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Welcome to The UTC Problem Solving Process

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Welcome to The UTC Problem Solving  Process Powered By Docstoc
					   QCPC -
 “The Tool”

A Road Map     QCPC encompasses a simple tool used to
to Quality     continuously analyze a process for quality
Products and
Processes      improvement opportunities and process
               inefficiencies, called “turnbacks”.
                          Step 1         Step 2        Step 3

               Supplier                                              Customer

                              Record        Record        Record
                             Turnbacks     Turnbacks     Turnbacks
                                                                     Record
                                                                     Defects




                                                                                1
                    What is a
                 Turnback (T/B)?

Any situation that hinders the flow of work, including
any inefficiency in a process, such as:


 Rework                       Incomplete paperwork
 Machine or                   Software problems
  equipment problems
                               Lack of resources
 Incorrect paperwork
                               Priority changes
 Changes in a plan
                               Reruns
 Miscalculations on
                               Bottlenecks (delays )
  expense reports


                                                         2
            How Can We Build Trust?


Practice            Welcome all turnbacks as treasures
Active Quality
                    Encourage and reward people who bring forward
Management
                     treasures

                    Never punish people for acknowledging problems
                     – Celebrate success with the team




                      Morale is set by management’s leadership.
                     Lead by example and cherish your treasures!


                                                                   3
       Set Aggressive Goals to Reduce Turnbacks




                           Baseline
Turnback Ratio




                            50 % Turnback
                              Reduction      90 % Turnback
                                               Reduction




                        3 Months      6 Months
                 Time


                                                             4
    Use Real-Time Data
to Gain Strategic Advantage

         Diagnose data as it happens; don’t use outdated
          reports

         Use simple data collection and recording
          techniques

         Act fast to solve problems

         Quality first

      “Without data and without quick reaction to
      data there can be no improvement.”
                                    — Mr. Ito


                                                            5
        QCPC Implementation:
         The 5-Step Process

Step 1- Initiate the QCPC Process
A) Select the Process    B) Map the Process     C) Collect
                                                  Turnback Data
Step 2 - Summarize Detailed Turnback Data
Summarize Turnbacks by Process Step

Step 3 - Pareto Turnback Data

Step 4 - Determine Improvement Projects
A) Select Top Problems         B) Execute Problem-Solving Strategy


Step 5 - Document Your Successes
A) Share Lessons Learned and Update Standard Work

                                                                     6
1B                   1C Design                                      2
       Map                                                            Summarize
                       & Manage                                      Turnbacks by
       the
                      Collection of                                  Process Step
     Process
                       Turnbacks




                                                3
                           A                    Select Process
                                                 Step, Pareto
                      Step-By-Step              the Turnbacks
1A
  Select the             Guide
   Process
 to Improve
                                 4ASelect
                                        Top                             Return to
                                 Problems For
                                 Improvement
                                                                        START!



                                                    EXTRA! EXTRA!


               4B                           5    Share               Continue to
                    Execute
     START!                                 Lessons Learned         Collect Data &
               Problem-Solving
                                             and Document           Eliminate More
                   Strategy
                                               Std Work               Turnbacks
                   Step 1
              Initiate the
           QCPC Process

1A                       Evaluate your work processes
      Select the
       Process
     to Improve          Determine which process in your area usually
                          has the most turnbacks, such as:
                          – High cost
                          – Time lost
                          – Employee frustration
                          – Negative impact on customer satisfaction




                                                                         8
               Step 1
          Initiate the
       QCPC Process

                  A Process Map . . .
1B
       Map
       the           documents the flow of product and process steps
     Process
                      in a work area

                     includes any steps which change the product and
                      all inspection activities

                     forms a framework for QCPC data collection and
                      analysis

                     helps identify and prioritize problem areas in the
                      process



                                                                           9
Some Symbols with Which to Be Familiar


     Map Using QCPC Symbols:

                     Task

                     Review/Approval

                     Activity/Task Review/Approval

                     Process Start/Input

                     Process End/Output



                                                     10
                      Level of Detail

Macro                    1       2       3       4

  – Focuses on the overall process and usually includes fewer steps. It
    leaves out details of each process step making it easier to collect data.
    This is a good starting point, but may not offer the visibility to all the
    problems in your process.




Micro           1    2       3       4       5       6   7   8   9   10

  – As you begin to analyze your process, you may need to expand high
    problem areas in an attempt to find the root cause of your problems.
    This will lead to a chart with many process steps.




   Remember that you define the QCPC process in your cell/work area.
   Use as little or as much detail as you require for a successful program.




                                                                                 11
1CDesign
                Data collection . . .
 & Manage
Collection of      is critical to successful QCPC implementation
 Turnbacks

                   tracks process, not people

                   provides detailed data for root cause analysis

                   requires a means of collecting data:
                    – Data collection forms
                    – Scatter diagrams




                                                                     12
             Step 1
        Initiate the
     QCPC Process

1CDesign
                   Data Collection Forms may include:
 & Manage           Work area                 Turnback description or
Collection of                                    code
 Turnbacks          Work group
                                               Turnback quantity
                    Focus area
                                               Number of items
                    Turnback originator         produced
                    Date(s)                   Measurable business
                    Process steps               metric (time delay, cost,
                                                 etc.)
                    Copy of the process map




                                                                         13
             Step 1
        Initiate the
     QCPC Process
                                Simple Forms
                                       BLACK AND BLUE PEN DIVISION
                               Make Collecting
                                 Data EasierQCPC Data Collection Form
                                      Team # ____________
                                      REMEMBER: A Turnback is anything that prevents the
                                      pen assembly from flowing though a defined process.

   Each day
                                                                        Turnback Type
    – Forms are completed by




                                                                                                      # of Turnbacks
                                                       Total Pcs. Run
      associates




                                                                                        Other/Scrap
   Each week
    – Completed forms are
      collected and used to          Description
      update master QCPC             10 Assembler #1
      Chart
                                     20 Assembler #2

                                     30 Assembler #3
!
   A QCPC Team must
                                     40 Assembler #4
    create a form to fit its
                                     TOTAL
    needs
                                                                                                                       14
         Exercise:
Generate Turnback
             Data




 Week                                                                              Total



  1. Individually and independently think about all possible problems and turnbacks that
      could occur during your “going to work” process. These should include anything that
      prevents you from getting to work or slows you down while going to work.
                                                                                   
  2. Write each turnback on a separate Post-It note. (One turnback on one Post-It ).
                                                               
  3. After you have written all your turnbacks on your Post-It notes, place each one of the
     turnbacks under the process step where it would likely be found. Please include each
     occurrence of any repeated turnbacks.


                                                                                              15
             Step 1
        Initiate the
     QCPC Process

                Scatter Diagrams . . .
1CDesign
 & Manage
Collection of      Offer another way of collecting turnback data
 Turnbacks

                   Provide a means to summarize turnback data

                   Show trends of turnbacks that may otherwise be
                    hard to see

                   Can be used in conjunction with other data
                    collection techniques




                                                                    16
            Step 2
      Summarize Detailed                                                                                                                BLACK AND BLUE PEN DIVISION

        Turnback Data                                                                                                                            QCPC Data Collection Form
                                                                                                                                     Team # ____________
                                                                                                                                     REMEMBER: A Turnback is anything that prevents the
                                                                                                                                     pen assembly from flowing though a defined process.


                                                                                                                                                                        Turnback Type
    Week        Total




                                                                                                                                                                                                      # of Turnbacks
                                                                                                                                                       Total Pcs. Run




                                                                                                                                                                                        Other/Scrap
                                                                                                                                     Op Description

                                                                                                                                     10 Assembler #1



                 Collect Data Weekly to                                                                                              20 Assembler #2

                                                                                                                                     30 Assembler #3

                                                                                                                                     40 Assembler #4



                         Update                                                                                                      TOTAL




2
 Summarize
               the QCPC Summary Chart
Turnbacks by
                   W/E          10                       20                      30                      40              T/B RATIO
Process Step
                          PCS. PRODUCED           PCS. PRODUCED            PCS. PRODUCED          PCS. PRODUCED




                               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO


                         T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D




                          PCS. PRODUCED           PCS. PRODUCED            PCS. PRODUCED          PCS. PRODUCED




                               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO


                         T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D   T/B    SCRAP      T/D




                          PCS. PRODUCED           PCS. PRODUCED            PCS. PRODUCED          PCS. PRODUCED




                                                                                                                                                                                                      17
     Summarize Detailed Turnback Data

Add Turnback    WEEK ENDING            10                      20                      30                      40             T/B RATIO
Ratios to                     PCS . PRODUCED          PCS . PRODUCED          PCS . PRODUCED          PCS . PRODUCED

                                        20                     20                      20                      20
determine           Week 1          T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO               T/B RATIO
                                                                                                                              120%
                                      20%                    50%                     10%                     40%
total process                 T/B

                               4
                                      SCRAP     T/D   T/B

                                                      10
                                                              SCRAP     T/D   T/B

                                                                               2
                                                                                      SCRAP     T/D   T/B

                                                                                                       8
                                                                                                              SCRAP     T/D




performance
                                                                                                                                 20%
for the week.                                                                                                                    50%
                                                                                                                                 10%
                                                                                                                                + 40%
                                                                                                                                120%




                !    In order to produce these 20 items to requirements,
                    the items were fully or partially re-processed 24 times
                                        (4 + 10 + 2 + 8).
                                                                                                                                          18
          Post it where
           everyone
           can see it!




  QCPC
SUMMARY
 CHART




                          19
      Calculate
Turnback Ratios




Week                                                                                           Total


   One * 80%4/5
                             TR%
                                T/N
                                          TR%
                                             T/N
                                                      TR%
                                                           T/N
                                                                    TR%
                                                                       T/N
                                                                                 TR%
                                                                                     T/N
                                                                                             TTR %
1. For each step in your process count the total amount of turnback found. If a turnback occurred more
   than once, count each occurrence as a separate turnback [T].
2. The number of people on your team will be used as the number of times the process was run or the
   number of outputs (arrivals at work) of your process [N].
3. Divide the number of turnbacks at each process step [T] by the number of outputs [N] to calculate the
   turnback ratio [TR%] for each step of the process.
4. Add each of the process step turnback ratios [TR%] to get the total turnback ration [TTR%] for the
   entire process.
   * See Process Step 1 above as an example.

                                                                                                           20
 Summarize Detailed                                                                                      QCPC Trend Chart
   Turnback Data                                                                                         Baseline Formation


250%                                                                                                                                 Turnback ratio
                                                                                      Baseline
200%


150%
                                                                                                                           50%
100%


50%
                                                                                                                                            90%
 0%




                                                                                                                                            Oct
                                                                                                                                                  Nov
                                          3-May




                                                                                                                         Jul
                                                                                      7-Jun




                                                                                                                                      Sep




                                                                                                                                                        Dec
                                                  10-May
                                                           17-May
                                                                    24-May
                                                                             31-May


                                                                                              14-Jun
                                                                                                       21-Jun
                                                                                                                28-Jun
               12-Apr
                        19-Apr
                                 26-Apr




                                                                                                                               Aug
       5-Apr




                                                                                                                                                          21
    Step 3
    Pareto
Turnback Data
                                     140%
                                                                                           How Do We



                    Turnback Ratio
                                            122%
First, Pareto the                    120%
                                                   92%
                                                                                          Decide Which
                                     100%
Turnback Ratio                        80%                                 68%              Problems to
by process step.                      60%                                                     Work
                                      40%
                                      20%                                                   on First?
                                       0%
                                             10    20                         30
                                              Process Step
Then, for the
process step                                                                              Step 10


                                                         # of Turnbacks
                                                                          6
with the highest                                                          5
                                                                                    5.0

Turnback Ratio,                                                           4
                                                                          3
Pareto the total                                                          2
                                                                                              2.0
                                                                                                         1.0
number of                                                                 1
                                                                          0
Turnbacks.
                                                                                   Wrong     Spring    Actuator
                                                                                   Color    Too Long   Broken

                                                                                          Turnback Type
                                                                                                                  22
                                                 Estimating & Proposal Process
 3
 Select Process
  Step, Pareto                          120
 the Turnbacks
                                                       Step 14: Create Estimates
                                                            128 Turnbacks
                  Number of Turnbacks


                                        100
Note: able to
use number of                           80
Turnbacks vs.
Turnback                                                                       Let the QCPC
                                        60
Ratios because                                                                Data Drive Your
all items went
                                                                            Turnback Elimination
through all                             40
steps the same                                                                     Effort!
number of
                                        20
times

                                         0
                                  14     15       4      5      10  19     12    17      8     6     2       18           1 Identify 16
                                                                                                                      13
                        Process Create Prelim StrategyKickoff EPD/ ReviewPrepareManagePrepareReleaseObtain Finalize        Opportu
                                                                                                                   T's & C's
                                                                                                                                    Finalize
                        Step    EstimatePricing MeetingMeeting SOW/ and Draft ment Inputs Blue RFP Prices                    nities Schedul
                       Turnbacks 128     62      19     16      13  11     8      6     5      4     3        3       3        2      1

                                                                    Process Step
                                                                                                                                               23
                                       45             Estimating & Proposal Process
3
Select Process
                                       40
                                                               Detail Breakdown of Turnbacks
 Step, Pareto                                                  within Step 14: Create Estimates
the Turnbacks
                                       35
                                                             BOM Incomplete: 42 of 128 Turnbacks
                                       30
                 Number of Turnbacks




                                       25
                                                               Top 2 T/B Causes = 63 total T/Bs
                                                              49% of total Turnbacks for Step 14
                                       20


                                       15


                                       10


                                       5
                                             1   2
                                       0
                              6                          9       3      14           8     5        4      1       7       2
                                      16
                   Turnback BOM                       Estimate  Not   Schedule    No      BOM    SOW/EPDCustomer BOM      Int
                                     Other
                   Causes Incomplete                   Late    enough not avail Resources Late     Late   Req   changed Program
                 Turnbacks                  42   21     16      10       8        7        6       6       4       4      3

                                                                                                                                  24
    Step 3
    Pareto
Turnback Data

               Example (next slides)

                 –   Project goal: Reduce cycle time

                 –   Management’s focus: Reduce approval time as

                     the primary turnback (subjective bias!)

                 –   Use cycle time as a factor in selecting the

                     turnbacks for elimination




                                                                   25
    Step 3
    Pareto
Turnback Data
                           Process Step
                               with
                                                                                                                                                          DESIGN JOB TURNBACKS                                                                                                                                                               Turnbacks
4A
  Select Top
                          Most Turnbacks
                                                           180
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Time
 Problems For
 Improvement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Process Step
                           NUMBER OF TURNBACKS AND HOURS
                                                           160



                                                           140                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   with
                                                           120                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Most Time Impact
                                                           100



                                                             80



                                                             60


      Which turnback                                         40

     should be selected
        for process                                          20



       improvement?                                              0
                                                                     APPROVALS



                                                                                 COMPUTER INTERRUPTIONS



                                                                                                          NON-TECHNICAL TASKS




                                                                                                                                  SUPPLIER INTERACTIONS




                                                                                                                                                           CONFLICTING PRIORITIES




                                                                                                                                                                                    SERVICES




                                                                                                                                                                                               INTERRUPTIONS




                                                                                                                                                                                                               SCH CHANGES/PROJECT ISSUES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            JOBS WITHOUT SCHEDULE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CDM




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PPS/SFI ISSUES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MODS TO DESIGN JOB SCOPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PHOTOCOPIER HICKUPS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              INCOMPLETE 3D LIBRARY
                   Approvals                                                                                                                                                                                   Schedule                                                                                                        Spec.
                                                                                                                                TURNBACK TYPE                                                                  Changes                                                                                                        Changes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      26
              Step 4                                                                                                                    4A
         Determine                                                                                                                        Select Top

Improvement Projects                                            Project                                                                  Problems For
                                                                                                                                         Improvement
                                                                Lists . . .
                make it easy for others to see how well you are doing!
                                                               BP Process QCPC
                                                                  Project List
          14-Sep-00
                                                                                                                                                 Target
Turnback Category      Specific Turnbacks           Actions Required                       Root Cause                       Responsibility        Date      Status
                                                                                                                          ACE Group: Each
                                                                                  Instructors focused on subject        instructor to adjust
                                                 Revise pre/post-tests,          matter delivery to students and accordingly to reduce
                                             evaluation sheets, and student        were not made aware of the             paper usage. Al:
                        Too much paper         manuals to reduce paper               impact of excessive paper         Update checklists to
1. Class Preparation      being used                     usage                                  usage                   ensure compliance       5/25/2000    Done
                                                                                     Spellcheck not being used       ACE Group: Correct
                                                                                consistently and humans tend to slides Al: Revise
                                                Correct slides & initiate           skip over errors that are too    process & train
2. Errors on           Many slides have       Spellcheck usage and slide          obvious to them (they are too      instructors/reinforce
Presentation Slides      minor errors            inspection procedure                close to their own product)     use of Spellcheck          6/30/2000    Done
                                                                                 Standard work doesn't include
                        Items needed for        Create kits for each class              proper indication of
                       successful training    module which contain all the      responsibility for bringing class         ACE Group: Each
                         are forgotten or    items needed for teaching that     items and doesn't enforce good instructor to create kit
3. Class Preparation         missing                    element                              organization               for his/her module      7/31/2000    Done
                                                                                                                     Al: Change checklist to
                                                                                                                       have class organizer
                                              Revise checklist (standard                                                  arrange for pilot
                        Confusion over       work) so class organizer will      Standard work was inadequate                 speakers and
                       which/when guest      arrange for pilots, instructors       in failing to call for instructor    instructors to verify
                       pilots will attend      will verify/reconfirm pilot       interaction and coordination of            and reconfirm
4. Class Preparation    training classes              attendance                         pilot arrangements                   dates/times       8/17/2000    Done
                                                                                                                       Al: Change checklist
                                                                                                                      (standard work) so all

                                      List projects according to their priority
                                               Change standard work so all
                                              instructors will move all class
                                             presentations onto their PC for
                                                                                                                            instructors are
                                                                                                                         reminded by class
                                                                                                                      organizer to move the
                       Lack of PC backup     each class (everyone backs up                                              entire presentation
5. Class Preparation
                                   
                          during class
                        Remote mouse   List only manageable tasks
                                                      everyone else)            No backup for PC presentations         folder onto their PC
                                                                                                                          Al: Load remote
                                                                                                                                                8/31/2000    Done

                        unavailable on       Load appropriate software on         Other priorities kept software      mouse software on all
6. Equipment               some PCs                   each PC                            from being loaded                        PC's          9/30/2000   Working
                                      Keep all elements up-to-date                                                   Al: Update checklist to
                                                                                                                           include a daily
                                               Ensure checklist (standard                                              equipment test ACE
                                             work) calls for each instructor      Standard work doesn't require         Group: Get trained
                                             to familiarize him/herself with    pre-class equipment check with             from classroom                           27
              Step 4
         Determine
Improvement Projects

                      Problem Solving Strategies
  4B
     Execute              Passport System
 Problem-Solving
     Strategy
                          Process Management
                          DIVE
                          Value Management
                          Value Engineering
                          Product/Process Risk Reduction
                          Lean Manufacturing (3P)




                                                            28
              Step 4
         Determine
Improvement Projects


                       D   efine the Problem and Specific Project
  4B
     Execute           I   nvestigate Causal Factors
 Problem-Solving
     Strategy          V   erify Solution
                       E   nsure Mistake Proof Solution is
                           Sustained



                                                     Symptom


                   Symptom
                                        Root Cause




                                                                    29
       Step 5
   Document Your
     Successes

                     Problem is Mistake-Proofed
Use Criteria         There are no adverse effects on other products
for Determining       or processes
Success.
                     A design or process change (formal fix) has been
                      implemented

                     QCPC trend charts show no recurrences

                     Standard Work Documentation is updated




                                                                       30
     Step 5
 Document Your
   Successes

     Share        Preferred format: A one-page Success Story
Lessons Learned
 and Document     • Gives details
   Std Work       • acts as a lessons-learned file

                     As applicable, update or create Standard Work
                      – Procedures
                      – Work instructions
                      – Checklists
                      – Websites
                      – Training materials
                      – Process maps




                                                                      31

				
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