"Drew Harner WW1 Syllabus"
1. PEDLIGS A. People 1. Allied Powers-U.K., France, Russia, Italy 2. Central Powers- Ottoman Empire, Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire 3. Jeannette Rankin- First woman to be elected to Congress 4. Edward House- Chief Foreign Policy Adviser, under Wilson, that was sent to negotiate peaceful terms prior to American involvement in WW1 5. George Creel- Head of the Committee on Public Information 6. Bolsheviks- Russian communists 7. American Expeditionary Force- The U.S. military force that served in WW1 8. Big Four- David L. George, Georges Clemenceau. Vittorio Orlando, and Wilson 9. David Lloyd George- Leader of the U.K. 10. Georges Clemenceau- French leader 11. Vittorio Orlando- Italian leader 12. League of Nations- A prototype of the U.N. 13. Henry Cabot Lodge- Opposing Republican to the ratification of the T. of V. 14. Reservationists- Would accept the League if certain reservations were added 15. Irreconcilables- Would not accept U.S. membership In the League 16. Emma Goldman- A radical that spoke out against the Red Scare B. Events 1. Sinking of the Lusitania- The sinking of a British passenger liner by the Germans that tested American neutrality 2. Russian Revolution- The cou d’ etat that overthrow the Russian czar and introduced communism 3. Red Scare- Anti-communist hysteria fueled by unhappiness at home and fear of socialism 4. Palmer Raids- Arrests conducted by General A. Mitchell Palmer of alleged anarchists, Socialists, and labor agitators C. Documents 1. Zimmermann telegram- A telegram sent from the German foreign minister to Mexico, proposing that Mexico ally with Germany and then Germany will help get back Mexico’s lost territories. D. Laws/Supreme Court Cases 1. Espionage Act (1917)- Prevented speaking out against the war effort; promised 20 years of imprisonment 2. Sedition Act (1917)- Anyone who made disloyal or abusive remarks faced imprisonment 3. Schenck v. United States- A case that upheld the constitutionality of the Espionage Act 4. Selective Service Act (1917)- Called men out to join the war by lottery; about 2.7 million chosen 5. Treaty of Versailles- Ended World War 1 E. Ideas 1. Neutrality- in the U.S.’s case, isolationism. Neutrality was the act of being on no one’s side during a war or conflict, therefore having no ties of allegiance 2. Submarine Warfare- Naval warfare involving a new kind of ship, the submarine, an underwater vessel. The Germans used these extensively 3. Sussex Pledge- A pledge by the Germans that promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships without giving a warning 4, Propaganda- the use of sensationalistic stories, publications, and artwork to influence a certain body of people to think a particular way 5. Preparedness- Greater defense expenditures that were called for by Roosevelt and other Republicans, because they saw that the U.S. was vastly underprepared for war 6. Mobilization- the act of organizing a country’s forces and economic resources for war 7. Fourteen Points- Ideas that Wilson wanted to see achieved after the war- refer to pg. 457 8. Strikes- Union strikes, consisting of police strikes, shipyard worker strikes, and U.S. Steel worker strikes 9. Race Riots- Riots between African Americans and whites regarding jobs and racial tension F. Government Stuff 1. War Agencies- Agencies set up by Wilson that managed certain aspects of wartime effort. For example, Herbert Hoover and the Food Administration, Bernard Baruch and the War Industries. 2, Chapter 30 Outline!- THE WAR TO END WAR 1. War by Act of Germany a. The Zimmermann telegram was made public, infuriating Americans b. Unrestricted submarine warfare influenced Wilson’s decision for war 2. Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned a. His wartime goal was to “make the world safe for democracy” b. Americans could be isolationists or crusaders, nothing in between. Hmmm how interesting… 3. Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points a. Refer to pg. 688 for some points. Had numerous purposes, from independence for all oppressed peoples to a foreshadowing of the League of Nations 4. Creel Manipulates Minds a. George Creel, head of the Committee on Public Information, helped to spread propaganda and induce mass war hysteria 5. Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent a. Anti-German sentiments ran high, especially under the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918. 6. The Nation’s Factories Go to War a. Mobilization of America’s economy and resources proved to be horrendously slow 7. Workers in Wartime a. Unions experienced a surge in membership, and many were rewarded with higher wages and better work hours, yet strikes were frequent 8. Suffering Until Suffrage a. Women’s role in with wartime production was vital to the success of the war, as they took the jobs of the men who left to go fight b. 19th Amendment ratified, and women now had the right to vote 9. Forging a War Economy a. Farm production increase by 25%, Americans encouraged to hold back on food and heating fuel b. Liberty bond drives! 10. Making Plowboys into Doughboys a. A draft was reluctantly instituted b. Proved to be immensely successful 11. Fighting in France- Belatedly a. U.S. was horridly slow with getting involved in the war 12. America Helps Hammer the “Hun” a. American forces prove their worth in the Second Battle of the Marne, in which was the beginning of a German withdrawal 13. The Fourteen Points to Disarm Germany a. America helped more in terms of ammunition, supplies, and morale. Not so much military performance 14. Wilson Steps Down From Olympus a. Wilson made a series of blunders that cost him his support; he appealed for a democratic victory in the congressional elections of 1918, but it backfired and a Republican majority was voted in. He also went personally to Europe for the conference regarding the peace treaty, and brought along no Republicans 15. An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris a. the “Big Four” commanded the peace terms b. A League of Nations was sought for establishment 16. Hammering Out the Treaty a. Wilson received fierce Republican backlash for his ideas regarding the Treaty 17. The Peace Treaty That Bred a New War a. Treaty of Paris established, Germany was ordered that it comply with the terms 18. The Domestic Parade of Prejudice a. Wilson received a lot of criticism and political backlash 19. Wilson’s Tour and Collapse (1919) a. Wilson engaged a tour to bring about support for the ratification of the T. o. V., and fell ill over the trip and went back to Washington 20. Defeat Through Deadlock a. The Treaty failed to become ratified 21. The “solemn Referendum” of 1920 a. Harding was elected to succeed Wilson