differentiating   the   essential/more   relevant   aspects    from       the less
important/less relevant aspects.

         SCIENTIFIC – NON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE RELATIONS

      Relations between scientific knowledge that is being broached and common
sense knowledge (for example: knowledge from the daily life of the students).

                                                                          Afonso, ERICE, 2005   15
                            Synthesis - Curriculum

                                      CONCEPTS


     Where are the generalisations?

     Where are the relations among concepts of high level of abstraction?

     Where are the differentiation between the essential/more relevant aspects
from the less important/less relevant aspects.




          SCIENTIFIC – NON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE RELATIONS


      Where are the relations between scientific knowledge and common sense
knowledge?




                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   16
The Textbooks




                Afonso, ERICE, 2005   17
           Textbooks (Bambi, 2) – Living things in the environment (plants)

           ● I talk about the figures (parts that make up the plant – root and stem)
           ● I carefully pull up a small plant. I look at the root and the stem.
           ● I read and write yes or no. I complete the sentences with root or stem.
           ● I write the names of roots and stems that we use for food (coloured bars).
                                        The root and the stem

● Does the plant pulled up have a root? □                                   ● Was the root outside the soil? □


                                                                      I hold the plant to the soil.
                                                      It is through me that the plant gets food.
                                                                     I am the ______ .
        carrots                                                                                       radish

                                  FACTS
● Is the stem of the pulled up plant thick? □
                                                  turnips

                                                                     ● Do all stems have the same height? □



                                                              I am the foot of the plant.
                                                        It is through me that food passes.
                                                                                                       potatoes
       asparagus                                              I am the ______ .
                                            beets
                                                                                            Afonso, ERICE, 2005   18
           Textbooks (Bambi, 2) – Living things in the environment (plants)

            ● I talk about the figures (parts that make up the plant – leaves and flowers)
            ● I look at different leaves and flowers.
            ● I read and write yes or no. I complete the sentences with leaves or flower.
            ● I write the names of roots and stems that we use for food (coloured bars).
                                                    Leaves and flowers
The plant breathes through us.
We are the ___ .                                ● Are the leaves of the plants all of the same size?
                                                ● Do they all have the same shape?
                                                ● Is each leaf the same on both sides?


                                  FACTS
        lettuce                                    Garden cabbage                      Spring cabbage

  The fruit grows from me.                                ● Do all flowers have the same colour?

  I am the ___ .                                          ● Do they all have the same shape?
                                                          ● Do all flowers smell good?
                                                          ● Are they all the same size?

                                                    artichoke                         cauliflower
                                                                                          Afonso, ERICE, 2005   19
     Textbooks (Bambi, 2) – Living things in the environment (animals)
                                                    I am the _________ .
                                                    I live on ______________.
                                                    My body is covered with___.
                                                    I have _______________.
                                                    I walk________________.
                                                    I was born from ________.
 How does it
                                        What does it
   travel?
● by walking                                eat?                           How does it reproduce
● by flying                             ● Meat                                      itself?
                                                                           ● It is born from the
                                        ● Vegetables                       mother
● by swimming
                                        ● Grain                            ● It is hatched
● by jumping
● by running                            ● Other food

 ● I read. I write the name of an animal with the characteristics described. ● I draw that animal.
               SOME CONCEPTS
                I am the _________ .
                I live on land.




                                                                           ?
                My body is covered with fur.
                I have claws.
                I love fish.
                I walk.
                I was born from the mother.
                                                                                      Afonso, ERICE, 2005   20
                  Textbooks     (Bambi, 2)   - The weather that makes
                                 What I am going to learn

● The figure shows some weather features that can be observed throughout the year. Which
are the seasons of the year? What are the names of the months in which each season starts
and ends? What temperature is shown in the thermometer for each of the seasons? Which is
the hottest season? What does the child do at that time? There are two seasons in the year
with milder temperatures. Which are they? Which season is more rainy and more windy?
What does the tree look like in each season of the year? In winter the tree is more bent.


                                  FACTS
What makes it move? In autumn the swallows leave for other countries. Why?




                                                                        Afonso, ERICE, 2005   21
                       Textbooks       (Bambi, 2)   – About Weather


               ● I talk about the figures (different atmospheric conditions).




  SUN           RAIN         WIND        SNOW            HAZE       THUNDER             CLOUDY


    ● I read. According to what the sentences say, I draw what the weather is like.


It’s spring! There are flowers in the fields and on the trees. The birds are constantly
chirping. The temperature is mild. The sky is blue and the sun shines and warms the earth.

                               FACTS
Summer has arrived. It’s hot! Warmed by the sun, the sand on the beach burns. All along
the beach, coloured sunshades look like an oasis in the middle of the desert!...


The weather starts to get colder. It’s autumn! The yellowed leaves fall and whirl about blown
by the wind. There are clouds hiding the sun. The swallows leave for hotter countries.


It’s cold. Winter is here. There is snow on the mountain. The wind blows and it doesn’t stop
raining. The trees are bare. The animals take shelter in the burrows.

                                                                                Afonso, ERICE, 2005   22
      Textbooks        (Bambi, 2)   – About the weather and seasons of the year
             ● I talk about the figures (the characteristic weather for each season of the year).
             ● I caption the figures with the respective sentences (coloured bars)

                               The weather changes throughout the year


    SPRING
                                                             SUMMER

                             ●_________________

                     Concepts of
                             __________________                                       ●_________________
                                                                                      __________________



    AUTUMN
                  Seasons/Weather?                           WINTER


                              ●_________________                                     ●_________________
                              __________________                                     __________________




● In Spring, the days start to get                      ● The days are hotter in summer. There
warmer. There are more sunny days.                      is little rain.


● In Autumn, the weather starts to get                 ● It’s cold in Winter. It rains, there is
colder. There are still many sunny days.               wind and sometimes it snows.
                                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   23
                     Textbooks         (Bambi, 4)   – About Water
I observe and investigate
Water is an abundant liquid in Nature. It does not always have the same appearance.

             The heat from the sun                                         The water vapour
             warms the waters of the                                       rises, cools and is
             sea, the river, the lake…                                     transformed into little
                                                                           drops of water that
             Because of the heat, the
                                                                           make up the clouds.
             water evaporates, that is, it
                                                                           When        the     clouds
             is transformed into vapour.
                                                                           become heavier the
                                                                           little drops fall as rain.
             When the air gets very
             cold, the water in the                                        The heat of the sun
             clouds solidifies, becoming                                   melted the snow and
             solid water and falls as                                      the water became
             snow or sleet.                                                liquid again.


                                        The water fell from the clouds and returned to the
                                        earth. Part of that water infiltrated the soil. When it
                                        finds impermeable rock, it forms ground water.


                                         The water flows under the earth. When it finds a
                                         way out, it forms a spring which may sustain
                                         different courses of water - rivers, streams …
                                                                            Afonso, ERICE, 2005    24
           Textbooks (Bambi, 4) - Experiments (fusion, solidification, dilation)

                I observe and experiment
                                                                           3                 4    - That was easy!
                       1                    2                                                     The heat expanded
- The wax is                                                                                      the lid which
melting! It’s                       - How pretty! The                                             became larger!
because of                           wax cooled and


                             Concept of
the heat!...                          became solid
                                         again!




                          Changes of matter?            - If you want the
                                                        lid to come out,
                                                        heat it a little. But
                                                        don’t burn
                                                        yourself!
         ● Why did the wax become liquid?
         ● The drops of wax that fell from the candle became solid again. Why?

                         Scientific
         ● What is the girl doing? What advice did her friend give her? After being heated, the lid
         came out easily. Why?

   I read and learn
                   Non-Scientific relations?
   When the temperature varies, some substances change state.
   When heated, the wax changed from solid to liquid. This change of state is called fusion.
   When the wax cooled, it changed from liquid to solid. This change of state is called solidification.
   When the jar lid was heated, it increased in volume, it dilated. The increase in volume of a body is
   called, dilation.

                                                                                         Afonso, ERICE, 2005     25
                        Textbooks (Bambi, 4) – Temperature effects in water
          I observe and experiment
                                        A


                F                                               B




                        Some Conceptualization of
                    E
                           Changes of matter                    C



                                         D




                                 Scientific
● What is the girl in figure A doing? In which state is the water in the container she is going to put in the
freezer?                   Non-Scientific relations?
● What is the same girl doing in figure B? What happened to the liquid water of figure A? Why?
● In figure C, the ice has almost melted. Has the temperature increased or decreased?
● In figure D, the water is boiling. What makes the water boil?

● What do you see in figure E? What is the vapour coming from the pyrex dish made up of?

● What happened to the water vapour when it found the lid? Why?                     Afonso, ERICE, 2005   26
           Textbooks (Bambi, 4) – Experiments – about physical water changes
                                ♦ I make experiments similar to those presented

                                                      ● What is the boy doing?
                                                      ● What happened?



                          Concept of
  ●The clothes were wet. Now they are dry.
  ● What happened?

                       Changes of matter?
                                ● What is the boy doing?               ● The extractor is off.
                                                                       ● Why are drops of water falling from the
                                ● What happened to the water?
                                                                       extractor fan?

♦ I complete with the words from the coloured bar.
Figure A – The water disappeared. The water evaporated.                                                evaporation
                        Scientific
           A ______________ phenomenon occurred.
Figure B – The water vapour became liquid water. It found a cold surface and condensed.                condensation
                  Non-Scientific relations?
           A ______________ phenomenon occurred.

Figure C – The water changed into ice cubes. The water solidified.                                     solidification
          A ______________ phenomenon occurred.

Figure D –Drops of water fall from the extractor. It seems to be raining. A lot of water               precipitation
         vapour gathered in the extractor. The heavy drops start to fall.
         A _______________phenomenon occurred.
                                                                                                 Afonso, ERICE, 2005    27
               Textbooks (Bambi, 4) – Experiments – (solid, liquid and gaseous matter)

                                            Experiments – Gaseous matters




1        I get a balloon and a syringe.
                                                                    3         I insert the syringe in the balloon.
     2       I fill the syringe with air.
                                                                    4          I press the plunger for the air to pass
    ♦ I indicate the correct answers.                                         from the syringe to the balloon.
                                     Concepts of
     ● Does the air inside the balloon maintain the same form as inside the syringe? Yes □ No □

                                   State of matter
     ● Does the air inside the balloon occupy the same space as inside the syringe? Yes □ No □
 ♦ I conclude and complete.

                                  Solid, Liquid, Gas?
    ● Gas bodies do not have the same ____ . Their form is variable. In the syringe it had the form
            of the ____ , in the balloon it took the form of the ____ .
    ● The air in the syringe occupied less space than in the ___ .
    ● Gas matters also do not maintain the same volume.
♦ I indicate in the table as in the example.
                                   Rock      Pencil   Gas   Water       Air       Oil    Glass    Milk
                         Solid      X
                         Liquid
                          Gas
                                                                                                 Afonso, ERICE, 2005   28
             Textbooks (Bambi, 4) – Experiments with the air (the oxygen)
           I observe and experiment




● I light up a candle.
                                                               ● I place the candle on the
● I let some drops of wax fall onto a plate.                   drops of wax and leave it lit up.

                                     Concept of
                                    Combustion?
 ● I put a glass over the candle.
 ● Does the candle continue to burn?                     ● I observe what happened to the candle.

♦ I conclude and complete.
● In figures A, B and C the candle burns, forming a flame that releases heat. A combustion is
happening.
● In figure C the candle continues to burn, even inside the glass. In figure D the candle went out.
● What was inside the glass in figure C that ceased to exist inside the glass in figure D?
For the candle to burn, the presence of oxygen, which is a gas that is in the air, is necessary. The
candle went out because, while it burned, it used up all the ___________that was inside the glass.
                                                                                  Afonso, ERICE, 2005   29
              Textbooks (Retintim, 2) – About Plants


A whole plant consists of: root, stem, leaves, flowers and fruit.
                                                          Autumn

              The FRUIT keeps and protects the seeds
              that will give origin to a new plant.


                                                          Winter
               The FLOWERS will transform into fruit



               The LEAVES allow the plant to breathe

                                                          Spring


               The STEM supports the plant and takes
               the food (sap) to all its parts

                                                          Summer

               The ROOT fixes the plant to the soil and
               feeds it by absorbing water and mineral
               salts from the soil.

                                                               Afonso, ERICE, 2005   30
                   Textbooks         (Retintim, 2)   – Styles of life of some animals


          WHAT THEY EAT                     HOW THEY REPRODUCE               HOW THEY MOVE ABOUT




 The CAT eats meat. Animals that
 eat meat are called carnivorous.                                          Fish move in water by
                                     The HEN reproduces by means of        swimming. Therefore, they
                                     eggs. All birds reproduce by          have fins.
                                     means of eggs that they hatch in
                                     their nests.

                                                                             The great majority of BIRDS
The COW eats grass. Animals that                                             move in the air by flying.
eat grass are called herbivorous.                                            Therefore, they have wings.

                                      The CAT develops inside the
                                      womb of the mother. Many of the
                                      animals that live on the Earth are
                                      formed in the womb of the
 The HEN eats grain. Animals that     mothers. They develop there for a
 eat grain are called granivorous.    period of 3 months until they are     The HORSE moves about by
                                      born.                                 placing its four hooves on the
                                                                            ground. That is how many of the
                                                                                      Afonso, ERICE, 2005   31
       Textbooks          (Retintim, 2)   – About the weather and seasons of the year
            The weather changes throughout the seasons of the year




 Spring is the season of flowers. The                         Summer is the season of fruits. It is
 birds make their nests. The swallows                        very hot and people go to the beaches.
 return. The temperature is pleasant.
                                                             The days are longer and the nights
 The seeds that were sown start to sprout.                   shorter.




                                                            Winter is the rainy and cold season.
Autumn is the season when it starts to
                                                            Nothing grows in the fields. Everything
get cold and the first rains fall. The leaves
                                                            seems dead. The Sun rises late and
of many plants change colour and fall.
                                                            sets early. The days are shorter and
The swallows go to other warmer lands.
                                                            the nights longer. Sometimes it snows.
                                                                                  Afonso, ERICE, 2005   32
          Textbooks (Retintim, 2) - The existence of air (experiments)


                 There is air everywhere.
                 But it cannot be seen.
                 The birds fly in the air;
                 the clouds float in the air.
                 We breathe air. The                           The ball is full of air. Like
                 plants breathe air. The                       that, it is hard and bounces.
                 balloons are full of air.




1. Dip a glass funnel in water while at the same time covering the opening at the end
   of the tube with a finger.
The water will not go in the funnel because it is full of a substance that prevents the entry of water.

2. Remove the finger leaving the opening free.
You will see bubbles of a gas bursting on the surface of the water as it enters the funnel

3. Finally, the funnel will be full of water as soon as all the gas has left it. That gas is
    the air that you breathe.
                                                                                      Afonso, ERICE, 2005   33
                 Textbooks (Retintim, 2) – Evaluation context




Does the water enter the glass?
________________________
-Dip, bottom up, a glass that seems empty. Keep the glass straight. (Fig. A).
Tilt the glass a little (Fig. B).
What do you see coming out of the glass?
________________________
What are those bubbles made up of?
________________________


                                                                       Afonso, ERICE, 2005   34
                          Textbooks (Retintim, 2) – Experiments with air
                    Later…
                                                                   In figure A the syringe is full of air.

                                                                        Cover the opening of the
                                                                        syringe with a (figure B) and
                                                                        put pressure on the plunger.
                                                                        It will only go down a little.
                                                                        The air that is compressed
                              The girl is blowing                       inside the syringe (figure B)
                              up the balloon.                           does not let the plunger go
                                                                        in.
                                                    A             B
   Therefore, it is full of air.
                                   Inter-relations?
                        Balance the scales                                   I am going to
                        with the empty ball.
                                                                             throw a balloon.




Fill the ball with air and check if the
needle tips to the left.                                The balloon rises because the hot air is
That is because the air has weight.                     lighter than the cold air.
                                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   35
        Textbooks (Retintim, 4) – Experiments (Discovering materials and objects )
          Effects of temperature on water (evaporation, ebullition, condensation, solidification, fusion)
        Observe and carry out the experiments suggested.




The heat of the sun causes the slow                               The heat from the flame causes the water
vaporisation of the water in the clothes hanging                  to heat up and the formation of air bubbles.

                            Concept of
in the open air from the clotheslines.
The slow and spontaneous vaporisation of
                                                                  That is, the water starts to boil and
                                                                  vaporises quickly and noisily.


                    COLD
                         Changes of matter?
water is called evaporation.                                      The quick and noisy vaporisation of water
                                                                  is called ebullition.




When the water vapour              Upon contact with the ice cubes,           When exposed to the heat of
found the cold surface of the      the water in the jar froze and             the Sun, the ice cube melted
glass, it changed from the         solidified.                                or became liquid.
gas state to the liquid state.
                                   The     cooling     caused      the        We call it fusion when water
The cooling caused the             solidification of the water.               changes from the solid state
condensation of the water                                                     to the liquid state.
vapour.                                                                                  Afonso, ERICE, 2005     36
                       Textbook (Retintim, 4) – Evaluation context


                                      1-    Place a piece of glass over a tub with
                                            boiling water and observe what happens.

                                            a) What happens to the water vapour when it
                                               comes in contact with the cold glass?
                                            ___________________________
                                            b) What do you call this phenomenon?
                                            ___________________________
Condensation is when water                  c) What do you understand by condensation?
vapour changes to the liquid state.

                                      Facts __________________________


                                                 Place a cuvette with water in the freezer of
                                       2-
                                                 a fridge. Remove it a few hours later.

                                                 a) What state has the water changed to?
                                                 ___________________________
In the fridge, the water freezes,                b) What phenomenon occurred here?
that is, it changes from the liquid              ___________________________
state to the solid state.                        c) What do you understand by freezing?
                                                 ___________________________
                                                                                  Afonso, ERICE, 2005   37
  Textbook (Retintim, 4) – Experiments with air (existence of oxygen in the air – combustion)
                                                      The air
        The Earth is surrounded by a gas layer called atmosphere which consists of air. Air cannot be seen,
        but it exists. When you breathe, you introduce air into your organism. When you run, you feel the air
        on your face…           Observe and carry out the experiments suggested.




                                                                B                                      C
                      A
                                       Remove the finger from the              As soon as the air bubbles
Dip a glass funnel in water, as        funnel. What happened?                  leave the funnel, it fills up
shown in the picture. The water
                                       The air bubbles burst on the            with water.
does not enter the funnel.
                                       surface of the water.
                                          Some
                              Conclusion: Air exists and it occupies space.

                                                                                                            B

  Place an empty football
                          A
                                         Concepts                             Fill the ball up with air and place
                                        Conclusion: Air has weight.           it again on the scales. The
 on a scale and balance it.
                                                                              scales became unbalanced.


                  A                                         B                                          C
Light the wick of the                                                           After some time, the flame
alcohol lamp and leave it.         Cover the lamp with a bell jar.              from the lamp will go out.
The flame keeps burning.
                   Conclusion: There is a gas in the air, called oxygen, that feeds theAfonso, ERICE, 2005
                                                                                        combustion.             38
                       Results - Concepts – syntheses at the end…




                                          TEXTBOOK – 2nd year
                                     “DISCOVERING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT”


                In a few words:
                ● The weather conditions may be rainy, windy, hot, cold…
                ● The seasons of the year are four: spring, summer, autumn,
                winter.
                ● Each season has its own characteristics. In spring, the weather
                is pleasant; in summer, it is very hot; in autumn, the first rains fall;
                in winter it is very cold.
                ● We are surrounded by air, but cannot see it. Wind and air
Temperature?    currents are air in movement.
   Light?
Without Wind?          Temperature
                                                                   Temperature
Without rain?
                                                                                        Water




                                                                                  Afonso, ERICE, 2005   39
                         Synthesis - Texbooks

                                      CONCEPTS


     Where are the generalisations?

     Where are the relations among concepts of high level of abstraction?

     Where are the differentiation between the essential/more relevant aspects
from the less important/less relevant aspects.




           SCIENTIFIC – NON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE RELATIONS

      Where are the relations between scientific knowledge and common sense
knowledge?




                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   40
The Teacher




              Afonso, ERICE, 2005   41
                                         The teacher - Concepts
            Teacher/Miss Céu                                             Teacher /Miss Inácia

                                                        The students and teacher are analysing the
There is talk about the consumption of                  result of the latest experiments involving the
oxygen during combustion. Gina mentions                 changes in the state of substances and
that in cars that are running there is also             following     that    they    start    to   make      their
combustion...                                           conclusion. During the dialogue, they recall the
The students start to say “that it is                   experiments they made, the results obtained,
essential for us to breathe”, “without                  the concepts of the different changes of state
oxygen there is no life”.                               are introduced, they recall the initial and final
The     consumption        of     oxygen      during    states of the substances and if changes
combustion continues to be analysed                     occurred by heating or cooling. The teacher
without     reference       to     the     gaseous      uses some of the comments made by the
exchange       in   many        living   organisms      students to recall again the aspects already
involving oxygen and carbon dioxide [A                  analysed “how did you explain that?”, “does
subject already studied previously].                    the group want to explain better?”. In the end
                                                        they draw up a summary-diagram and write the
 Without inter-relations between different scientific
                      knowledge                         information in their exercise-book.
    It is difficult to develop concepts                 With inter-relations between different scientific knowledge

                                                                                       concepts
                                                                 It is easy to developAfonso, ERICE, 2005             42
                      The teacher – Scientific-Non-Scientific Knowledge
           Teacher/Miss Céu                                                 Teacher /Miss Inácia

                                              The students are studying the changes of state of water.
                                              When they discuss the results in the group, they employ
  The students frequently use
                                              expressions like “cold”, “melted”, froze”, and the teacher
  expressions       like     “melted”,
                                              explains what they mean in scientific terms.
  “froze”, “disappeared”. The
                                              In one group:
  teacher      does     not     clarify
                                              - What do you want to say with “cold”, “it was cold”. What do
  which changes of state these
                                              you mean?…and “froze”? - the teacher asks.
  expressions contain.
                                              In another group:
  When he/she introduces the
                                              - The sealing-was bar melted - the student informs
  names of the changes of
                                              - Melted?! What is that “melted”?-the teacher asks.
  state, he/she starts using
                                              - It is dissolving – says the student.
  them without explaining the
                                              - It is dissolving, what is that, André?...We spoke of the
  relationship        with      those
                                              phases [of matter], so which one is that? - the teacher starts
  expressions.
                                              to explain. The discussion continues until it is clear that
Without inter-relations between scientific-
        non-scientific knowledge              when the sealing-wax bar is heated it changes to the liquid
     It is difficult to develop               state and when it cools it changes to the solid state again.
              concepts                            With inter-relations between scientific-non-scientific knowledge

                                                              It is easy to develop conceptsERICE, 2005
                                                                                       Afonso,                       43
                           Synthesis - Teachers

                                    CONCEPTS
        Some teachers:

      ● make generalisations

      ● develop relations among concepts of high level of abstraction

      ● make differentiation between the essential/more relevant aspects from the
 less important/less relevant aspects.



         SCIENTIFIC – NON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE RELATIONS

      Some teachers:

      ● develop relations between scientific knowledge and common sense
knowledge




                                                                   Afonso, ERICE, 2005   44
Global conclusions, Reflection and
 implications in Teacher Training




                               Afonso, ERICE, 2005   45
               Global Conclusions and Reflection




There is a discrepancy between what the programme defends,
the textbooks suggest and the teachers implement.


There is a discrepancy between what the programme, the textbooks
and the teachers develop and what the educational researchers
defend for scientific learning of high level.


The discrepancies pointed out have implications, not always
desirable, in the children’s level of scientific knowledge.


                                                              Afonso, ERICE, 2005   46
                 Global Conclusions and Reflection



The difficulties in establishing relationships between the different
   types of knowledge may be related to three aspects :


● the general principle of our society, that “things” should be kept separate.


● the lack of scientific skills and/or pedagogical skills necessary to

establish relationships between different types of knowledge.


● the very concept of inter-relation. At times, teachers thought that it was

enough “to talk about certain subjects” for concepts to be developed and
relationships established between academic and non-academic knowledge.




                                                                 Afonso, ERICE, 2005   47
             General Implications – The Students’ Learning


                 ● Scientific learning made by the students:

 The learning. of not so important aspects at the expense of the understanding
of relevant aspects


 There are low levels of scientific development.


  Learning is fragmented, factual, restricted instead of coherent, conceptual
and broad learning.

 It is more difficult to change the children’s concepts; when common sense
knowledge is not interpreted or explored based on scientific knowledge, it tends
to remain in a more resistant form.

Can we say that there is development of scientific literacy in the students?

                                                               Afonso, ERICE, 2005   48
           General Implications in Teacher Training




Teacher training should correct the difficulties in the
teachers’ performance so as to permit broad scientific
concepts   to   develop    if   we   are   to   implement
pedagogical practices with certain characteristics.




                                                      Afonso, ERICE, 2005   49
Afonso, ERICE, 2005   50

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:10/21/2011
language:English
pages:50