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					Smart Temperature Sensor Performance Survey: June 29, 2011

Kofi Makinwa, Delft University of Technology, k.a.a.makinwa@tudelft.nl

The purpose of this survey is to identify trends and limits to the performance of smart temperature
sensors, i.e. sensors with a"Smart output.
Also see: K.A.A. Makinwa, digital Temperature Sensors in Standard CMOS,” Procedia Engineering, pp. 930 – 939


For use in publications and presentations please cite this survey as follows:
K.A.A. Makinwa, "Temperature Sensor Performance Survey," [Online]. Available: http://ei.ewi.tudelft.nl/doc

Resolution - measure of the noise present in the sensor's output. Usually specified as an rms value in
°C obtained after a particular conversion time.
Samples - the number of measured samples
Trim - this column gives the number of temperatures at which the sensor was trimmed.
                                               σ
Max Inaccuracy - worst-case temperature error (inaccuracy) over a specified temperature range. The
specified values are either min/max or double 3 values. Since this is a statistical measure, this
parameter requires measurements on several samples.
Relative Inaccuracy (%) - 100*Max Error / Specified temperature range

Ts - Conversion time

Isy - typical current consumption at room temperature (RT)
Vsy - minimum supply voltage at which the sensor meets its inaccuracy and resolution specs
Power - average power dissipated during the specified conversion time

FOM1 = Energy/Conversion * Resolution^2
FOM2 = Energy/Conversion * (Relative inaccuracy)^2

Note about products: The power dissipation of a product typically includes that of its bus interface, a
contribution which is not included in most academic publications. Also, products have to be trimmed
rapidly, which leads to greater inaccuracy. For these reasons, products tend to have have higher
ineering, pp. 930 – 939, Sept. 2010.



://ei.ewi.tudelft.nl/docs/TSensor_survey.xls
   Source     Year Month      Title          Author       Type      ADC        Tech. [mm] Area [mm2]
S&A           1989   6                  G.C.M. Meijer BJT Duty-cycle             Bipolar
                         A three-terminal intergrated temperature transducer with microcomputer interfacing
Datasheet     2005   7   SMT160-30          Smartec       BJT Duty-cycle
JSSC          1996   6   Micropower CMOS TemperatureBJT
                                          Bakker, A.                SD1            2.0
                                                            Sensor with Digital Output        1.5
JSSC          1998   7   A Switched-Current, Switched-Capacitor Temperature Sensor in 0.6-µm CMOS
                                           Tuthill, M     BJT       SAR            0.6       3.32
ESSCIRC       1999   9   A High-Speed CMOS On-Chip Temperature Sensor
                                             Luh, L       BJT       SD2            0.6       0.11
ESSCIRC       1999   9   A low–cost high–accuracy CMOS smart temperature sensor
                                          Bakker, A.      BJT       SD1 σ          0.7        3.0
ISCAS, [1]    2001   5   A high-accuracy temperature sensor with second-order curvature correction and digital bus inter
                                           Pertijs, M     BJT       SD1            0.7      2.8, [3]
JSSC          2005   2   A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a 3 Inaccuracy of 0.5°C2.5, [3] to 120°C
                                           Pertijs, M     BJT       SD2            0.5       from -50
JSSC          2005                         Pertijs, M     BJT       a 3σ           0.7      4.5, -55°C
                    12 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor With SD2 Inaccuracy of ±0.1°C From [2] to 125°C
JSSC          2005                         Pertijs, M     BJT       a 3σ           0.7      4.5, -55°C
                    12 A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor With SD2 Inaccuracy of ±0.1°C From [2] to 125°C σ
IEICE TR.     2008   1   A CMOS Smart Thermal Sensor BJT Σ SD2 Application
                                            Lee, H-Y σ     for Biomedical         0.18      1.0, [3]
ISSCC         2009   2   A CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with a Batch-Calibrated Inaccuracy of ±0.25°C (3 ) from –
                                            Aita, A.L.    BJT       SD2           0.7       4.5, [2]
JSSC          2009  12 A 1.05V 1.6mW, 0.45oC 3 H
                                        Lakdawala, Resolution
                                                          BJT       based        0.032       0.02
                                                                    SD2 Temperature Sensor with Parasitic Resistance
ISSCC         2010   2                      Souri, K
                         A CMOS Temperature Sensor with an Energy-Efficient Zoom ADC and an Inaccuracy of ±0.25°C
                                                          BJT      ZSD1           0.16
                                                                                   σ         0.26
JSSC          2010   2   A System-on-Chip EPC J
                                              Yin, Gen-2 Passive UHF RFID Tag 0.18 Embedded Temperature Sensor
                                                          BJT        SS           with      1.1, [3]          σ
ISSCC         2010   2   A 1.2V 10µW NPN-Based Temperature Sensor with a 3 Inaccuracy0.10
                                        Sebastiano, F BJT           SD1          0.065        of ±0.2°C from –70°C to 12
ESSCIRC       2010   9   A 0.12mm2, 7.4uW Micropower Temperature Sensor with an Inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3 ) from -30
                                            Souri, K      BJT      ZSD1           0.16       0.12

JSSC          2005      8    A Time-to-Digital-Converter-Based CMOS TDC Temperature Sensor
                                               Chen, P.       MOS      Smart       0.35        0.175
MST           2006      4    An accurate CMOS delay-line-based smart temperature sensor for low-power low-cost systems
                                                Chen, C       MOS      TDC         0.35         0.09
CICC          2008      9    An ultra low powerLin, Y.S.
                                                 1V, 220nW temperature sensor for passive wireless applications
                                                              MOS      FDC         0.18         0.05
ISSCC         2009      2    Dual-DLL-Based CMOS K
                                                Woo, All-Digital Temperature Sensor0.13Microprocessor Thermal Monitoring
                                                              MOS      DLL          for         0.12
Sensors J.    2009     12    A Time-Domain Sub-Micro Watt MOS
                                               Chen, P.                TDC         0.35         0.40
                                                              Temperature Sensor With Digital Set-Point Programming
TCAS          2009     12    A 405-nW CMOS M.K. Law
                                               Temperature Sensor based on Linear MOS Operation
                                                              MOS      TDC         0.18
                                                                                      σ        0.032
TCASII        2010      2    Full Passive UHF TagVaz a TemperatureFDC
                                                 A. With      MOS                  0.35        0.084
                                                                        Sensor Suitable for Human Body Temperature Monit
JSSC          2010      3                      Chen, P.       MOS SAR TDC           3           0.60
                             A Time-Domain SAR Smart Temperature Sensor with a0.35inaccuracy of -0.4°C~+0.6°C over a
ISCAS         2010      5    Miniaturized CMOS thermal sensor array for temperature gradient measurement in microproces
                                                K. Luria      MOS      FDC         0.09       0.00375
JSSC          2010      6    A Sub-uW Embedded CMOS Temperature Sensor for RFID Food Monitoring Application
                                               M.K. Law       MOS      TDC         0.18        0.042
S&A           2011      1    Low-power temperature-to-frequency converter consisting of subthreshold CMOS circuits for inte
                                                K. Ueno       MOS      FDC         0.35         0.08
TCAS          2011      6    All-Digital Time-Domain Smart Temperature SensorWith an Inter-Batch Inaccuracy of 0.7°C - 0.
                                               Chen, P.       MOS      FDC      0.18/0.22        NA
ESSCIRC       2011      9    A Precision DTMOST-based temperature ZSD1
                                                Souri, K      MOS     sensor       0.16         0.12

JSSC          2010      1    Silicon Resonator Based 3.2uW Real Time Clock with ±10ppm Frequency Accuracy
                                             Ruffieux, D   Res      FDC          0.18      0.044
VLSI          2011      6    A 80kS/s 36µW Resistor-based Temperature Sensor using BGR-free SAR σ
                                               Wu, C-K     Res      SAR          0.18       0.18 ADC with a Unevenly

ISSCC         2008      2    A CMOS Temperature-to-Digital ConverterSD1 an Inaccuracy of ±0.5°C (3 ) from –55°C to 125
                                           Vroonhoven, C TD            with      0.7          2.3                     σ
JSSC          2009      7                 Kashmiri, S. M
                             A Temperature-to-Digital Converter Based SD1 Optimized Electrothermal Filter
                                                             TD       on an      0.7          2.3                     σ
ISSCC         2010      2                  Vroonhoven, Temperature Sensor with an Untrimmed0.18
                             A Thermal-Diffusivity-Based C TD         SD1       0.18           Inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3 )
                                                                                                σ
ISSCC         2010      2    A Thermal-Diffusivity-Based C TD
                                           Vroonhoven, Temperature Sensor with an Untrimmed0.18
                                                                      SD1       0.18           Inaccuracy of ±0.2°C (3 )
Transducers   2011      6                  Vroonhoven, C TD           SD1     0.5 SOI
                             An SOI Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Temperature Sensor with ±0.6°C (3 2) Untrimmed Imaccuracy
[1] Precision Temperature Sensors in CMOS technology, M.A.P. Pertijs, Kluwer               Note: bold numbers are calcu
[2] Including bondpads                                                                     Note: red numbers indicate stat
[3] Including digital backend
             Samples     Trim PP Err. [°C] Min. [°C] Max. [°C]   Isy [uA]   Vsy [V]   Res [K]   Ts [ms] Rel. IA [%]
                           1      1.0        -20       100          200        4       0.100     1000       0.8
                  ?        1      2.4        -45       130         160.0      4.8      0.005       20       1.4
                  3        1      2.0        -40       120          25.0      2.2      0.625       20       1.3
                  6        1      2.0        -55       125        1250.0      2.7      0.250     0.03       1.1
                  5        1      5.4         15       120                    3.3      0.180     0.01       5.1
                112        0      3.0        -40       120        100.0       3.0      0.250      250       1.9
                 32      batch    3.0        -50       125        100.0       2.8      0.125      100       1.7
                 32        1      1.0        -50       120        130.0       2.7      0.030      100       0.6
                 24        1      0.2        -55       125         75.0       2.5      0.010      100       0.1
                 24        1      0.2        -55       125         75.0       2.5      0.002     1000       0.1
                16.0       1      0.2          0        80         97.0       1.8      0.025       20       0.3
                 16        1      0.2        -55       125         25.0       2.5      0.025      100       0.1
                750        0      9.0        -10       110                    1.1      0.150     0.83       7.5
                 16        1      0.5        -40       125         6.0        1.5      0.018      100       0.3
                  9        1      1.6        -20        30                    1.0      0.350       40       3.2
                 16        1      0.4        -70       125         8.3        1.2      0.030      455       0.2
                 19        1      0.4        -30       125         4.6        1.6      0.015      100       0.3

                 25        2        1.6          0        100       3        3.3       0.080      500       1.6
                 16        2        1.2        -40         60                3.0       0.090      200       1.2
                  5        2        4.6          0        100      0.2       1.0       0.100      100       4.6
                  5        1        4.1          0        100                1.2       0.660      0.20      4.1
                 20        2        2.0          0         75                3.0      0.5000     50.00      4.1
                  4        2        1.8          0        100      0.4       1.0       0.300        1       1.8
                  3        2        0.2         35         45                2.1       0.035    100.00      2.0
                 23        2        1.0          0         90      11.1      3.3       0.092      500       1.1
                 20        2        1.2         20        130     700.0      1.3       0.200       0.1      1.1
                  9        2        1.8        -10         30               0.5, 1     0.200       30       4.5
                  3        1        2.8         10         80      4.5       2.2       0.100       10       4.0
                 20        1        1.3          0        100                2.5       0.133        1       1.3
                 20        1        0.8        -55        125      4.7       1.6       0.033      200       0.4

                 55        1        4.5         0          50     30.0        1.0      0.040      7.5       9.0
                  5        1        1.0         0         100     20.0        1.2      0.250    0.0125      1.0

                 16        0        1.0        -55        125     1000        5.0      0.05      3030       0.6
                 16        0        1.4        -55        125     1000        5.0      0.05      6250       0.8
                 16        0        0.4        -55        125     1667        1.8      0.02      6250       0.2
                 16        0        0.8        -55        125      741        1.8      0.03      6250       0.4
                16.0       0        1.2        -70        170      700        5.0      0.04      1000       0.5
Note: bold numbers are calculated values
Note: red numbers indicate state-of-the-art performance



                                                          1.3
  uW         nJ      FOM1      FOM2
8.0E+02   8.0E+05   8.0E+03   5.6E+05
7.6E+02   1.5E+04   3.8E-01   2.9E+04
5.5E+01   1.1E+03   4.3E+02   1.7E+03
3.4E+03   8.4E+01   5.3E+00   1.0E+02
2.9E+03   2.9E+01   9.4E-01   7.7E+02
3.0E+02   7.5E+04   4.7E+03   2.6E+05
2.8E+02   2.8E+04   4.4E+02   8.2E+04
3.5E+02   3.5E+04   3.2E+01   1.2E+04
1.9E+02   1.9E+04   1.9E+00   2.3E+02
1.9E+02   1.9E+05   7.5E-01   2.3E+03
1.7E+02   3.5E+03   2.2E+00   2.2E+02
6.3E+01   6.3E+03   3.9E+00   7.7E+01
1.6E+03   1.3E+03   3.0E+01   7.5E+04
9.0E+00   9.0E+02   2.9E-01   8.3E+01
2.4E+00   9.6E+01   1.2E+01   9.8E+02
1.0E+01   4.5E+03   4.1E+00   1.9E+02
7.4E+00   7.4E+02   1.7E-01   4.9E+01

1.0E+01   5.0E+03   3.2E+01   1.3E+04
1.5E+00   3.0E+02   2.4E+00   4.3E+02
2.2E-01   2.2E+01   2.2E-01   4.7E+02
1.2E+03   2.4E+02   1.0E+02   4.0E+03
9.0E+00   4.5E+02   1.1E+02   7.6E+03
4.1E-01   4.1E-01   3.6E-02   1.3E+00
1.1E-01   1.1E+01   1.3E-02   4.4E+01
3.7E+01   1.8E+04   1.6E+02   2.3E+04
9.1E+02   9.1E+01   3.6E+00   1.1E+02
1.2E-01   3.6E+00   1.4E-01   7.3E+01
1.0E+01   1.0E+02   1.0E+00   1.6E+03
1.8E+02   1.8E+02   3.1E+00   3.0E+02
7.5E+00   1.5E+03   1.6E+00   3.0E+02

3.0E+01   2.3E+02   3.6E-01   1.8E+04
2.4E+01   3.0E-01   1.9E-02   3.0E-01

5.0E+03   1.5E+07   3.8E+04   4.7E+06
5.0E+03   3.1E+07   7.8E+04   1.9E+07
3.0E+03   1.9E+07   7.5E+03   9.3E+05
1.3E+03   8.3E+06   7.5E+03   1.6E+06
3.5E+03   3.5E+06   4.8E+03   8.8E+05
Data for constant FOM lines

FOM1 =nJ°C^2           0.2       0.02

       nJ              °C         °C
    1.0E+06         4.47E-04   1.41E-04

     1.0E-01        1.41E+00   4.47E-01



FOM2 =nJ%^2            50         1

       nJ              %          %
    1.0E+06         7.07E-03   1.00E-03

     1.0E-01        2.24E+01   3.16E+00
                         1.0E+08


                         1.0E+07


                         1.0E+06
Energy/Conversion [nJ]




                         1.0E+05


                         1.0E+04


                         1.0E+03


                         1.0E+02       BJT
                                       MOS
                         1.0E+01       Res
                                       TD
                         1.0E+00       0.2 nJ*K²
                                       0.02 nJ*K²

                         1.0E-01
                               0.001                0.010   Resolution [K] 0.100   1.000
                         1.0E+08
                                                                 BJT
                         1.0E+07                                 MOS
                                                                 Res

                         1.0E+06                                 TD
                                                                 50 nJ*%²
Energy/Conversion [nJ]




                                                                 1 nJ*%²
                         1.0E+05


                         1.0E+04


                         1.0E+03


                         1.0E+02


                         1.0E+01


                         1.0E+00


                         1.0E-01
                                0.10        1.00
                                       Relative Inaccuracy [%]              10.00

				
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