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                <p>Energy is the lifeline to prosperity and growth of
infrastructural development in any country. The energy thus would need to
be ensured for its availability on sustainable basis. The demand of
energy is growing at a very fast rate and the energy sources are becoming
scarce and costlier day by day. In the power sector alone, we need to add
over 100,000 MW of additional generating capacity in Xth &amp; XIth Plans
to meet the power on demand by 2012. This would necessitate mobilization
of nearly Rs.8000 million investments by the year 2011-12 which is a very
daunting challenge before the country.</p>
<p>Among the various strategies to be evolved for meeting energy demand,
efficient use of energy and its conservation is by far the least cost
option. The steps to create sustainable energy system begin with the
optimal use of resources. Energy efficiency improvement is the mantra
that leads to achieving sustainable energy systems.</p>
<p>In a scenario, where India faces peak power and energy shortages of
the order of 8–10%, meets 70% of the petroleum products demand through
imports, conservation and energy efficiency measures will play a central
role. The Electricity Act, 2003 and the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 are
the Government's major Legislative initiatives towards creating an
enabling framework for a sustainable and more efficient future management
of our primary and secondary energy resources. Government of India has
accorded high priority to the Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservations
measures and launched the Campaign on Energy Conservations in 2004. In
order to maintain the momentum of energy conservation campaign and to
make all the energy users to realize their potential role in promoting
energy conservation in the country, Ministry of Power and Bureau of
Energy Efficiency have decided to continue the National Campaign on
Energy Conservation, which was launched last year. The main goal of the
campaign is to reduce energy costs by reducing demand for energy and help
individual citizen to make small behavior changes that collectively will
make a big difference.</p>
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<p><strong>STRATEGIES FOR THE TARGETED SECTOR</strong></p>

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<ol>
<li><strong>Industrial Sector</strong></li>
</ol>
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<p>Nearly 50% of the total conventional energy available is consumed in
the Indian industries. The large and medium scale industries have taken
up many programmes in past to conserveenergy. To maintain the tempo, the
currentawareness programme will focus on this sectorthrough the
organisation of sector specificworkshops on energy conservation. The
focussector in this year campaign will be cement,pulp &amp; paper,
aluminium, petrochemical andrefineries. The workshops and conferences
willbring together people from across the countrywho are committed to
helping the nationdevelop a long-term, sustainable energydirection.</p>
<p>The Bureau of Energy Efficiency plans to undertake life long learning
programme on energy conservation for certified energy managers and energy
auditors. A large number of industrial units have also come forward to
participate in the national campaign and organize various activities and
programmes to create awareness among their employees. Bureau of Energy
Efficiency (BEE) plans to request the top Management of Industry to
declare their Energy Management Policy. Already 44 industries and
commercial establishments have declared their energy management policies,
during the campaign 2005. This has already given a much required momentum
to energy efficiency improvements drive in the industry. Bureau of Energy
Efficiency (BEE) coordinates all the planned awareness campaign
activities for this sector.</p>

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<ol>
<li><strong>Commercial Sector</strong></li>
</ol>

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<p>The issue in this sector can be addressed effectively through print
media by insertions on tips to save electricity. Organizing of workshops,
and symposiums, demonstration of energy efficient lighting system in the
Trade Fairs, etc. does contribute in achieving the objective in effective
manner. Bureau of Energy Efficiency has the primary responsibility of
creating the awareness through print &amp; electronic media in this
sector.</p>
<p>Commercial buildings owners will be requested to undertake awareness
creation programmes for their employees. The newly introduced energy
conservation award scheme for Commercial and Government buildings will be
expended to include shopping malls and offices as well, in the modified
EC Award scheme.</p>

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<p>Â </p>
<ol>
<li><strong>Domestic Sector</strong></li>
</ol>

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<p>Domestic Sector being in the category of unorganized sector, it
requires a mix of strategies for a sustainable energy conservation
awareness campaign. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency will be releasing
insertions on regular basis on ‘simple trips' on how to save
electricity in the lighting, refrigerators , air-conditioners and other
electrical appliances. Bureau also plans to launch Voluntary Labeling
Scheme, to start with, on refrigerators and fluorescent tube lights. This
would provide and facilitate the consumers to make an informed choice of
the various consumer goods. A large number of industrial units have also
taken initiatives and come forward to create awareness amongst the
residents of their townships and neighborhood areas through organizing
various energy conservation programmes, posters, quiz and slogan
competitions and other such activities</p>

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<ol>
<li><strong>Agricultural Sector</strong></li>
</ol>

<p>Â </p>
<p>Regular insertions would be made by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency in
the print media on simple tips to save energy in the electricity and
diesel operated agricultural pump sets. Further, manufactures of these
pump sets are being involved in demonstrating the improved energy
efficiencies in the modern designs of agricultural pumps in various Trade
Fairs, seminars, workshops etc. as well as local Fairs. Some of the
industrial units have already committed to organize awareness programme
for the farmers and villagers.</p>

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<ol>
<li><strong>Educational Institutes</strong></li>
</ol>

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<p>In the campaign, organized this year thrust is placed on the messages
that can stimulate active involvement of the young to attitudinal changes
in regard the energy saving habits since their childhood. <strong>The
objective is to </strong>make energy saving practices as part of their
involuntary actions of their daily life. The effort is also intended to
expand the campaign impacts by involving the school children so as to
spread the energy conservation messages through their friends, parents
and other relatives. The major activity, which is planned to be
undertaken in this regard, is the continuation of ‘Painting Competition
on Energy Conservation' for the children at School, State / UT and
National Level. The continuation of this activity will not only make
aware the children about the need of conserving energy, but at the same
time, would necessarily educate and involve their parents in the above
cause. The identified activity is one of the measures, which can help in
creating awareness in the domestic sector. The painting competition also
aims to motivate the children towards energy conservation and offer them
a chance to explore their creativity and in turn help the nation in
SAVING ENERGY</p>

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<p><strong>Chapter 2Â Â Â   ENERGY- AN INTRODUCTION</strong></p>

<p>Â </p>
<p>Energy is defined as the ability to do work. In the layman language it
can be said that energy lights our cities, powers our vehicles, and runs
machinery in factories. It warms and cools our homes, cooks our food,
plays our music, and gives us picture on television.</p>
<p>Energy can be found in a number of forms:</p>
<ul>
<li>CHEMICAL ENERGY</li>
<li>ELECTRICAL ENERGY</li>
<li>HEAT(THERMAL) ENERGY</li>
<li>LIGHT ENERGY</li>
<li>MECHANICAL ENERGY and</li>
<li>NUCLEAR ENERGY</li>
</ul>
<p>Energy makes everything happen and can be divided into two types:</p>
<ul>
<li>Stored energy is called POTENTIAL ENERGY</li>
<li>Moving energy is called KINETIC ENERGY</li>
</ul>
<p>We will take the example of a pencil to know the two types of energy.
We put the pencil at the edge of the desk and push it off to the floor.
The moving pencil uses kinetic energy. Now, we pick up the pencil and put
it back on the desk. We use our own energy to lift and move the pencil.
Moving it higher than the floor adds energy to it. As it rests on the
desk, the pencil has potential energy. The higher it is, the further it
could fall. That means the pencil has more potential energy.</p>
<p>We use energy to do work and make all movements. When we eat our
bodies transform the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk or
do some work, we ‘burn' energy in our bodies. Cars, planes, trolleys,
boats, and machinery also transform energy into work. Work means moving
or lifting something, warming or lighting something.</p>
<p>The discovery of fire by man led to the possibility of burning wood
for cooking and heating thereby using energy. For several thousand years
human energy demands were met only by renewable energy sources- sun,
biomass, hydel and wind power.</p>
<p>As early as 4000-3500 B.C. the first sailing ships and windmills were
developed harnessing wind energy. With the use of hydropower through
water mills or irrigation systems, things began to move faster. Fuelwood
and dung cakes are even today a major source of energy in rural India.
Solar energy is used for drying and heating.</p>
<p>With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the use of energy in the
form of fossil fuels began growing as more and more industries were set
up. This occurred in stages, from the exploitation of coal deposits to
the exploitation of oil and natural gas fields. It has been only half a
century since nuclear power began being used as an energy source. In the
past century, it became evident that the consumption of non-renewable
sources of energy had caused more environmental damage than any other
human activity. Use of fossil fuels has led to high concentration of
harmful gases in the atmosphere. This in turn has led to ozone depletion
and global warming.</p>
<p>There has been an enormous increase in the demand for energy ever
since the middle of the last century as a result of industrial
development and population growth. World population grew 3.2 times
between 1850 and 1970, per capita use of industrial energy increased
about twentyfold, and total world use of industrial and traditional
energy forms combined increased more than twelvefold.</p>
<p>Due to the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels,
alternative sources of energy have become important and relevant in
today's world. These sources, such as the sun and wind, can never be
exhausted and are therefore called renewable. Also known as conventional
sources of energy, they cause less emission and are available locally.
Their use can significantly reduce chemical, radioactive and thermal
pollution. They are viable sources of clean and limitless energy. Most of
the renewable sources of energy are fairly non-polluting and considered
clean. However, biomass is a major polluter indoors.</p>
<p>Renewable energy sources include the sun (SOLAR ENERGY), wind, water
(HYDEL ENERGY) agricultural residue, fuelwood, and animal dung (BIOMASS),
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY is derived from hot dry rocks, magma, hot water
springs, natural geysers, etc. OCEAN THERMAL is derived from waves and
also from tidal waves. We will read about all these sources of energy in
detail in the coming pages.</p>
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<p><strong>Chapter 3Â Â HOW ENERGY IS MEASURED</strong></p>
<p>One of the basic measuring blocks for energy is called Btu or British
thermal unit. Btu is defined as the amount of heat energy it takes to
raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, at sea
level. It takes about 2000 Btu to make a pot of coffee.</p>
<p>Energy can also be measured in JOULES. One joule is the amount of
energy needed to lift 1 pound about 9 inches. So, if we lifted a five-
pound sugar from the floor to the top of a counter (27 inches), we would
use about 15 joules of energy. It takes 1000 joules to equal a Btu. It
would take 2 million joules to make a pot of coffee.</p>
<p>Joule is named after an English physicist named JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE
who lived from 1818 to 1889. He discovered that heat is a type of
energy.</p>
<p>Around the world, scientists measure energy in joules rather than Btu.
It is much like people around the world using the metre system, metres
and kilograms. Like in the metric system, you can have kilojoules:
‘kilo' means 1000, therefore, 1000 joules = 1 kilojoule = 1 Btu.</p>
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<p><strong>For example</strong> a piece of buttered toast contains about
315 kilojoules(315,000 joules) of energy. With that energy you could:</p>
<ul>
<li>Jog for 6 minutes</li>
<li>Bicycle for 10 minutes</li>
<li>Walk briskly for 15 minutes</li>
<li>Sleep for one and a half hours</li>
<li>Run a car for 7 seconds at 80 km per hour</li>
<li>Light a 60 watt bulb for one and half hours</li>
</ul>
<p>In some respects, the global energy system has evolved in a cleaner
direction the last 25 years. The share of world primary energy derived
from natural gas- the cleanest fossil fuel- has increased by more than
25%. So has the use and generation of renewable energy sources.</p>
<p>Still, the overall efficiency of energy production remains extremely
low: on an average, more than 90% of energy consumed is lost or wasted in
the process of conversion from raw materials such as coal to the final
energy service such as the light to read a book. The main problem isn't
that we use energy, but how we produce and consume energy resources. What
we really need are energy sources that will last forever</p>
<p><strong>Chapter 4Â Â Â Â Â CHANGING ENERGY</strong></p>
<p>Energy can be transformed into another sort of energy. But it cannot
be created AND destroyed. Energy has always existed in one form or
another.</p>
<p>For example:</p>
<p>·        Stored energy in flashlight's batteries becomes
light energy when flashlight is turned on.</p>
<p>·        Food is stored energy. It is stored as a chemical
with potential energy. When our body uses that stored energy to do work,
it becomes kinetic energy. If you overeat, the energy in food is not
"burned" but is stored as potential energy in fat cells.</p>
<p>·        When we talk on the phone, our voice is transformed
into electrical energy, which passes over wires (or is transmitted
through the air). The phone on the other end changes the electrical
energy into sound energy through the speaker.</p>
<p>·        A car uses stored chemical energy in gasoline to
move. The engine changes the chemical energy into heat and kinetic energy
to power the car.</p>
<p>·        A toaster changes electrical energy into heat and
light energy.</p>
<p>·        A television changes electrical energy into light
and sound energy.</p>
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<p><strong>Chapter 5Â Â FOSSIL FUELS</strong></p>
<p>The Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 19th century fired man's
research for alternative sources of fuel to meet energy needs of the
mushrooming industries. With realization that fossil fuels could meet
this requirement, the energy needs of the world were fulfilled for the
time being.</p>
<p>FOSSIL FUELS are called so because they have been derived from
fossils, which were formed millions of years ago during the time of
dinosaurs. They are fossilized organic remains that over millions of
years have been converted to oil, gas, and coal. Because their formation
takes so long, these sources are also called non-renewable.</p>
<p>These fuels are made up of decomposed plant and animal matter. When
plants, dinosaurs and other ancient creatures died, they decomposed and
were buried, layer upon layer under the ground. It took millions of years
to form these layers into a hard, black rock like substance called COAL,
a thick liquid called OIL or PETROLEUM, and NATURAL GAS-THE THREE MAJOR
FORMS OF FOSSIL FUELS.</p>
<p>Fossil fuels are usually found below the ground. Coal is either mined
or dug out while oil and natural gas are pumped out. Coal is widely
distributed and is easier to locate than oil and gas.</p>
<p>Fossil fuels take millions of years to make, but burn and disappear in
seconds. Once they are used, they cannot be reused. People have
irretrievably damaged the planet by extracting and burning these fuels.
It is best not to waste fossil fuels as they are not renewable. We have
to learn to conserve these sources of energy.</p>
<p>Every year, millions of tones of coal is consumed as energy. This has
led to GLOBAL WARMING (greenhouse effect) and the depletion of resources.
At present, the worldwide burning of coal, oil and natural gas releases
billions of tones of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year.
Burning any fossil fuel means pollution of some sort. Even if the fuel is
low in sulphur, the atmosphere contains nitrogen, which combines with
oxygen at high burning temperatures found in boilers, jet or car engines.
This yields nitrogen oxides, which like sulphur oxide, dissolves in rain
to form nitric acid. Both gases are poisonous to humans. Mining and
exploration of fossil fuels can cause disturbance to the surrounding
ecosystem. The burning of fossil fuels emits oxides of sulphur and
nitrogen to the atmosphere</p>
<p><strong>Chapter 6 </strong><strong>ENERGY CONSERVATION</strong></p>
<p>Â </p>
<p>When we look around we see machines running, lights, fans, cars etc.,
we simply cannot imagine life without them. We also cannot imagine the
amount of energy that is being used to run all this. Fortunately, people
all over the world are becoming aware of the problem of consuming too
much energy and are making a conscious effort to CONSERVE it and thereby
put less pressure on earth. By conserving energy we also lower the amount
of pollutants we release into the air and thereby help to keep the air
clean.</p>
<p>The interaction between the natural resources and the population has
to be maintained at a balance in order to ensure the continuity of the
human race. Energy is essential to life and its conservation has become
an absolute necessity.</p>
<p><strong>India</strong>'s overall consumption of energy is low, but
compared to its gross domestic product production its relative
consumption is high. The cost of commercial energy is also high compared
to that in most other countries. The industrial sector consumes about 50%
of the total commercial energy produced. There is a growing need to bring
about improvement in the efficiency of energy use in the industrial
sector.</p>
<p>Concerns over the negative environmental impacts of inefficient uses
of energy are growing, both globally and regionally. Such concerns
require greater national efforts and greater international cooperation to
promote energy efficiency and energy conservation. More efficient energy
use can increase productivity and economic competitiveness as well as
lower greenhouse gas emissions per unit of output.</p>
<p>Energy conservation has been recognized as a national priority for a
very long time, but concrete steps have not been taken seriously and the
few that have been taken lack in perspective and determination. The
growth and demand for energy is increasing at a very fast rate,
especially in the INDUSTRIAL SECTOR, THE TRANSPORT SECTOR and the
HOUSEHOLD SECTOR, therebyputting a great deal of pressure on the
available resources. The need of the hour has become conservation and
preservation. Conservation and efficient use of energy in industry has
for a long time been a priority of the Government of India. People on
their part should become aware of the seriousness and do their best to
conserve and preserve this energy. Our small contributions towards
conservation can help a lot. Some of these steps can be:</p>
<ul>
<li>In our home we can save energy by turning off appliances, TV's and
radios that are not being used, watched or listened to.</li>
<li>Switch off lights when no one is in room.</li>
<li>By putting insulation in walls and attics, we can reduce the amount
of energy it takes to heat or cool our homes. Insulating a home is like
putting on a sweater or jacket when we are called instead of turning up
the heater.</li>
</ul>
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<p><strong>Chapter   7 WHAT IS ENERGY MANAGEMENT</strong></p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>ENERY MANAGEMENT</strong> iscollective term for all the
systematic practices to minimize and control both the quantity and cost
of energy used in providing a service. Important components of energy
management include:</p>
<ul>
<li>Staff involvement and awareness</li>
<li>Minimization of energy wastage</li>
<li>Ongoing monitoring, target setting and reporting to ensure energy use
remains within policy objectives</li>
<li>Optimisation of energy efficiency through passive means and/or the
use of appropriate technology</li>
<li>Use of the most appropriate energy source( eg electricity, gas,
solar) with due regard to the environmental benefits</li>
<li>Purchase of energy at the most economical price</li>
<li>Modifications of operations, where possible, to make the best use of
energy price structure</li>
<li>Increasing the use of energy from renewable sources</li>
</ul>
<p>Many businesses consider energy as an overhead rather than a resource
that is considered uncontrollable by the management but energy management
is not only possible but also helps in bringing down the expenses of a
business and helps the society on the whole by controlling pollution and
using the resources in the most optimum way. With help of various firms
one of them being ENER-G which is providing innovative solutions and
technology energy management has become easily achievable.</p>
<p>The <strong>AIM </strong>of energy management is to reduce the amount
of energy a building consumes. Good energy management starts from an
understandingof how a building uses energy. The next stage is to identify
inefficiencies and agree actions to improve efficiency. These actions
need associated targets and ongoing monitoring to measure their
performance.</p>
<p>Actions taken to improve efficiency can vary. Some cost nothing,
others are low cost and some require greater investment. Some use
technology other focus on people but good energy management will usually
deliver savings through a combinations of all thestepswhich best suit an
organization.  Improving energy efficiency can bring many
benefits:</p>
<ul>
<li>Lower energy costs</li>
<li>Reduced carbon emissions</li>
<li>Improved working conditions</li>
<li>Better control</li>
<li>Ensures legislative compliance</li>
<li>Aids ISO 14001 accreditation</li>
<li>Demonstrates corporate and social responsibility</li>
</ul>
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<p><strong>Chapter 8Â RELATIONSHIP OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT TO OTHER
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT PLANS.</strong></p>

<p>Â </p>

<p>Â </p>
<p>Energy management should not be undertaken in isolation but should be
a strategic component of a comprehensive business management plan. Energy
management not only makes good financial sense it also protects the
environment by reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions
attributable to government operations.</p>
<p>Agencies that incorporate an energy reduction strategy under the
umbrella of a total business management plan are more likely to achieve
greater energy savings. Proper planning at the time of procurement can
provide lasting financial and environmental benefits to the agency.</p>
<p>Many organizations regard energy costs as unavoidable and fixed.
However, energy costs are one of the more controllable variable costs
within the agency. Generally, all that is required to ensure the success
of an energy management plan is the commitment of all staff, from the
most senior level down to the office floor. In most cases a successful
energy management policy will only require a small capital investment and
over the short to medium term will actually save money.</p>
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<p><strong>Chapter 9Â Â BENEFITS OF ENERGY</strong></p>
<p><strong>MANAGEMENT</strong></p>

<p>Â </p>
<p>By incorporating a good saving plan a business firm is bound to make
savings and help in controlling the pollution of the environment. Some of
the benefits of a business plan are:</p>
<p>Â </p>
<ul>
<li><strong>MINIMISING Â OPERATING Â COST</strong></li>
</ul>
<p>It is estimated that a 5%reduction in operating costs is achievable
through good house keeping practices and the implementation of a
comprehensive energy management program. Additional savings of upto7%
should be attainable in the medium to longer term through investment
energy efficient technology upgrades.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>IMPROVING Â PROCESS Â CONTROL</strong></li>
</ul>
<p>Paying close attention to the operation of building controls will
usually improve the performance of building systems, including the
elimination of systems working against each other.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>IMPROVINGÂ WORKÂ ENVIRONMENT</strong></li>
</ul>
<p>An efficient and better controlled building leads to an improvement in
general working conditions for staff. More comfortable surroundings
contribute to a more productive workplace.</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>REDUCINGÂ ENVIRONMENTALÂ IMPACT</strong></li>
</ul>
<p>For every kilowatt-hour of electricity consumed, approximately 1 kg of
greenhouse gas is emitted to the atmosphere. Implementing an energy
saving program not only saves money; it reduces the environmental impact
of the business following it.</p>
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<p><strong>Chapter 10 </strong><strong>RENEWABLE ENERGY</strong></p>
<p>In the past century, it has been seen that the consumption of non-
renewable sources of energy has caused more environmental damage than any
other human activity. Electricity generated from fossil fuels such as
coal and crude oil has led to high concentration of harmful gases in the
atmosphere. This has in turn led to many problems being faced today such
as <strong><em>ozone depletion </em></strong>and <strong><em>global
warming.</em></strong></p>
<p>Therefore, alternative sources of energy have become very important
and relevant in today's world, these sources such as the sun and wind can
never be exhausted and therefore are called renewable. They cause less
emission and are available locally. Their use can, to a large extent,
reduce chemical, radioactive and thermal pollution. They stand out as
viable source of clean and limitless energy. These are also known as
<strong><em>non-conventional</em></strong> sources of energy. Most of the
renewable sources of energy are considered clean, though biomass, is a
major polluter indoors.</p>
<p>When we burn a piece of wood it turns into ash. We cannot use this ash
to again light a fire. This is exactly what happens to the non-renewable
sources of energy such coal, oil and natural gas. Once we burn them they
cannot be reused. Other than this they also cause extensive damage to the
environment. Some of the renewable energies are:</p>
<ul>
<li>Solar energy</li>
<li>Hydel energy</li>
<li>Wind energy</li>
<li>Geothermal energy</li>
<li>Biomass</li>
<li>Cogeneration</li>
</ul>
<p>Â </p>
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<p>Â </p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>Chapter 11Â Â SOLAR ENERGY</strong></p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FORM OF ENERGY: </strong> Thermal energy</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>USED FOR:</strong> Cooking/heating, drying/timber seasoning,
distillation, electricity/power generation.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>SOME OF THE GADGETS AND OTHER DEVICES: </strong>Solar cooker,
flat plate solar cooker, concentrating collectors, solar hot water
systems (domestic and industrial) solar pond, solar dryers, solar hot air
systems, concentrating collectors.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FACT: </strong>India receives solar energy equivalent to over
5000 trillion kWh per year, which is far more than the total energy
consumption of the country.</p>

<p>Solar energy is the most readily available source of energy. It does
not belong to anybody and is, therefore, free. It is also the important
of the non-conventional sources of energy because it is non-polluting and
therefore helps in lessening the greenhouse effect.</p>
<p>Solar energy has been used since prehistoric times, but in the most
primitive manner such as drying clothes. Before 1970, some research and
development was carried out in some countries to exploit solar energy
more efficiently. But most of it remained mainly academic. After the
dramatic rise in oil prices in the 1970's, several countries began to
formulate extensive research and development programmes to exploit solar
energy.</p>
<p>India is one of the few countries with long days and plenty of
sunshine, especially in the Thar desert region. This zone, having
abundant solar energy available, is suitable for harnessing solar energy
for a large number of applications. Solar thermal energy is being used in
India for heating for both industrial and domestic purposes. A 140 MW
integrated solar plant is to be set up in Jodhpur but the initial expense
incurred is still very high.</p>
<p>Solar energy can also be used to meet our electricity requirements.
Through Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) cells, Solar radiation gets converted
into DC electricity directly. This electricity can either be used as it
is or can be stored in the battery. This stored electrical energy can
then be used at night.</p>
<p>SPV can be used for a number of applications such as:</p>
<ul>
<li>Domestic lighting</li>
<li>Street lighting</li>
<li>Village electrification</li>
<li>Water pumping</li>
<li>Desalination of salty water</li>
<li>Railway signals</li>
</ul>
<p>If the means to make efficient use of solar energy be found, it would
reduce our dependence on non-renewable sources of energy to a large
extent.</p>
<p>Â </p>
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<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>Chapter 12</strong><strong>BIOMASS</strong></p>

<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FORM OF ENERGY:</strong> Chemical energy</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>USED FOR: </strong>Cooking, mechanical applications, pumping,
power generation, transportation.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>SOME OF THE GADGETS AND OTHER DEVICES: </strong>Biogas plant/
gasifier/burner, gasifier engine pump sets, stirling engine pump sets,
Producer gas/biogas based engine generator sets, ethanol/methanol.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FACT: </strong>Half a kilo of dry plant tissue can produce as
much as 1890Kcal of heat which is equivalent to the heat available from a
quarter of kilogram of coal.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p>Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous
waste of various human and natural activities. It is derived from
numerous sources, including the by-products from the timber industry,
agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of
household waste and wood.</p>
<p>Biomass does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs
the same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed as a
fuel. Its advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with
the same equipment or power plants that are now burning fossil fuels.
Biomass is an important source of energy and the most important fuel
worldwide after coal, oil and natural gas.</p>
<p>Traditional use of biomass is more than its use in modern application.
In the developed world biomass is again becoming important for
applications such as combined heat and power generation. In addition,
biomass energy is gaining significance as a source of clean heat for
domestic heating and community heating applications. In fact in countries
like Finland, USA and Sweden the per capita biomass energy used is higher
than it is India, China or in Asia.</p>
<p>Biomass fuels used in India account for about one third of the total
fuel used in the country, being the most important fuel used in over 90%
of the rural households and about 15% of the urban households.</p>
<p>Instead of burning the loose biomass fuel directly, it is more
practical to compress it into briquettes( compressing them through a
process to form blocks of different shapes) and thereby improve its
utility and convenience of use. Such biomass in the dense briquetted form
can either be used directly as fuel instead of coal in the traditional
chulhas and furnaces or in the gasifier. Gasifier converts solid fuel
into a more convenient to use gaseous form of fuel called producer
gas.</p>
<p>Scientists are trying to explore the advantages of biomass energy as
an alternative energy source as it is renewable and free from net
CO2(carbon dioxide) emissions, and is abundantly available on earth in
the form of agricultural residue, city garbage, cattle dung, firewood,
etc. Bio-energy, in the form of biogas, which is derived from biomass, is
expected to become one of the key energy resources for global sustainable
development.</p>
<p>At present, biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy
in rural India for cooking. It is particularly useful for village
households that have their own cattle. Through a simple process cattle
dung is used to produce a gas, which serves as fuel for cooking. The
residual dung is used as manure.</p>
<p>Biogas plants have been set up in many areas and are becoming very
popular. Using local resources, namely cattle waste and other organic
wastes, energy and manure are derived. A mini biogas digester has
recently been designed and developed, and is being used in-field tested
for domestic lighting.</p>
<p>Indian sugar mills are rapidly turning to BAGASSE, the leftover of
cane after it is crushed and its juice is extracted, to generate
electricity. This is mainly being done to clean up the environment, cut
down power costs and earn additional revenue. According to current
estimates, about 3500 MW of power can be generated from bagasse in the
existing 430 sugar mills in the country. Around 270MW of power has
already been commissioned and more is under construction.</p>

<p>Â </p>

<p>Â </p>

<p>Â </p>

<p>Â </p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>Chapter 13</strong><strong>HYDEL ENERGY</strong></p>

<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FORM OF ENERGY: </strong>Potential/kinetic energy</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>USED FOR: </strong>Power generation</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>SOME OF THE GADGETS AND OTHER DEVICES: </strong>Turbine
generators</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>FACT: </strong>On an average, the 60 million sq km of tropical
seas absorb solar radiation equal to the heat content of 245 billion
barrels of oil.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>ENERGY FROM WATER SOURCES</strong></p>
<p>The energy in the flowing water can be used to produce electricity.
Waves result from the interaction of wind with surface of the sea and
represent a transfer of energy from the wind to the sea. Energy can be
extracted from the sea by creating a reservoir or basin behind a barrage
and then passing tidal waters through turbines in the barrage to generate
electricity.</p>

<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>MINI OR MICRO HYDRO POWER</strong></p>
<p>Hydro power is one of the best, cheapest, and the cleanest source of
energy, although, worth big dams, there are many environmental and social
problems as has been seen in the case of Tehri and the Narmada Project.
Small dams are, however, free from these problems. This is in fact one of
the earliest known renewable energy sources, in the country (since the
beginning of the 20th century).</p>
<p>In fact, for the last few hundred years, people living in the hills of
the Himalayas have been using water mills, or chakki, to grind wheat. The
130 KW small hydropower plant in Darjeeling set up in 1897, was the first
in India. Besides being free from the problem of pollution, such plants
are also free from issues and controversies that are associated with the
bigger projects, namely affecting the lives of thousands of people living
along the banks of the rivers, destruction of large areas under forest,
and seismological threats.</p>
<p>New environmental laws affected by the danger of global warming have
made energy from small hydropower plants more relevant. These small
hydropower plants can serve the energy needs of remote rural areas
independently. The real challenge in a remote area lies in successful
marketing of the energy and recovering dues. Local industries should be
encouraged to use this electricity for sustainable development.</p>
<p>It is a technology with enormous potential, which could exploit the
water resources to supply energy to remote rural areas with little access
to conventional energy sources. It also eliminates most of the negative
environmental effects associated with large hydropower projects.</p>

<p>Â </p>
<p><strong>ENERGY FROM THE SEA-OCEAN THERMAL, TIDAL AND WAVE
ENERGY.</strong></p>
<p>Â </p>
<p>Large amount of solar energy is stored in the oceans and seas. On an
average, the 60 million square kilometer of the tropical seas absorb
solar radiation equivalent to the heat content of 245 billion barrels of
oil. Scientists feel that if this energy can be tapped a large source of
energy can be tapped a large source of energy will be available to the
tropical countries and to other countries as well. The process of
harnessing this energy is called OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion).
It uses the temperature differences between the surface of the ocean and
depths of about 1000m to operate a heat engine, which produces electric
power.</p>
<p>Energy is also obtained from waves and tides. The first wave energy,
project with a capacity of 150MW, has been set up at Vizhinjam near
Trivandrum. A major tidal wave power project costing of Rs. 5000 crores,
is proposed to be set up in the Hanthal Creek in the Gulf of Kutch in
Gujarat.</p>
<p>In some countries such as Japan small scale power generators run by
energy from waves or the ocean, have been used as power sources for
channel marking buoys.</p>
<p>Â </p>
<p>Â </p>
<p>Â </p>                <!--INFOLINKS_OFF-->
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