Annex IV by gjmpzlaezgx


									                            Final Report

            Feasibility Study for an
     Information Society Program for the
African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Countries
                         (Grant Agreement # 1237)

     ANNEX VI: Regional Report - Pacific
                            20 January 2005

                                  Project Leaders:
                                     Tina James
                                      Kate Wild

                                  Team Members:

                                    Lishan Adam
                                   Boubakar Barry
                                  Stephen Esselaar
                                   Valerie Gordon
                                    Taholo Kami
                                   Yacine Khelladi
                                   Vidya Kissoon
                                   Jonathan Miller
                                    David Souter

     Cape Town Office                                Pretoria Office
     Phone/Fax +27 21 790 1327                       Phone/Fax +27 12 361 4334
     P O Box 26138                                   P O Box 72267
     Hout Bay 7872 South Africa                      Lynnwood Ridge 0040 South Africa                    
                                           Annex VI: Pacific Report:
                           Feasibility Study for Information Society
                                           Program in ACP Countries

       Annex VI

Regional Report: Pacific

       Taholo Kami

        Annex IV - 1
                                                                                                 Annex VI: Pacific Report
                                                                                Feasibility Study for Information Society
                                                                                                Program in ACP Countries

                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ACRONYMS ....................................................................................... 3

1.   Introduction and Background ...................................................................... 4

2.   Organization of the Report ........................................................................ 4

3.   Methodology ......................................................................................... 4

4.   Overview of ICT infrastructure, Access and Policy Framework in the Pacific Region ..... 5
     4.1 ICT Trends ..................................................................................... 5
     4.2 Infrastructure.................................................................................. 6
     4.3 Access .......................................................................................... 8
     4.4 Policy and Regulation ........................................................................ 8
     4.5 National ICT Strategies ....................................................................... 9

5.   ICT Application Initiatives in the Pacific Region ............................................... 10
     5.1 Education and Human Capacity Needs .................................................... 10
     5.2 Health ......................................................................................... 11

6.   Business / Commerce .............................................................................. 12

7.   Primary Industries – Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry ........................................ 13

8.   Rural and Outer Island Connectivity ............................................................. 14

9.   Regional and National Activities ................................................................. 14

10. Recommendations ................................................................................. 16

Bibliography – Pacific Region........................................................................... 19

Appendix A. Interviews Conducted .................................................................... 20

Appendix B: Relevant ICT Sector/ Project Snapshots .............................................. 22

Appendix C : Matrix of ICT Initiatives in the PacificRegion ........................................ 24

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                          LIST OF ACRONYMS
ACP       African, Caribbean and Pacific countries
ADB       Asian Development Bank
APNIC     Asia Pacific Network Information Center
APT       Asia Pacific Telecommunity
CROP      Council of Regional Organizations
CSO       Community-Based Organizations
EU        European Union
FDC       Foundation for Development Cooperation
FFA       Forum Fisheries Agency
FICS      Forum Island Countries
FSM       Federated States of Micronesia
GKP       Global Knowledge Partnerships
GSM       Global System for Mobile Communications
HRD       Human Resource Development
ICT       Information and Communication Technology
ISDN      Integrated Services Digital Network
ISP       Internet Service Provider
ITU       International Telecommunications Forum
MDG       Millennium Development Goal
NGO       Non-Governmental Organization
PANGTEL   Papua New Guinea Telecommunications Authority
PESTNET   Plant Protection Network
PFnet     People First Network
PICs      Pacific Island Countries
PIFS      Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat
PIIPP     Pacific Islands ICT Policy and Plan
PITA      Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association
PNG       Papua New Guinea
PNGtel    Papua New Guinea Telecommunications
POLHN     Pacific Open Learning Health Net
PTC       Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association
SOPAC     South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission
SPC       Secretariat of the Pacific Community
SPREP     South Pacific Regional Environment Program
UNDP      United Nations Development Program
UNESCO    United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization
USP       University of the South Pacific
USPnet    University of South Pacific dedicated VSAT telecommunications network
VSAT      Very Small Aperture Terminal
WHO       World Health Organization
WSIS      World Summit of the Information Society

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1.     Introduction and Background
The regional ICT Assessment for the Pacific Islands Countries (PICs) is part of the
feasibility study for an Information Society Program for the African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) Countries. This report looks at the status of ICT activities in the Pacific ACP
member countries. This list includes Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM),
Fiji, Kiribati, Palau, Papua New Guinea (PNG), Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), Nauru,
Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Timor Leste (formerly East
Timor) is a recent addition but is yet to actively participate in regional activities and has
not been involved in recent regional ICT activities. The report is not an attempt to
provide comprehensive country-by-country analysis of ICT status but aims to identify
general trends and issues with ICT development and synthesize recommendations for the
ACP Information Society Program.

ICT has emerged in the in the past 2 years as a major priority for the PIC Governments.
The Pacific Islands Forum leaders in 2004 recognized ICT infrastructure as a key
component for the PICS to participate in the global economy and an essential enabler for
development across all sectors. In the April 2004 retreat in New Zealand, Forum leaders
called for a Digital Strategy to assist PICs to effectively utilize ICTs in development. This
is currently under formulation as part of the developing Pacific Plan – an overriding
regional development and integration strategy.

The most important objective of the report is to ensure intervention by donors and
development partners in ICT related activities align these activities with overall
development priorities of the PICs.

2.     Organization of the Report
The report begins with a brief description of methodology applied. An overview of major
ICT development initiatives and trends region is provided including ICTs in major
development sectors such as health, agriculture, education and governance. The
obstacles and challenges confronting ICT development in PICs is presented along with
descriptions of existing projects and activities that may provide opportunities or pointers
for further development. Recommendations for intervention at a regional and national
level are included at the end of the report for further consideration in the feasibility

3.     Methodology
Desktop research of regional and national initiatives provides the bulk of the information
for this report. More than other ACP regions, the regional organizations in the Pacific play
a strong role in terms of information and capacity building for member countries. This
has resulted in the regional organizations becoming key information providers in most
sectors including ICT. Regional reports and officers and experts with regional
organizations are important sources of information. There are also critical limitations
with the availability of reliable country data on ICT issues and activities. Currently key
data sources include the Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association (PITA), the
Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS) Pacific ICT Survey and 2003 Telecommunications
indicators from ITU.

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A series of interviews were also conducted by email and in person with key people to
flesh out details on activities and issues. In person interviews were carried out with
prepared questions but often resulted in informal discussions around important ICT issues
and observations providing new and additional insights into issues.

4.     Overview of ICT infrastructure, Access and Policy
       Framework in the Pacific Region
The Pacific region covers the largest ocean expanse in the world with countries as
ethnically and geographically diverse as the vast distances that separate them.
Populations range from approximately 2000 people in Niue to over 5 million in Papua New
Guinea. Geographical diversity includes the mountainous landmasses of the larger island
nations of PNG, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Fiji with challenges similar to African
counterparts to the atoll island nations with small populations spread over thousands of
square kilometers of ocean. Kiribati has 110 000 people living on islands spread over 3
000 miles – the distance from Los Angeles to New York. ICT implementation in the Pacific
faces unique challenges tied to geography, diversity and small populations. The following
observations and trends highlight some of the issues with ICTs in the Pacific today.

4.1    ICT Trends
The ICT revolution touted elsewhere in the world has not been a reality for the PICs.
Smaller island countries are hampered by issues unique to the region and directly related
to their “smallness”. The size of in-country markets is not conducive to economic
development as compared to the urban clusters of larger developing nations. While the
Internet still enables connection to the global market it does not deal with the severe
capacity deficiencies that are inherent with small markets and provide few incentives and
opportunities for ICT development. This amplifies the obstacles to ICT development
common to all ACP countries: human resource limitations, expensive access, limited
infrastructure and archaic regulatory and policy frameworks. Small markets need external
intervention to create or stimulate demand and open new opportunities to participate in
the global economy.

The ICT environment in the Pacific is by no means static. There has been some growth in
the number of users accessing the Internet in all sectors, but this is more likely a “natural
growth” due to increasing availability of Internet services and growing awareness of its
benefits. Internet connections to national ISPs have evolved from 128 and 256K
connections on installation 8-10 years ago to 1-4 MB/second connections in most of the
smaller Pacific Island nations. Increasing availability of online information originating
from PICS, use of email and Internet services, available ICT training courses and even
business web pages are signs of the growing use of ICT services.

Despite the growing ICT usage, ICT impact on the PIC economies is limited and there is no
substantial connection between economic growth and increasing ICT use over the past
five years, with most Pacific countries averaging less then 3% growth.

Adequate ICT legislation is still non-existent in most PICS although efforts are being made
to develop national ICT strategies and to update existing telecommunications statutes.
Monopoly telecommunications operators have the biggest impact on the cost of access
and connectivity and these monopolies are still prevalent in 13 of the PICs.

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Pacific islanders with ICT skills are still in short supply despite efforts and available
opportunities for ICT training. Limited human resource needs range from specialist
technical / professional skills to basic user skill sets. Capacity building programs have
focused on short-term courses and tertiary level certification but there is a need to build
a broader ICT workforce platform by systematically addressing education at primary and
secondary school levels. Home PC ownership is not a likely option for PIC children, with
the schools as their only introduction to ICTs.

There is a strong push for ICT implementation in the Pacific region with several regional
initiatives. A regional meeting in 2001 hosted by the members of the Council of Regional
Organizations of the Pacific (CROP) ICT working Group in Noumea developed a “regional
ICT strategy” or the Pacific Islands ICT Policy and Plan (PIIPP). This was endorsed in the
2002 Forum Communications Ministerial meeting which produced the Communications
Action Plan. Four key areas were identified for regional focus: telehealth, community
centers, distance education and regulatory frameworks. Regional ICT initiatives have
helped raise awareness with PIC leaders and supported ICT projects that stimulate
interest and activities with PICs at a national level.

While it is important for regional support and implementation of ICT projects, it is
important to recognize that ICTs in the development context must be applied across the
development sectors enabling national development priorities through appropriate
application of ICTs.

4.2    Infrastructure
Telecommunications Infrastructure in the Pacific is satellite based with the exception of
Fiji and the French territories. In 2000 the Southern Cross Cable landed at Fiji providing
the first broadband fiber optic connection to a Pacific island nation. Broadband
connections are now available to the French Pacific territories and are providing new
investment opportunities for Fiji. The situation has not improved for the rest of the
Pacific despite several aggressive proposals for Pacific wide fiber optic networks. These
proposals have been derailed or deferred due to the significant costs involved.

At a national level, connectivity is still the realm of the urban centers with rural and
outer islands missing most of the benefits of telephony, Internet and television. The radio
is still the most effective communications tool in the Pacific nations. Some of the
limitations are geographical while others include issues such as lack of service and basic
access to electricity.

Mobile telephones are also a common sight in urban centers throughout the Pacific with
GSM networks established or being introduced into most PICS. Wireless and cellular
systems have extended phone services beyond the reaches of the traditional telephone
wired network and have led to impressive growth in Tonga and Fiji and urban centers
throughout the Pacific. Rural and outer islands services are still a challenge despite
improvements in technology. Innovative approaches to connectivity in rural and outer
island areas are needed to ensure participation in the outlying islands.

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                  Table 1. Digital Accessibility Index for the Pacific Region

Country          Tele- Mobile     INFRA-  AFFORD-               KNOW-
                                                                              QUALITY        USAGE            DAI
                density Density STRUCTURE ABILITY               LEDGE

Fiji            11.7   10.8        0.15         0.82           0.87           0.25          0.07         0.43
                1.1    0.2         0.01         0.55           0.57           0.17          0.02         0.26
Samoa           5.7    1.5         0.06         0.64           0.89           0.25          0.03         0.37
                1.5    0.2         0.01         0.00           0.68           0.17          0.01         0.17
Vanuatu         3.2    2.4         0.04         0.48           0.41           0.25          0.04         0.24

   Note: Digital Accessibility Index (DAI) values are shown to hundreds of a
    decimal point. Economies with the same DAI value are ranked by
    thousands of decimal point.
                                           Source: International Telecommunications Union, 2003

                       Table 2. ICT Penetration in the Pacific Region

                       GDP US$         Population  Tele-         Cell         Internet Internet  Pay
                       (million)      (thousands) density       density         hosts    users  phones

       Cook Islands                                       No data
       Fiji                   1 682          820       11.90          10.97          785      50 000 No data
       Kiribati                 40            88        5.11           0.62           35        2 000 No data
       Islands                  99            57        7.74           0.98             5       1 250           18
       Micronesia              240           118        8.67           1.48          636        6 000 No data
       Nauru                                                                                             No data
       Niue                                                                                              No data
       Palau                                                                                             No data
       Papua New
       Guinea                 3 988         5464        1.17           0.27          517      75 000 No data
       Samoa                   255           180        5.69           1.50          5705       4 000 No data
       Islands                 264           444        1.49           0.22          470        2 200 No data
       Timor Leste                                                                                       No data
       Tonga                   131            99       11.29           3.38      19485          2 900           70
       Tuvalu                                                                                            No data
       Vanuatu                 219           202        3.27           2.42          551        7 000 No data
       Africa                                           3.83           7.16                  131 624
       Europe                                        38.74       49.23          3 542 486
                                                  Source: International Telecommunications Union,
                                          World Telecommunications Indicators database, July 2003

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4.3    Access
Quality of access is still a major problem with many Pacific island Internet service
providers hampered by aging copper phone networks and outdated technology. The
regional ICT plan recognizes internet access across the PICs range from 3-25% of the
population. Available statistics ignore issues such as quality of access and actual costs.
Most schools with an Internet connection are either serviced by a 28.8K dialup connection
or 32 – 128K ISDN lines.

More businesses are getting online and the Internet is fast becoming the mode of
communications for NGOs and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) as well as individuals
with internet access. Infrastructure limitations are a major obstacle to access and will
require significant investment to upgrade international linkages and national
communications infrastructure.

4.4    Policy and Regulation
The PICs are dominated by monopoly operators in the telecommunications sector.
Majority government ownership and partnerships with a major carrier such as Cable and
Wireless are commonplace. The degree of government ownership and competition varies
across the Pacific. Most PICs are involved in a recent ITU/Pacific Islands
Telecommunications Association (PITA) project to review and update their
telecommunications legislation.

Only three countries have a choice of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) - Papua New
Guinea, Tonga and Samoa. Samoa and Papua New Guinea licensed independent ISPs with
introduction of the Internet in the mid 1990s resulting in reasonable rates to the users.

Tonga has allowed competition in the telecommunications sector by licensing a private
company, Tonfon, to enter the telecommunications market against the government
owned Tonga Communications Corporation. Tonga’s licensing of the private company
Tonfon to compete as a service provider has led to drops in prices of over 75% on local
calls and put pressure on the entrenched UCALL government-owned service provider to
improve its coverage. The resultant leap in cellular phone usage has been five-fold since
2002. Unfortunately with the Tongan example, Tonfon performance has dropped, with
customers switching to the more stable service provided by Telecomms UCALL. This may
be more a result of management priorities than the small market size.

The monopolies provide much needed revenues for PIC governments but are recognized
by stakeholders as obstacles to effective ICT implementation due to the expensive and
inefficient services. Another argument for the monopoly situation has been the lack of a
feasible alternative for the smaller island countries, especially when universal services
include serving small populations hundreds of miles from the key urban centers. The
table below illustrates the extent of monopolies in the Pacific.

Independent ICT regulator bodies are new to the Pacific. Papua New Guinea is the only
PIC with a separate telecommunications regulatory body (PNGtel). Most other Pacific
countries have placed regulatory responsibilities either with an appropriate ministry, or
the Government owned telecommunication operator.

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4.5    National ICT Strategies
ICT implementation at a national level has been piecemeal and often driven by sectoral
needs or donor priorities. Duplication of scarce ICT capacity or concentration in certain
sectors has resulted from the lack of cohesion of priorities at a national level. National
ICT strategies aligned to national development plans and endorsed at the highest level of
government will help coordinate or harmonize ICT activities to priority development

 In 2002, a UNDP and Government of Japan funded project, ePacifika, began assisting 14
Pacific island countries to develop their National ICT strategies through a participatory
process involving stakeholders in government, private sector and civil society. To date
only three - Samoa, Fiji and Palau - have completed their ICT strategies and received
high-level cabinet support. The other Pacific countries will require further support to
ensure that ICT strategies are developed, endorsed and implemented. This is a critical
enabler for more effective ICT implementation at the national and local level, and to
ensure prioritization of activities.

The Fiji Government endorsed their National ICT Development Policy in 2004. This is
focused on achieving the following 3 outcomes: 1. Government Online, 2. Enabling
Business and 3. Empowering the community. Government Online deals with a more
efficient and accessible Government. Enabling business looks at e-commerce,
telecommunications liberalization, promoting innovation and common standards.
eCommunity focuses on affordable access, education and capacity building, poverty
reduction and promoting a multi-cultural and enlightened society. The national ICT
Development policy will help focus ICT activities around national development objectives
in Fiji. The Fiji Government has already approved a comprehensive e-government budget
for 2005 and will ensure some initial momentum for ICT development.

Samoa has benefited from strong government leadership with ICT a special interest of the
Prime Minister. An ICT Committee was nominated in 2001 and Cabinet approved a
national ICT strategy in 2004 based on the format of the regional ICT plan (PIIPP).

Mainstreaming ICTs into the national development priorities will provide the impetus for
effective ICT implementation. Political commitment by PIC leaders is more likely if ICT
initiatives are aligned with development priorities. This will improve the likelihood for
budgetary commitments and drive the effective development of overall ICT capacity. The
challenge is for donors to recognize and support governments that are proactive with key
ICT development initiatives.

The following table lists the status of National ICT Strategy development in the Pacific
Island region.

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                          Table 3. Status of National ICT Strategy

           Country              Cabinet       Draft ICT   Task       National ICT
                                Approved      Strategy    Force /    Association

           Cook Islands
           Fiji                                           
           FSM                                              
           Kiribati                                       
           Marshall Islands                                 
           Nauru                No
           Niue                                           
           Palau                                          
           PNG                                              
           Samoa                                          
           Solomon Islands                                
           Tonga                                                           
           Tuvalu                                           
           Tuvalu                                           
           Vanuatu              No
           a. Task forces / Groups have been formed in the past 2 years
           but some inactive
           b. Only 3 countries have Cabinet endorsed ICT Strategies.

5.     ICT Application Initiatives in the Pacific Region

5.1    Education and Human Capacity Needs
Limited human resources in ICT are the biggest obstacle to development and
implementation of ICT initiatives in the Pacific. Skilled technicians, policy makers,
entrepreneurs, innovators, teachers / trainers and users all have a part to play in ICT
development. There have been numerous workshops and special training programs but
the demand for people with ICT skills is still very high in all sectors of society. Many
skilled ICT people have left the region for developed countries. ICT training programs are
needed at a scale that develops people to meet needs of the domestic markets as well as
overcoming the inevitable overseas “brain drain”.

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Human Resource Development (HRD) plans for ICT requires special emphasis in the
national ICT Strategy. Relevant Training should be included short courses and upskilling
strategies as well as a clear strategy to embrace and engage the formal education sector,
especially primary and high schools. It is important that a future workforce has a broader
base of ICT skills. Unfortunately education takes time and HRD strategies need to be put
in place immediately to ensure an ICT literate workforce in the near future.

A new ADB funded project is implementing the Samoan Schoolnet project. This is will
involve a network of secondary schools linked to the Internet, computer labs at schools
and training for teachers and students as well as access for the communities. Similar
projects are needed throughout the PICs.

Over the past 5 years USP and other tertiary institutions have aggressively implemented
ICT training for at the diploma and degree level. Many private entrepreneurs have started
offering ICT training linked to overseas certification and institutions targeting tertiary
level qualifications and short courses. Despite the demand for ICT education, ICT courses
at high school and primary level are still limited to elite schools in urban centers.
Serviced computer labs and qualified teachers are often unavailable in the PICs and leave
huge gaps in terms of ICT skills in the workforce.

A strong capacity building program is needed with every national ICT strategy that
recognizes the two fold need to upskill the population with targeted courses / training
and, impact formal education at the primary and secondary school level with effective
ICT training. Connected computer labs and trained teachers in every secondary school
must eventually be a standard across the Pacific.

USPNet is a regional initiative that enables USP students in 12 Pacific island nations to
participate in lectures and tutorials via video conferencing and email. USPnet is an
excellent case of ICT making an impact on regional education and has further potential to
be used to implement regional wide ICT training standards in the PICS.

5.2    Health
The potential for distance health services for remote medical practitioners in the Pacific
islands has been identified as an ICT opportunity for sometime. Several projects have
been run at a regional level ranging from email mailing lists dealing with specific medical
issues to various attempts at Telemedicine. Appropriate solutions for limited bandwidth
have worked in the North Western Pacific and distance education has been a successful
medium for training health practitioners.

A service with the Northern Pacific Countries (Palau, Marshalls Islands and Federated
States of Micronesia) has linked their hospitals with the Triplar Military Hospital in
Hawaii. The service enables a remote health practitioner to access Triplar medical
consultants via a secure web form that uploads the submitted information and attached
photos / X-rays/ charts and other images of a case in the outer islands onto the Internet.
Medical consultants in Triplar then view the information and offer their opinions / advice
to the remote practitioner with all the responses and dialog between remote practitioner
and Triplar experts maintained online in bulletin board format and in chronological order.
Over 4000 cases have been submitted and addressed via this simple web based system
that requires only one computer, digital camera and 28.8K modem connection to the
Internet from the remote hospital. Lives have been saved and $100,000s have been saved
from unnecessary referrals of patients to overseas hospital. The project has kept all cases

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and information online as a source of training materials and reference for participating

Despite the success of the above telemedicine solution it has been difficult to replicate
elsewhere in the Pacific due to a combination of capacity, commitment and funding.
There have been several examples of live video conferencing to hospitals in developed
countries but the costs for the bandwidth of a single session is often more then the
annual communications budget of a small hospital. Telecom Cook Islands has been
working with Fiji School of Medicine and the local health department to develop a pilot
implementation similar to the Triplar system.

The WHO Pacific Open Learning Health Net (POLHN) project has been responsible for
implementation of distance learning for health. This has involved installing computers
and an Internet connection in 10 Pacific Island countries. The project allows health
professionals in PICs to access training modules from various partners posted on the
POLHN website.

An acute shortage of doctors and medical staff in small islands is a recurring problem
throughout the Pacific. The right approaches to ICT can link the isolated practitioner to a
network of peers or professionals and break the tyranny of distance. The medical
authorities in the Pacific need to recognize that ICT maybe the only feasible solution to
keeping professional medical staff in isolated areas and ensuring services are available
beyond the urban centers

6.     Business / Commerce
ICT and the impact on business in the Pacific is the key activity for promoting markets for
Pacific products and the tourism industry. Websites selling artifacts, gifts and other
Pacific products operate from several nations. Daily news sites, portals and online trade
directories have been leveraged to advertise real estate, accommodation and products.
While the Internet has been a fantastic marketing and awareness tool, further
development with online selling has been hampered by several obstacles underpinned by
the lack of entrepreneurial ability and conditions that encourage innovation and risk
taking. This includes the lack of capacity for online payments, limited and expensive
internet access and a lack of awareness of the benefits of an effective online strategy.

Fiji has begun to see actual benefits from the Southern Cross fiber optic connection, with
several call centers and information processing businesses setup since 2002. Even
Hollywood has come calling with a large studio facility underway and an animation studio
in 2004. Despite a thriving economy and vibrant domestic market, Fiji has only just begun
to develop capacity that will attract investment from the “knowledge industries”. It is
important that strategies are developed that will see Fiji beyond the vulnerable and
volatile call center and data processing side of the ICT industry. Investors in these
industries can easily transfer their businesses to other countries with favorable conditions
for relatively small investments.

Tourism has been the greatest beneficiary for the Internet with operators amongst the
first to develop websites, often well before government and other businesses. Tourism
appeals to an audience that from countries that are high users of the Internet and makes
online marketing a natural fit. Unfortunately while the larger wealthier resorts have
pursued aggressive online strategies the small to medium operator has often missed out.

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Small and medium businesses especially with strong local ownership are often deterred
by lack of access to ICT capacity.

More support is needed at a national level to develop centralized online capacity through
the Tourism Bureau or local Tourism Operator Associations. Options such as online
bookings and payments for the non-ICT literate operators should be available for all
members. Continued training and web page development for Small Tourism operators will
be needed for the next 5 years as well as well marketed tourism portals at both the
regional and national level.

Despite the obvious benefits of e-commerce for business innovative approaches need to
be adopted to encourage development of ICT capacity for key sectors. ICT business
incubator models relevant to the Pacific need to be developed that provide support for
ICT innovators to develop applications that are relevant to the local sectoral needs and
financially viable for all parties. An incubator project that provides financing incentives,
management and business advisory and identifies opportunities for potential ICT
entrepreneurs could be a potential catalyst for technical solutions for ICT developments
in various sectors.

7.     Primary Industries – Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry
ICT in the Primary Industries has not been as effective as it should considering the
importance of these resources to the Pacific.

In Agriculture, Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Advisor Halatau notes the
following information needs with the Pacific Island farmer:

_“The information needs of smallholder farmers producing for the market or just for food
security include: agronomic information on producing, crops, availability and cost of
inputs, weather information, consumer preferences, service providers (such as animal
health services, equipment maintenance, repairs etc), Market prices and forecasts for
agricultural commodities….” (1)

The information gap to rural farmers is bridged through the extensive use of extension
officers from government and Regional organizations. The average farmer is often
computer illiterate and unlikely to use the Internet. ICT strategies have effectively
targeted agriculture extension officers. Simple email lists such as Pestnet and Soilnet are
used to link experts or officers in pest control or soils across the Pacific.

The Internet plays a larger role however providing immediate access to resources in
terms of expertise and information relevant to tropical agriculture that would not
otherwise be available to the island farmer. This information is then disseminated via
traditional media such as radio and brochures. Overseas market prices and conditions are
available on the Internet and regular communications with overseas importers have
enhanced exporting opportunities.

The information gap for fisherman is even greater. Pacific island fishermen are competing
with high tech boats from the developed nations that use multi million dollar state of art
equipment to track fish and keep up to date on water temperatures, winds and weather.
Most Pacific fishermen still depend on radio bulletins, hand held navigation instruments
and basic electronics. This is ironic considering the Pacific ocean is the largest resource

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for the Pacific islands. Pacific Island nations are not reaping the benefits of the fisheries
resource with much of the harvest going to companies from the Pacific rim nations.

At a regional level, the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) based in the Solomon Islands has
been setup to support the national fisheries departments with ICT technology to monitor
and harvest their fishing zones. The formation of a regional Tuna Agency is currently
underway to provide specialist support with managing the Pacific Tuna resource

1. Halavatau S.M:      “The Journey From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunities for Sustainable
Agricultural Development in the Pacific Region” 2003

8.     Rural and Outer Island Connectivity
Outer Island and rural connectivity is a major challenge for most Pacific Islands
governments. Connectivity solutions have included submarine water cables, satellite
links, troposcatter, microwave and even radio links to enable basic communications
between the islands. The advent of cellular phones and the internet has opened new
opportunities. A single tower for GSM cellular services can now serve a cluster of small
islands. The whole population of several hundred people can own a mobile phone despite
living on different islands within the cluster. This solution is conditional on electricity to
charge cell phone batteries underlying the broader issues affecting connectivity.

Internet access however is still limited to the main urban centers although some
countries have flat fee dialup access to the Internet from anywhere in the country
allowing economic Internet access to rural subscribers. Reliable internet links for rural
areas beyond provincial urban centers are still a challenge. The same can be said for
most distant islands communities.

Solomon Islands have an interesting and highly successful connectivity project with PFnet
that has linked 14 rural community email stations. The stations are used for both normal
emails and exchange of information on farming, distance education and governance. A
UNDP funded project is currently underway to fund a replication of PFnet in Vanuatu and
Bougainville (PNG).

Opening markets and education for rural producers and tourism operators are Internet
opportunities that rural connectivity offers. Rural and outer island connectivity still
remains a major issue and is holding back opportunities for development for a large
sector of the PIC populations.

9.     Regional and National Activities
The regional organizations in the Pacific play an important role in providing as well as
building capacity for the PICS. The Council of Regional Organizations of the Pacific
(CROP) has a collection of ICT officers who meet once a year under the CROP ICT PACInet
umbrella. In 2001 a regional ICT strategy was compiled by stakeholders from various PICS
and the CROP ICT group and endorsed by the regional communications ministers in 2002
and 2003. Despite the strong regional endorsement there is little to show in terms of
national ICT for development projects.

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In April 2004 at a retreat for PIFS leaders in New Zealand recognized the need for a
Pacific Digital strategy as part of a larger Pacific Plan that is currently under
development. The focus of the Pacific initiative recognizes 3 critical enablers for
economic development in the PICS as Energy, Transport and ICT infrastructure. ICT
development is high on the agenda of the regional PICs leaders and it is hoped that with
strong regional support, national ICT initiatives will begin to make an impact on economic
development in PIC nations.

                                   Regional and National Projects
     Sector              Project Description      Frame     Countries                            Issues           Opportunities
1. Health
                                                                        Cook Islands,
                                                                        Fiji, Kiribati,
                 Online Training Modules for Health                                                              Expand Distance
Pacific Open                                              Phase 1       Marshals,            Sustainability      Learning Component,
                 Professionals in 10 Pacific Countries.                 FSM, Palau,
Learning                                                  Ends 2004                          for next            Build other telehealth
                 Online Computer labs established in                    Samoa,
                                                                                                                 initiatives on new
Health Network                                            / 2005        Solomons,            phase
                 10 hospitals / centers.                                                                         capacity
                                                                        Tonga and

2. Education
                                                                        Niue, Samoa,                             National ICT
                                                                        Tonga, Fiji,         USP Only            Training
                 University of South Pacific satellite                  Cook Islands,        due to              programs - basic
USPnet           network to distributed campuses in 12    Continuing    Tuvalu,              National            ICT Passport,
                 countries - will switch to IP network                  Kiribati,            Telecom             Specialist
                                                                        Marshall             policies            technical training
                                                                        Islands,                                 etc.
                 ADB funded project to link secondary                                                            Replication in
Samoa            schools in Samoa, build labs, train                                                             Pacific Islands,
                                                          Starts 2005   Samoa                Pilot for other
Schoolnet        teachers and raise secondary school                                                             National Clusters
                 level of education.                                                                             of Schools

3. Governance
                                                                                                                 Approach and
Fiji e-
                 First significant commitment to e-                                                              Software to be
Government                                                Starts 2005   Fiji
                 Government in the PICS                                                                          monitored for use
                                                                                                                 in Pacific
                                                                        Niue, Samoa,
                                                                        Tonga, Fiji,
                                                                        Cook Islands,
                                                                                                                 Project should be
                                                                        Tuvalu,              Only 3 PICs
                 UNDP funded project working with 14      Funding                                                continued to
                                                                        Kiribati,            have passed
ePacifica        countries to develop National ICT        completed                                              complete ICT
                                                                        Marshall             National ICT
                 strategies                               in 2004                                                Strategies in ALL
                                                                        Islands,             Strategies
                                                                        Palau, FSM

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                                    Regional and National Projects
     Sector               Project Description      Frame     Countries                           Issues           Opportunities
4. Agriculture
                  A quarantine email list with an                                                                Email networks
                                                                         Pacific and
Pestnet           effective network quarantine officers     Continuing                       Cheap to run        developed for
                                                                         SE Asia
                  throughout the Pacific                                                                         other sectors

5. Rural Connectivity
                                                                         Solomons                                Positives lessons
                  Email network of 14 rural communities                                      solutions may
                                                                         with                                    to be learned and
PFNet - People    in the Solomons Islands used for                                           vary but rural
                                                            Continuing   replication in                          integrated into
First Network     education, agriculture consultations as                                    community
                                                                         PNG and                                 rural connectivity
                  well as general communications                                             usage is a
                                                                         Vanuatu                                 projects
6. Environment / Conservation
Pacific           Online Monitoring Matrix for Pacific                                       example of          Can be
Conservation      Action Strategy for Nature                             All Pacific         ICT used to         duplicated in
Roundtable        Conservation. Harmonizes activities of                 Nations             coordinate          other region wide
Action Strategy   multiple stakeholders in the strategy.                                     multiple            activities

10. Recommendations
The obstacles to ICT development in the Pacific Islands Countries are tied to issues
inherent to the nature of small island economies. Small markets, expensive and limited
access, human resource constraints and vulnerable economies are not conducive for ICT
development. At the same time ICT offers the best opportunity for the PICS to participate
in the global economy as an enabling mechanism in all development sectors. Pacific
Island countries need a coordinated effort at a regional level (deal with areas where
insufficient national capacity) and national level. Strong national commitment is needed
to support the development and implementation of national ICT strategies. These
strategies must deal with system wide approaches to ICT education and overall upskilling
of the workforce as well as regulatory reform and funding for pilot projects in key
development sectors. Ad hoc and piecemeal approaches by donors will not sustain ICT
development. Suggested priorities for consideration are:

Regulatory Reform

National ICT Strategies to be completed in all ACP member countries and aligned with
national development goals. Efforts have been made through UNDP to initiate National
ICT Strategies with the Pacific Member Countries. To date only 3 have been completed
(Samoa, Fiji and Palau). It is imperative that the initial efforts are followed up to ensure
all ACP countries have a Cabinet endorsed ICT strategy that has been developed through
a participatory mechanism and with strategic implementation across all sectors.

ICT strategies should address issues such as:
 Telecommunications reform
 Capacity Building / ICT in the National Education System

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   Infrastructure Development
   Review of taxation and incentives for ICT
   Practical engagement of ICTs in health, education, business and governance sectors

Continuous support and exposure for national ICT commission / leaders / champions
annual regional meetings with other PIC ICT champions including exposure to European
and exceptional ICT initiatives in the ACP countries.

Human Resource Development – Capacity Building

Special emphasis on a HRD strategy should be a fundamental part of the ICT strategy and
addressed with some urgency since this is the one area that an instant change in policy or
technology will NOT reduce transition time.

The Formal Education Sector

Back to Basics approach to ICT education at primary and secondary levels. System wide
approach to the establishment of computer labs, training teachers and appropriate
curriculum to ensure all school leavers that enter the workforce have some computer
skills. Samoa Schoolnet is an example of an initiative that should begin in 2005 that
addresses secondary schools. This should be repeated in all PICs.

       Upskilling Strategy for Current Pacific Island Workforce
       A regional approach through USP will help Pacific countries with capacity in terms
        of trainers and standardized qualifications.
       ICT Drivers License for Pacific Island Countries – basic user skills for workforce
        that can become compulsory for all government employees over period of 2 - 5
       Specialized courses in various software and technical skills
       Developing ICT professionals through formal certified qualifications from diploma
        level upwards.

Rural and Outer Island Access

Support for outer island and rural communities connectivity via access points either
through existing schools or community centers. VSAT technology provides new
opportunities for access in remote areas. PFnet is a classic example of a working rural
connectivity project but may have technology issues that are not replicable in many parts
of the Pacific although much can be learned and applied from their experience.


Despite the need for basic connectivity in PICs, broadband applications have become the
norm for developed countries. A strategy that provides basic connectivity for rural areas
should not ignore the need for broadband for urban centers. Broadband connections open
new avenues and opportunities to participate in the knowledge economy and cannot be
seen as the realm of only the developed countries. A Pacific Island fiber-optic network
has been dismissed as expensive by individual national telecomms but is critical
infrastructure for Pacific Island participation in the global economy.

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The WHO Pacific Open Learning Project has established internet-connected labs in
medical centers or hospitals in 10 PICS to be used for distant learning. Training of
hospital staff to use the computers and access online courses has already been
conducted. The hospital computer labs provide a platform for further development in
distance learning, telemedicine and telehealth projects at a regional level with clear
national benefits.

National projects in telehealth should be focused on using ICTs to improve consultation to
remote or outer island health centers. Pilot projects linking health centers to the main
hospital via the Internet could be part of a rural / outer island connectivity project.

Free/Shareware Development ICT Applications:

Key ICT Applications (e-government, telehealth, e-commerce) developed for
implementation at a regional and national level should be identified and supported with
the condition that all applications and practices are documented and made available for
use by the smaller ACP Governments and not commercialized. This will reduce the costs
for participation from the smaller Pacific Governments.

A similar approach can be adopted with policy development issues. ICT Strategies,
Telecommunications bills and other positive ICT policy initiatives should be listed on an
online directory to be shared by other ACP countries.

General Recommendation: Relevant Indicators, Benchmarks and an ACP relevant ICT
Report Card

Current ITU indicators are not necessarily a reflection of ICT development in developing
countries. The current ITU indicators are not useful to developing country decision
makers because they do not reflect where relatively small funding SHOULD be invested to
improve ICT. A statistic of computers per 100 people does not provide a useful measure
on progress since an incremental % shift in that statistic may not reflect a significant
improvement in terms of ICT progress in a specific development sector. We could look at
indicators that mark our realities in the ICT super byway and monitor performance in
critical areas such as Education or Health.

Some examples of useful ICT for development benchmarks that decision makers can act

Trained secondary school ICT teachers / hundred secondary school students

   Internet Connected Computers / hundred secondary school student;
   Trained primary school ICT teachers / 100 primary school student;
   % of workforce with basic ICT user skills (“basic” to be determined under an ICT
    drivers license scheme);
   % of workforce with basic technical ICT skills; and
   Government proportion of budget committed to ICTs in Health, Education,
    Agriculture, Governance and other target sectors.

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                       Bibliography : Pacific Region
Zwimpfer Communications Ltd & UNESCO: Internet Infrastructure and e-
Governance in Pacific Islands Countries: A Survey on the Development and Use of
the Internet

CROP ICT Working Group: Pacific Islands Information and Communications Policy
and Strategic Plan 2002



Curtain, Richard: “Information and Communications Technologies and Development: Help
or Hindrance?” Curtain Consulting, Melbourne, Australia.

Halavatau S.M:      “The Journey From Digital Divide to Digital Opportunities for
Sustainable Agricultural Development in the Pacific Region” 2003

Leeming D, Biliki R, Aggassi A, Fortier F: “People First Network.The Solomon Islands Rural
E-mail Network for Peace and Development” 2003

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat: Working Paper: Pacific ICT Capacity and
Prospects 2002-2003

Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat: Pacific Islands Input into the World Summit on
the Information Society 2003.

Peart K, Doehler M, Kami, T., Stork E.: ePacifika Reports for Tuvalu, Tonga, Fiji,
Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Palau, FSM, Niue 2002-2004

Temu Hon.Puka: PNG Statement at the APT Ministerial Conference on Broadband
and ICT Development July 2004

Va’a Ruby: “ICT Use in Education” Cook Islands, Samoa, UNESCO Meta-survey on
the Use of Technologies in Education

Relevant Websites
Pacific Forum Secretariat                       
South Pacific Community                         
United Nations Development Programme – Fiji     
United Nations Development Programme Samoa      
Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association  
Fiji School of Medicine                         
Pacific Open Learning Health Net                
Samoa ICT Strategy                              
Pacific ICT Portal                              
University of the South Pacific                 
Asia Development Bank

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              Appendix A. Interviews Conducted
                                  Contact Details
1. Fiji Government
Abel Caine, Manager Business & Systems Development responsible for E-
ITC Services (Ministry of Finance)
310 Victoria Parade, PO Box 784, Suva, Fiji Islands
Ph: +679 3225-203/3306-005 x203 Fax: +679 3300-954 e-mail:,

Government of Fiji will begin and aggressive e-Government strategy in 2005.

2. Fiji’s National ICT Strategy Group
Atma Maharaj, Chairman of National ICT Strategy Group and Chief Executive
Officer, Fiji Investment Corporation
Ph: (679) 330-8492, Fax: 3308872

3. Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat
John Budden, Economic Infrastructure Advisor (ICT, Energy, Transport),

John Budden is the official advisor on ICT issues in the Pacific Islands Forum
Secretariat (PIFS) and has a key role in the overall coordination of regional
actions on ICT.

4.Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association
Mr Fred Christopher, Manager
Ph: (679) 331 1638, Fax: 3308750,

PITA is an independent association of the Telecommunications Operators of the
Pacific Island Countries. PITA has been working with the Asia Pacific
Telecommunity (ACP) and several regional and multi lateral organizations on ICT
issues in the region.

5. University of South Pacific
Kisione Finau, Director IT Services
Ph: (679) 321 2117

Sam Fonua – Manager Regional USPnet Client Services
USPnet is still the pre-eminent distance education service in the Pacific
connecting the 12 member countries. Discussions evolved around other
prominent distance education projects in the region.

7. Pacific Open Learning Project (WHO)
Dr. Richard Wah, Project Coordinator
Tel: 679 3304600 Fax: 3300462 Email:
Distance education network for health training in 10 Pacific Island Countries

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                                   Contact Details
     Email Interviews with responses:

     8. PFnet - Solomon Islands
     David Leeming – Technical Advisor PFNet

     9. ICT Strategy Taskforce - Samoa
     Fuatai Purcell,      Secretary to ICT Strategy Committee / ICT Advisor

Note: Several interesting emails and discussions were held with various parties or individuals that provided
useful leads or information but not officially “interviews” and not included in list below

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     Appendix B: Relevant ICT Sector/ Project Snapshots
1. Agriculture:      PESTNET – Plant Protection Network.

A mailing list started by quarantine enthusiasts in 1999 on the then egroups (now has evolved into an essential resource for quarantine and
plant protection officers all over the Pacific Islands region and South East Asia. Pestnet
now has over 520 subscribers in 2004. Country field officers are able to make direct email
inquiries on pests, diseases or quarantine issues to the network and are likely to get
several responses from experts around the Pacific, South East Asia region. Digital images
of problem plants or pests are often sent to the network for better analysis. Pestnet
handles 3-5 inquiries per week and now has a web page at _ HYPERLINK
"" __www.pestnet.org_. Pestnet is a successful network that
utilizes free email tools to link experts and practitioners in the region and is a good
example of email empowerment of stakeholders in remote island locations.

2. e-Tourism

The Tourism industry has been the immediate beneficiary from e-commerce in the Pacific
Islands. Web pages and email have provided worldwide access for remote resorts and
budget accommodation units throughout the Pacific. Tourism bureaus in the Pacific island
nations have recognized the importance of the Internet as a marketing tool and a huge
emphasis on national tourism / visitor web directories have been a positive contribution
to tourism especially for the smaller operators with less capacity for online marketing.
Some accommodation and adventure operators claim over 80% of their bookings are
initiated online. Success however is limited with many budget operators in a 2004 JICA /
USP study of budget accommodation in Fiji, Tonga and Samoa facing serious capacity
limitations in terms of effective utilization of the Internet for marketing their product.
Issues range from a total lack of basic computer and internet skills to limited awareness
of the benefits of the Internet. Many websites or directory entries have not been updated
in years due to the lack of capacity.

Online booking via web / email is quite common however the lack of online payments for
services are still a major hindrance to commerce with last minute cancellations a
problem for the small resort owner.

More work is needed to ensure effective online marketing and bookings processing to
empower smaller resorts / tourism activities at a national level.

3. Solomon Islands – The People First Network (

PFnet uses an email system based on a robust, proven and sustainable technology that
permits 14 remote locations on islands across thousands of square kilometers to have
access to Internet emails using a simple computer, short-wave radio, and solar power. It
aims to:
    Facilitate point-to-point communications to/from the remote provinces of the
       Solomon Islands;
    Facilitate rural development and peace-related information flows among all social

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       Facilitate the exchange of information between communities and development
        programs, NGOs, government offices, the media, businesses and other
PFnet has three key components. One is the Internet Café in Honiara, which allows
residents of the capital city to access the Internet for writing emails to all locations
across the Solomon Islands or the wider Internet.

The second component of PFnet, a popular web site that is being promoted as a
development portal.

The third and, over time, most important component of PFnet is the network of email
stations located in remote islands across the country. The stations are usually hosted in
provincial clinics, community schools, or other accessible and secure public facilities.

The stations use a simple, robust and well-proven technology, consisting of a short-wave
radio (already ubiquitous and well-known in the South Pacific), a low-end computer, and
solar energy. On schedule, several times a day, each remote email station connects to
the hub station in Honiara automatically.

Now the network is established, it is being used to facilitate the rural networking needs
of sectors such as education, health, finance and agriculture.

4. Education: USPNet - University of the South Pacific

USPNet the University of South Pacific dedicated VSAT telecommunications network
funded by the Governments of Japan, New Zealand and Australia, together with the 12
USP member countries. USPnet enables direct satellite links between the 3 country
campuses of USP and 9 USP centers in the remaining member countries. USPNet provides
for the opportunity to participate in audio tutorials, (conducted from any campus),
communicate by e-mail with a lecturer/tutor or another student; access the World Wide
Web, watch a live video broadcast of a lecture from any of the three campuses and take
part in video conferences (and tutoring) with the Laucala Campus in Suva, Fiji. University
administration becomes more efficient with e-mail communication via USPNet to all USP
locations and has extended USP’s services to 18000 students in 12 scattered member
More information at

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                     Appendix C : Matrix of ICT Initiatives in the
                                   Pacific Region
Notable National and Regional ICT Projects
Sector               Project Description                   Time           PICS           Issues            Opportunities
1. Health
WHO Open                                                                  Cook           WHO               Potential to be
                     Computer labs in medical facilities (hospitals,
Learning Health                                                           Islands        funding           platform for
                     nursing schools, etc) with internet connection
Project                                                                   FSM,           ends 2004         multiple telehealth
                     in up to 10 PICS. Distance learning modules for
                                                                          Fiji                             and tele medicine
                     health professionals provided online.
                                                                          Kiribati                         initiatives.

Western Pacific      Web based referral system             Continuing     FSM, Palau,    Ideal             Currently being
Telehealth Project   between Northern Pacific                             RMI            Consultatio       setup with Cook
                     Countries and Triplar Military                                      n system          Islands and Fiji
                     Hospital using web-based tools for                                  for limited       School of Medicine
                     online referrals                                                    bandwidth
2. Education
USPnet               University of South Pacific           Continuing     Vanuatu,       Network for       Implementation of
                     satellite network to distributed                     PNG,           USP use           regional wide
                     campuses in 12 countries. Offers                     Solomons,      only              standards for ICT
                     full range of USP courses to                         FSM, RMI,                        Training programs -
                     remote PIC partners.                                 Kiribati,                        basic ICT Passport,
                                                                          Nauru, Fiji,                     Specialist technical
                                                                          Samoa,                           training etc.
Samoa Schoolnet      ADB funded network between            Started        Cook           Mainly            Similar projects for
                     selected rural Samoan High            2004           Islands        Dialup            All Pacific Island
                     Schools providing internet                                          connections       countries
                     network, computer labs and
                     training programs for teachers,
                     students and communities.
3. Governance
ePacifica            UNDP funded project working           Funding by     14             Only 3 ICT        Requires immediate
                     with 14 countries to develop          UNDP           Countries      Strategy          followup.
                     National ICT strategies               finished in                   Documents
                                                           2004                          Completed

Fiji e-Government    Government Systems online and         Developme      Fiji Only      Challenge         Further funding
Project              public access services with the       nt Starts in                  will be           support required to
                     people online access systems.         2005                          Coordinatio       ensure applications
                                                                                         n of various      can be used
                                                                                         Department        throughout the
                                                                                         s                 Pacific or ACP

4. Agriculture

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Notable National and Regional ICT Projects
Sector               Project Description                     Time        PICS          Issues            Opportunities
Pestnet               An effective network quarantine       Started in   Pacific and   Example of        Opportunity for
                      officers throughout the Pacific       1999         South East    the power         Other similar
                                                                         Asia          of a simple       regional networks in
                                                                                       email             difference fields
Solomons – PFnet.     Provides via email information for    Continuing   Solomon                         Further
Farming               remote farming communities                         Islands                         development of
Information                                                                                              community access
                                                                                                         projects - Vanuatu,
                                                                                                         Bougainville and
                                                                                                         other PICS
5. Rural
Solomons - People     Connects 14 communities with          Continuing   Solomon       Used for          Further
First Network         email using appropriate                            Islands       other email       Development of
                      connectivity solutions                                           based             email based info
                                                                                       applications      applications.
Fiji                  Telecenter Project as part of e-      Start 2005   Fiji
                      Government program
6. Conservation / Environment

Pacific Nature        Online interactive database of        Cont.        All PICS      Excellent         Should be supported
Conservation          ongoing projects and activities in                               coordinatio       and application
Roundtable            Conservation in the PICS region to                               n tool for        used in other
Monitoring Matrix     assist with harmonization of                                     multiple          sectors
for Action Strategy   stakeholder activities and                                       stakeholder
                      monitoring the regional                                          s
                      conservation action strategy

                                                         Annex VI-25

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