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QCPC - “The Tool” A Road Map QCPC encompasses a simple tool used to to Quality continuously analyze a process for quality Products and Processes improvement opportunities and process inefficiencies, called “turnbacks”. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Supplier Customer Record Record Record Turnbacks Turnbacks Turnbacks Record Defects 1 What is a Turnback (T/B)? Any situation that hinders the flow of work, including any inefficiency in a process, such as: Rework Incomplete paperwork Machine or Software problems equipment problems Lack of resources Incorrect paperwork Priority changes Changes in a plan Reruns Miscalculations on Bottlenecks (delays ) expense reports 2 How Can We Build Trust? Practice Welcome all turnbacks as treasures Active Quality Encourage and reward people who bring forward Management treasures Never punish people for acknowledging problems – Celebrate success with the team Morale is set by management’s leadership. Lead by example and cherish your treasures! 3 Set Aggressive Goals to Reduce Turnbacks Baseline Turnback Ratio 50 % Turnback Reduction 90 % Turnback Reduction 3 Months 6 Months Time 4 Use Real-Time Data to Gain Strategic Advantage Diagnose data as it happens; don’t use outdated reports Use simple data collection and recording techniques Act fast to solve problems Quality first “Without data and without quick reaction to data there can be no improvement.” — Mr. Ito 5 QCPC Implementation: The 5-Step Process Step 1- Initiate the QCPC Process A) Select the Process B) Map the Process C) Collect Turnback Data Step 2 - Summarize Detailed Turnback Data Summarize Turnbacks by Process Step Step 3 - Pareto Turnback Data Step 4 - Determine Improvement Projects A) Select Top Problems B) Execute Problem-Solving Strategy Step 5 - Document Your Successes A) Share Lessons Learned and Update Standard Work 6 1B 1C Design 2 Map Summarize & Manage Turnbacks by the Collection of Process Step Process Turnbacks 3 A Select Process Step, Pareto Step-By-Step the Turnbacks 1A Select the Guide Process to Improve 4ASelect Top Return to Problems For Improvement START! EXTRA! EXTRA! 4B 5 Share Continue to Execute START! Lessons Learned Collect Data & Problem-Solving and Document Eliminate More Strategy Std Work Turnbacks Step 1 Initiate the QCPC Process 1A Evaluate your work processes Select the Process to Improve Determine which process in your area usually has the most turnbacks, such as: – High cost – Time lost – Employee frustration – Negative impact on customer satisfaction 8 Step 1 Initiate the QCPC Process A Process Map . . . 1B Map the documents the flow of product and process steps Process in a work area includes any steps which change the product and all inspection activities forms a framework for QCPC data collection and analysis helps identify and prioritize problem areas in the process 9 Some Symbols with Which to Be Familiar Map Using QCPC Symbols: Task Review/Approval Activity/Task Review/Approval Process Start/Input Process End/Output 10 Level of Detail Macro 1 2 3 4 – Focuses on the overall process and usually includes fewer steps. It leaves out details of each process step making it easier to collect data. This is a good starting point, but may not offer the visibility to all the problems in your process. Micro 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – As you begin to analyze your process, you may need to expand high problem areas in an attempt to find the root cause of your problems. This will lead to a chart with many process steps. Remember that you define the QCPC process in your cell/work area. Use as little or as much detail as you require for a successful program. 11 1CDesign Data collection . . . & Manage Collection of is critical to successful QCPC implementation Turnbacks tracks process, not people provides detailed data for root cause analysis requires a means of collecting data: – Data collection forms – Scatter diagrams 12 Step 1 Initiate the QCPC Process 1CDesign Data Collection Forms may include: & Manage Work area Turnback description or Collection of code Turnbacks Work group Turnback quantity Focus area Number of items Turnback originator produced Date(s) Measurable business Process steps metric (time delay, cost, etc.) Copy of the process map 13 Step 1 Initiate the QCPC Process Simple Forms BLACK AND BLUE PEN DIVISION Make Collecting Data EasierQCPC Data Collection Form Team # ____________ REMEMBER: A Turnback is anything that prevents the pen assembly from flowing though a defined process. Each day Turnback Type – Forms are completed by # of Turnbacks Total Pcs. Run associates Other/Scrap Each week – Completed forms are collected and used to Description update master QCPC 10 Assembler #1 Chart 20 Assembler #2 30 Assembler #3 ! A QCPC Team must 40 Assembler #4 create a form to fit its TOTAL needs 14 Exercise: Generate Turnback Data Week Total 1. Individually and independently think about all possible problems and turnbacks that could occur during your “going to work” process. These should include anything that prevents you from getting to work or slows you down while going to work. 2. Write each turnback on a separate Post-It note. (One turnback on one Post-It ). 3. After you have written all your turnbacks on your Post-It notes, place each one of the turnbacks under the process step where it would likely be found. Please include each occurrence of any repeated turnbacks. 15 Step 1 Initiate the QCPC Process Scatter Diagrams . . . 1CDesign & Manage Collection of Offer another way of collecting turnback data Turnbacks Provide a means to summarize turnback data Show trends of turnbacks that may otherwise be hard to see Can be used in conjunction with other data collection techniques 16 Step 2 Summarize Detailed BLACK AND BLUE PEN DIVISION Turnback Data QCPC Data Collection Form Team # ____________ REMEMBER: A Turnback is anything that prevents the pen assembly from flowing though a defined process. Turnback Type Week Total # of Turnbacks Total Pcs. Run Other/Scrap Op Description 10 Assembler #1 Collect Data Weekly to 20 Assembler #2 30 Assembler #3 40 Assembler #4 Update TOTAL 2 Summarize the QCPC Summary Chart Turnbacks by W/E 10 20 30 40 T/B RATIO Process Step PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D T/B SCRAP T/D PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED PCS. PRODUCED 17 Summarize Detailed Turnback Data Add Turnback WEEK ENDING 10 20 30 40 T/B RATIO Ratios to PCS . PRODUCED PCS . PRODUCED PCS . PRODUCED PCS . PRODUCED 20 20 20 20 determine Week 1 T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO T/B RATIO 120% 20% 50% 10% 40% total process T/B 4 SCRAP T/D T/B 10 SCRAP T/D T/B 2 SCRAP T/D T/B 8 SCRAP T/D performance 20% for the week. 50% 10% + 40% 120% ! In order to produce these 20 items to requirements, the items were fully or partially re-processed 24 times (4 + 10 + 2 + 8). 18 Post it where everyone can see it! QCPC SUMMARY CHART 19 Calculate Turnback Ratios Week Total One * 80%4/5 TR% T/N TR% T/N TR% T/N TR% T/N TR% T/N TTR % 1. For each step in your process count the total amount of turnback found. If a turnback occurred more than once, count each occurrence as a separate turnback [T]. 2. The number of people on your team will be used as the number of times the process was run or the number of outputs (arrivals at work) of your process [N]. 3. Divide the number of turnbacks at each process step [T] by the number of outputs [N] to calculate the turnback ratio [TR%] for each step of the process. 4. Add each of the process step turnback ratios [TR%] to get the total turnback ration [TTR%] for the entire process. * See Process Step 1 above as an example. 20 Summarize Detailed QCPC Trend Chart Turnback Data Baseline Formation 250% Turnback ratio Baseline 200% 150% 50% 100% 50% 90% 0% Oct Nov 3-May Jul 7-Jun Sep Dec 10-May 17-May 24-May 31-May 14-Jun 21-Jun 28-Jun 12-Apr 19-Apr 26-Apr Aug 5-Apr 21 Step 3 Pareto Turnback Data 140% How Do We Turnback Ratio 122% First, Pareto the 120% 92% Decide Which 100% Turnback Ratio 80% 68% Problems to by process step. 60% Work 40% 20% on First? 0% 10 20 30 Process Step Then, for the process step Step 10 # of Turnbacks 6 with the highest 5 5.0 Turnback Ratio, 4 3 Pareto the total 2 2.0 1.0 number of 1 0 Turnbacks. Wrong Spring Actuator Color Too Long Broken Turnback Type 22 Estimating & Proposal Process 3 Select Process Step, Pareto 120 the Turnbacks Step 14: Create Estimates 128 Turnbacks Number of Turnbacks 100 Note: able to use number of 80 Turnbacks vs. Turnback Let the QCPC 60 Ratios because Data Drive Your all items went Turnback Elimination through all 40 steps the same Effort! number of 20 times 0 14 15 4 5 10 19 12 17 8 6 2 18 1 Identify 16 13 Process Create Prelim StrategyKickoff EPD/ ReviewPrepareManagePrepareReleaseObtain Finalize Opportu T's & C's Finalize Step EstimatePricing MeetingMeeting SOW/ and Draft ment Inputs Blue RFP Prices nities Schedul Turnbacks 128 62 19 16 13 11 8 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 1 Process Step 23 45 Estimating & Proposal Process 3 Select Process 40 Detail Breakdown of Turnbacks Step, Pareto within Step 14: Create Estimates the Turnbacks 35 BOM Incomplete: 42 of 128 Turnbacks 30 Number of Turnbacks 25 Top 2 T/B Causes = 63 total T/Bs 49% of total Turnbacks for Step 14 20 15 10 5 1 2 0 6 9 3 14 8 5 4 1 7 2 16 Turnback BOM Estimate Not Schedule No BOM SOW/EPDCustomer BOM Int Other Causes Incomplete Late enough not avail Resources Late Late Req changed Program Turnbacks 42 21 16 10 8 7 6 6 4 4 3 24 Step 3 Pareto Turnback Data Example (next slides) – Project goal: Reduce cycle time – Management’s focus: Reduce approval time as the primary turnback (subjective bias!) – Use cycle time as a factor in selecting the turnbacks for elimination 25 Step 3 Pareto Turnback Data Process Step with DESIGN JOB TURNBACKS Turnbacks 4A Select Top Most Turnbacks 180 Time Problems For Improvement Process Step NUMBER OF TURNBACKS AND HOURS 160 140 with 120 Most Time Impact 100 80 60 Which turnback 40 should be selected for process 20 improvement? 0 APPROVALS COMPUTER INTERRUPTIONS NON-TECHNICAL TASKS SUPPLIER INTERACTIONS CONFLICTING PRIORITIES SERVICES INTERRUPTIONS SCH CHANGES/PROJECT ISSUES JOBS WITHOUT SCHEDULE CDM PPS/SFI ISSUES MODS TO DESIGN JOB SCOPE PHOTOCOPIER HICKUPS INCOMPLETE 3D LIBRARY Approvals Schedule Spec. TURNBACK TYPE Changes Changes 26 Step 4 4A Determine Select Top Improvement Projects Project Problems For Improvement Lists . . . make it easy for others to see how well you are doing! BP Process QCPC Project List 14-Sep-00 Target Turnback Category Specific Turnbacks Actions Required Root Cause Responsibility Date Status ACE Group: Each Instructors focused on subject instructor to adjust Revise pre/post-tests, matter delivery to students and accordingly to reduce evaluation sheets, and student were not made aware of the paper usage. Al: Too much paper manuals to reduce paper impact of excessive paper Update checklists to 1. Class Preparation being used usage usage ensure compliance 5/25/2000 Done Spellcheck not being used ACE Group: Correct consistently and humans tend to slides Al: Revise Correct slides & initiate skip over errors that are too process & train 2. Errors on Many slides have Spellcheck usage and slide obvious to them (they are too instructors/reinforce Presentation Slides minor errors inspection procedure close to their own product) use of Spellcheck 6/30/2000 Done Standard work doesn't include Items needed for Create kits for each class proper indication of successful training module which contain all the responsibility for bringing class ACE Group: Each are forgotten or items needed for teaching that items and doesn't enforce good instructor to create kit 3. Class Preparation missing element organization for his/her module 7/31/2000 Done Al: Change checklist to have class organizer Revise checklist (standard arrange for pilot Confusion over work) so class organizer will Standard work was inadequate speakers and which/when guest arrange for pilots, instructors in failing to call for instructor instructors to verify pilots will attend will verify/reconfirm pilot interaction and coordination of and reconfirm 4. Class Preparation training classes attendance pilot arrangements dates/times 8/17/2000 Done Al: Change checklist (standard work) so all List projects according to their priority Change standard work so all instructors will move all class presentations onto their PC for instructors are reminded by class organizer to move the Lack of PC backup each class (everyone backs up entire presentation 5. Class Preparation during class Remote mouse List only manageable tasks everyone else) No backup for PC presentations folder onto their PC Al: Load remote 8/31/2000 Done unavailable on Load appropriate software on Other priorities kept software mouse software on all 6. Equipment some PCs each PC from being loaded PC's 9/30/2000 Working Keep all elements up-to-date Al: Update checklist to include a daily Ensure checklist (standard equipment test ACE work) calls for each instructor Standard work doesn't require Group: Get trained to familiarize him/herself with pre-class equipment check with from classroom 27 Step 4 Determine Improvement Projects Problem Solving Strategies 4B Execute Passport System Problem-Solving Strategy Process Management DIVE Value Management Value Engineering Product/Process Risk Reduction Lean Manufacturing (3P) 28 Step 4 Determine Improvement Projects D efine the Problem and Specific Project 4B Execute I nvestigate Causal Factors Problem-Solving Strategy V erify Solution E nsure Mistake Proof Solution is Sustained Symptom Symptom Root Cause 29 Step 5 Document Your Successes Problem is Mistake-Proofed Use Criteria There are no adverse effects on other products for Determining or processes Success. A design or process change (formal fix) has been implemented QCPC trend charts show no recurrences Standard Work Documentation is updated 30 Step 5 Document Your Successes Share Preferred format: A one-page Success Story Lessons Learned and Document • Gives details Std Work • acts as a lessons-learned file As applicable, update or create Standard Work – Procedures – Work instructions – Checklists – Websites – Training materials – Process maps 31
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