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					   Framework of Knowledge Management in Education Based on Knowledge Grid

                                                     Xia Hongwen
               (College of Teachers’ Education,Zhejiang Normal University,Jinhua Zhejiang, 321004, China.)
                                                        xhw@zjnu.cn




Abstract—Knowledge Grid is a kind of knowledge sharing           sustainable Internet application environment that enables
environment based on the World Wide Web, and its essence is      people or virtual roles (mechanisms that facilitate
the synergy and sharing of internet knowledge resource and       interoperation among users, applications, and resources) to
knowledge service. KM (Knowledge Management) in                  effectively capture, publish, share and manage explicit
Education based on KG (Knowledge Grid) makes use of the          knowledge resources. It also provides on-demand services to
grid technology and integrates the methods and tools of KM in    support innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem-solving
Education to support the whole cycle of Knowledge                and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and
Application. Based on the advantages of KM in Education, in      ontology to reflect human cognition characteristics; exploits
this paper, we construct a service-oriented model of KM in
                                                                 social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts the
Education in order to achieve more effective knowledge
sharing and knowledge service in education.
                                                                 techniques and standards developed during work toward the
                                                                 next-generation web.” [3]
   Keywords-Knowledge Grid; Knowledge Management in                  In addition, he figured out “the Knowledge Grid
Education; Knowledge Service                                     Environment consists of autonomous individuals, self-
                                                                 organized semantic communities, an adaptive networking
                                                                 mechanism, an evolving semantic overlay keeping
                     I.   INTRODUCTION                           meaningful connection between individuals, flows for
    The emergence of the Web provided an unprecedented           dynamic resource sharing, and mechanisms supporting
AI research and application platform. By providing access to     effective resource management and providing appropriate
human-readable content stored in any computer connected to       knowledge services for problem-solving and innovation. It
the Internet, it revolutionized business, scientific research,   supports innovation and harmonious development of science,
government, and public information services around the           technology and culture”. [4]
globe.[1] How to uniformly, normatively and effectively              A knowledge grid should synthesize the integration of the
manage variety of resources, provide the machine-                data, computing, and the network hardware, the development
understandable semantic information and intelligent web          of the software, and the coordination of a large and
services for users will be the key issues of the next-           distributed human infrastructure. KG is a kind of grid, which
generation web. Knowledge Grid is the organic integration        focus on knowledge management during computing. From
and inevitable trend of the Grid, the Semantic Web and           the viewpoints of Fran Berman and Hai Zhuge, we can
Semantic Grid and it is a kind of knowledge-sharing              summarize that Knowledge Grid is a knowledge carrier and
environment based on the World Wide Web. Knowledge               well controlled knowledge collections, and it defines the
Grid achieves information processing and knowledge               operation mode of Knowledge Management. Therefore,
acquisition by the technology of Semantic Web; uses the          using the technology of Knowledge Grid to implement
layered architecture to build a resource and information         education knowledge management and service has its
sharing platform providing a higher level of integration and     theoretical basis, technical support and practical significance.
shared services; and its essence is the collaboration and
sharing of the knowledge resources and knowledge service                 III. THE INTENSION OF KNOWLEDGE
in WWW.                                                                MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION BASED ON
                                                                                 KNOWLEDGE GRID
         II.   WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE GRID(KG)
                                                                     According to Fran Berman on the definition of
    The expert Fran Berman firstly put the concept of            Knowledge Grid, Knowledge Management in Education
Knowledge Grid forward that a Knowledge Grid (KG) is the         based on Knowledge Grid should include two aspects: the
convergence      of   a     comprehensive      computational     education knowledge discovery and education knowledge
infrastructure along with the scientific data collections and    services. The education knowledge discovery is the
applications for routinely supporting the synthesis of           application in the field of education of knowledge discovery
knowledge from that data. [2] The professor Hai Zhuge            technology, which adopts a parallel distributed model of
believed that “the Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and          knowledge discovery. This model integrates algorithms,
tools, and software of data-mining located in different           category, knowledge-level, and location. The former two
places; conceptualizes them by ontology, then organizes           dimensions identify knowledge content, and the third
these elements by metadata for forming a highly integrated        dimension identifies the locations that store knowledge. Each
system of knowledge discovery in education; and develops          point in the space represents knowledge at a certain
the service architecture of knowledge discovery in education.     knowledge level of a knowledge category and is stored at a
The education knowledge service is used to support                certain location. [5] Some professional knowledge can be
knowledge sharing in the field of education based on the          easily and accurately labeled by the three-dimensional
function of traditional knowledge service, and it is a kind of    knowledge space which makes the personalized and
service and technology applied to knowledge management. It        specialized knowledge service become possible. The
makes full use of the semantic and ontology of knowledge,         Knowledge Grid Environment enables users to effectively
and analyzes the semantic of knowledge to build the               access, publish, share and manage knowledge resources;
semantic knowledge services, semantic data integration,           analyzes the user’s needs and preferences in specified and
resource agent, workflow package in order to achieve              detailed for creating the user's personal files based on
sufficient and efficiency use for education knowledge. The        ontology; uses semantic description norms of metadata to
education knowledge service is mainly used to solve six           accurately grasp the user's personality and needs; and timely
challenges in knowledge life cycle: the acquisition, modeling,    adjusts the contents to provide personalized knowledge
retrieval, reuse, publishing and management for education         service for users.
knowledge. Integrating these six aspects will build a flexible,
scalable and easy to reused framework of education services       D.    Intelligent learning and automated processing
                                                                      Ontology-based education knowledge can be identified
    IV.   ADVANTAGES OF KM IN EDCATION BASED ON KG                by the computer, and illustrate the semantic relationship of
    KM (Knowledge Management) in Education based on               knowledge ontology to make intelligent learning possible.
KG (Knowledge Grid) makes use of the grid technology and          Knowledge Management in education based on KG is built
integrates the methods and tools of KM in Education to            on the basis of the Agent, and all the services are computer-
support the whole cycle of Knowledge Application. The             based automatic processing, which are not required the
advantages are remarked as follows:                               participation of people. The powerful computing ability of
                                                                  Gird enables the computer automatically processing massive
A. Parallel discovery of knowledge in education                   ontology-based educational information possible.
    Knowledge Grid adopts next-generation technologies and
standards of Internet, and uses parallel distributed technology        V.    FRAMEWORK OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN
to process and analyze distributed in geography, massive,                   EDUCATION BASED ON KNOWLEDGE GRID
heterogeneous data, and found the knowledge which matches             Based on the OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture),
the query conditions and meet customer needs from a wealth        the service-oriented knowledge management in education
of information in the collection, and achieves knowledge          system (Fig. 1) is mainly used for the management and
discovery in parallel.                                            services of distributed education knowledge that is the most
                                                                  prominent feature of this architecture. The knowledge
B. Intelligent aggregation and integration of knowledge in
                                                                  services of this architecture carries out in a more coordinated
    education                                                     mode, and the result of one task serves for another task in
    Knowledge storage in network is static and dynamic, and       particular form.
any search engine technology (such as Google, etc.) can not           Yu He and Weidong Zhu believed that the process of
reflect the changes of information on the Internet in real        knowledge management in education includes four parts:
time. Knowledge grid can intelligently and dynamically            the creation, storage, sharing and application of education
aggregate the knowledge distributed in all over the world         knowledge. [6]
through a single semantic entrance, thereby solve the above           The model is a three-layer architecture consisting of the
problems very well. In addition, in the environment of grid       resource entity layer, the knowledge grid middle layer and
knowledge management, you can remove the barriers among           the knowledge grid application layer. According to the
different web sites, integration of resources. Built on the       process of knowledge management in education, we divide
OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture), Grid Knowledge            this process into seven parts: knowledge acquisition;
provides guarantees for the integration of knowledge.             knowledge modeling; representation and storage of
                                                                  knowledge; resource management services; knowledge
C. Personalized and specialized knowledge service
                                                                  portal; gird knowledge services; knowledge application.
    In the grid environment, the organization of knowledge is
represented by three-dimensional coordinates: knowledge-
            KG
         Application       Knowledge                  Intelligent          Self-regulated         …             Course       Knowledge
           Layer           Presentation                 Search                learning                         learning      application


                                         Reasoning                                     Visual Serving
                                          services                                                                         Grid knowledge
                                                                    Knowledge                                                 services
                                                                      portal
                                    Evaluation                                                Knowledge
                                     service                                                Delivery Service
                                                                                                                          Knowledge portal
          KG Middle
            Layer
                            Knowledge                   Resource             Resource              Workflow
                                                                                                                              Resources
                            conversion                coordination          distribution            service
                                                                                                                             management
                              service                   service               service
                                                                                                                               services



                                           Knowledge                               Ontology                               Representation and
                                           Repository                                                                         storage of
                                                                                                                             knowledge


                                           Knowledge                              Ontology
                                             model                                                                           Knowledge
                                                                                                                              modeling


        Resource
         Entity          Resources                   Knowledge             Knowledge in              Knowledge               Knowledge
         Layer         on the Internet                in mind             communication              in practice             acquisition


                          Figure 1. Framework of Knowledge Management in Education Based on Knowledge Grid

                                                                                degree, and lay the foundation for realizing the personalized
A. Knowledge acquisition                                                        knowledge push services.
    KA (Knowledge Acquisition) is located in the front-end
of the architecture, which is the starting point of the life                    B. Knowledge modeling
cycle of knowledge management in education, and also is the                         Knowledge Modeling (KM) is intended to provide the
foundation of providing knowledge services. The useful                          description for the elements and the structure of domain
information and knowledge models are extracted from                             knowledge, and the primary function of KM is used to
knowledge sources by the technology of knowledge                                represent the knowledge and solve practical problems.
acquisition. The knowledge sources mainly refer to the                          Knowledge modeling reduces the distance between the
distributional education resources on the Internet, the                         knowledge acquisition and the knowledge application, and
knowledge in mind of learners’ (explicating the tacit                           retains the most useful knowledge and reasoning on the
knowledge), the knowledge in the process of                                     knowledge.
communication, and the knowledge in practice. In the                                The knowledge consisting of domain ontology is made
process of knowledge acquisition based on Knowledge Grid                        up of knowledge components and their relationships.
services, the natural language needs to be tagged and                           Knowledge components can be divided into principles,
described in semantic, and then ontology rules of domain                        concepts, rules, processes and examples. The relationship
knowledge are structured.                                                       between knowledge components can be divided into Part of,
    In this framework, we use Dublin Core-based metadata                        Kind of, Instance of, Attribute of and so on. [7]
standards to describe the characteristics of resources which                        Ontology-based knowledge modeling methods can
mainly contain the common properties of resources,                              provide the common understanding on semantic for the
education properties, technical attributes, as well as the                      knowledge in the field of education, identify the concepts
evaluating information of resources. The metadata standards                     and vocabularies approved in education, and then elicit the
are used to describe the characteristics of resources, which                    definitions of these concepts and vocabularies and a clear
can solve the problem of interoperability and reuse, help the                   relationship between them from different levels. Using
computer understand the contents of resources in some                           semantic metadata to model ontology for the knowledge in
                                                                                education can achieve the knowledge in education efficiently
and automatically processed and support the creation,               Knowledge conversion service: Knowledge conversion
integration, classification and retrieval on semantic-level.         service is mainly in charge of the semantic description
Establishing rules of ontology in the field of education will        of resources; these resources include the host location,
lay the foundation for ontology services, effectively support        data source, tools, the algorithm needed to extract, the
the sharing and reuse of education knowledge in the network          workflow of distribution knowledge, and the process
environment, and improve the generality of the knowledge.            and result of excavation.
C. Representation and storage of knowledge                          Resource coordination service: Resource coordination
                                                                     service supervises the use of the resources and responses
    KR (Knowledge Representation) constructs the                     the request for the workflow implementing services. If
knowledge on structure and semantic by way of the                    there are conflicts or unbalanced loads in resource
computer understanding. Commonly used methods of                     utilization, it will allocate the relation of mapping.
knowledge representation are showed as follows: first-order         Resource distribution service: The ontology-based
predicate logic representation, frame representation,                matching algorithm can achieve adaptive distribution of
semantic network representation, procedural representation,          resources. According to the workflow represented by the
and object-oriented representation. The choice of knowledge          abstract semantic as well as the unified analysis of
representation modes depends on the characteristics of               resources available, the matching algorithm determines
applications field, the requirements for dealing with the            a constraint condition of using resources and makes a
knowledge and the way of user interaction. Under the grid            scheme of Resource distribution.
environment, the mechanism of knowledge services also               Workflow service: Workflow service will implement
needs to solve the problem that how to release and retrieve          the mapping between application services and resources,
the knowledge.                                                       and send resource acquisition for each data mining
    In this framework, we use XML/Schema to represent the            process.
knowledge in semantic acquired from the KA (Knowledge
Acquisition) stage. The greatest strengths of XML lies in        E. Knowledge portal
separating the data display format and the content using the         Knowledge Portal is a key module of this service system,
self-describing method, and creating markup languages in         and it provides a view for education knowledge. Users can
some specific area, thus effectively expresses the data          retrieve and exchange the education knowledge they need by
structure and semantic of unstructured or semi-structured        Knowledge Portal.
documents. XML Schema provides richer data types and a               As the portal of education knowledge service system,
set of commitment mechanisms to enhance the capacity for         Knowledge Portal should possess four basic functions:
knowledge description.                                            Knowledge positioning: it refers the registration and
    On the basis of unified semantic descriptions of                  management in education knowledge service
knowledge, we use RDF/RDF Schema for modeling                         components distributing in the knowledge base and
knowledge. RDF is a kind of standardized specification on             stored in multiple formats.
semantic description of metadata, which adopts basic data         Knowledge pushing and knowledge maintenance: This
model composed of Resource, Property and Statement three              involves using which method to show the education
objects to establish a framework for the definition and use of        knowledge to the use through Knowledge Portal as well
meta-data. Thus the metadata can be effectively translated            as maintaining knowledge by way of user-friendly.
into machine-understandable information. As a supplement
                                                                  Security guard: This is the underlying structure used for
to RDF, RDF Schema defines a number of classes and
                                                                      authentication and authorization in order to present, use
properties used for describing other classes and properties,
                                                                      and update the knowledge in a safe manner.
which builds up the capacity in resources description of
                                                                  Providing the registration and discovery mechanism for
RDF. Being represented in semantic and modeled, the
                                                                      education knowledge services.
knowledge is submitted to the Knowledge Base, and learners
can access and operate the Knowledge Base through the            F. Gird knowledge services
human-computer interface.                                            Consumers of knowledge are most concerned about the
D. Resource management services                                  means of knowledge access and use of knowledge. Under the
                                                                 KG environment, sharing knowledge among the Knowledge
    Resource management services make use of ontology
                                                                 Grid virtual organizations should fully consider the
technique to uniformly define the education knowledge in
                                                                 characteristics of KM environment to build knowledge
semantic, and realize the unified organization,
                                                                 management models and service models. Knowledge
implementation and coordination for the distributed
                                                                 services offered in this system contains: visualization
knowledge and data in order to effectively manage the
                                                                 service, reasoning service, personalized push service, and
semantics, data elements, data mining tools and visualization
                                                                 evaluation service.
tools. Metadata and Ontology are often considered as the
basic tools of knowledge sharing and communication                Visualization Service. Based on the association rule,
between distributed users and applications.                           cluster model or class, the system builds a knowledge
    The main resource management services this system                 model, and then uses charts, images or other visual
supported are related as follows:                                     elements to display the non-spatial knowledge expressed
services




               in the knowledge model. Doing that can help people to           Knowledge management in education can help
               understand the relationships between all kinds of           organizations to broaden the domain of knowledge
               knowledge and trends of development, and deepen the         application and upgrade the quality of knowledge. In some
               understanding on knowledge.                                 extent, it is a process of improvement in quality. Grid-based
               Reasoning service. It provides users with personalized     knowledge management in education ultimately makes the
               knowledge reasoning services on the base of the fourth      intelligent learning realized, and enhances the quality of
               stage of "resource management service". The system          education and teaching by techniques of distributed
               founds and excavates the knowledge matching with            knowledge discovery, intelligent aggregation of knowledge,
               user’s request by way of identifying, selecting,            and personalized service of knowledge.
               downloading data mining tools, algorithms and rules,
               and then responses to user’s demand through knowledge                              VI.    CONCLUSIONS
               positioning and knowledge pushing.                              Knowledge management in education is a comprehensive
              Personalized push service. Based on personality             approach provided for exploring, excavating, managing and
               characteristics of users’, the push service for education   analyzing education resources, and its aim is improving the
               knowledge provides personalized and proactive               shabbily, interoperability, maintainability and reusability of
               information services. That is to say based on user’s        knowledge to meet the learning needs of learners and
               personalized needs (including categories, subjects,         improve the quality of teaching.[8] Grid -based and service-
               keywords and the combinational conditions, etc.) and        oriented knowledge management in education can realizes
               the different rules for push, the system sends different    the smart aggregation to the education knowledge distributed
               messages for different users. In this framework, we use     in all over the world and better management of knowledge,
               agent technology to push personalized knowledge for         provide knowledge services for learners by a single semantic
               users based on the search conditions users setting. The     entrance, and in the end make knowledge-sharing in
               agent will automatically search the knowledge meeting       education and knowledge innovation a reality. In this paper,
               the requirements of users’, and regularly or irregularly    the framework of knowledge management in education
               transmit the education knowledge on the Internet to         based on KG is of some value to the management the
               users’ computer by way of Push or Web-casting               declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and tacit
               providing scheduled track services in order to achieve      knowledge.
               the automatic and intelligent push for education
               knowledge.                                                                               REFERENCES
              Evaluation service. Comparing the result of knowledge
               push with the requirement of user inputted or the           [1]   Hai Zhuge, “Future interconnection environment”, Computer,
               knowledge model stored in the knowledge base, the                 Volume 38, Issue 4, Apr. 2005, pp. 27-33, doi: 10.1109/MC.2005.142.
               evaluation service judges the effectiveness of knowledge    [2]   F Berman, “From teragrid to knowledge grid”, Communication of the
               discovery, the efficiency of knowledge management and             ACM, Volume 44, Issue 11, Nov. 2001, pp. 27 - 28.
               the level of knowledge sharing.                             [3]   Hai Zhuge, China's e-Science Knowledge Grid Environment, IEEE
                                                                                 Intelligent Systems, Volume 19, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2004, pp. 13 - 17 ,
           G. Knowledge application                                              doi: 10.1109/MIS.2004.126587919.
                                                                           [4]   Hai Zhuge, The knowledge grid environment, IEEE Intelligent
               Knowledge application means activating knowledge,                 Systems, Volume 23, Issue 6, Nov.-Dec. 2008, pp. 63-71, doi:
           making the knowledge adopted and becoming the basis of                10.1109/MIS.2008.111.
           study or research, and creating a higher knowledge value for    [5]   H. Zhuge, “A Knowledge Grid Model and Platform for Global
           organizations and their own. For the education organization,          Knowledge Sharing”, Expert Systems with Applications, 22 (4)
           knowledge application is the process of using available               (2002), pp. 313-320, doi: 10.1016/S0957-4174(02)00019-2.
           knowledge to solve practical problems, such as the              [6]   Yu He and Weidong Zhu, “Knowledge Management in education: the
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           learning, and course learning. Knowledge application can be           May 2008, pp. 62, doi: CNKI:SUN:XWLL.0.2008-05-057.
           summarized in two aspects: on the one hand, Knowledge           [7]   Shipin Chen and Jianping Zhang, “Architecture of adaptive learning
                                                                                 supporting system based on EAHAM”, E-education Research, China,
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           create new knowledge products. On the other hand, the           [8]   Mingzhuo Liu and Qinzhu Zhang, “Inspiration of knowledge
           knowledge will be repeatedly applied in the educational               management in knowledge management in education”, China
           practice, which often can achieve that educators expand their         Educational Technology, China, Dec. 2003, pp. 17-20, doi:
           reserves of knowledge, improve their own levels of theory             CNKI:ISSN:1006-9860.0.2003-12-005.
           and practice to.

				
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