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					Applying Wipe-on Oil Based and Gel Oil Based Finishes
  Attributes of Oil Based Finishes - Selecting Your Finish
  Surface Preparation
  Application of Gel Oil Based stains
  Application of Wipe on Liquid Oil Based Stains
Oil based gel products require different application techniques than liquid oil based finishes - both produce equally
beautiful, lustrous wood tone finishes. Use the information below to assist you in selecting the best finish for your project
and finishing style. There are several factors that may influence your choice.

Note: these are general instructions to guide you through the finishing process using water based products. Always refer
to the manufacturer's specific instructions. Application guidelines for each manufacturer may vary.

Attributes of Oil Based Finishes -Selecting Your Finish

 Wipe-on         Wipe-on liquid oil based products are made with high quality urethane resins. They are as durable as
 Liquid Stains   polyurethane, but because of their thinner viscosity, urethanes are much easier to apply. Liquid oil based
 and Top         stains penetrate more deeply into the wood than gel oil based stains or water based products and will
 Coats           bring out more variation in the in the wood. You will see rich variations of light and dark tones in the grain,
                 but knots and natural irregularities will also be accentuated. Liquid oil based stains apply rapidly and
                 easily, do not require as much removal of excess product as gel stains do, and come "alive" beautifully
                 when top coated. If speed of application is important to you, choose a liquid oil based stain. Many soft or
                 porous woods, like pine, fir, spruce (soft) and maple, alder and aspen (porous) have a tendency to absorb
                 stain unevenly. Treating the wood surface with a pre-stain wood conditioner helps prevent streaking and
                 blotching to help ensure a beautiful, even stain. Visit our Tips on Choosing Wood Furniture for more
                 information or just use the fingernail test. If your fingernail dents the surface, you have a soft wood, like
                 pine or aspen.

 Gel Stains      Unlike liquid stains, gel stain are thick. Gel Stains give such immediate satisfaction and have a very high
 and Top         "touch" factor during the finishing process. Due to their high urethane content, applications of Gel Stain
 Coats           respond with a high luster sooner than liquid oil based stains which must be top coated. And they do not
                splash, drip or run. However, this high urethane content also increases the viscosity, requiring more wiping
                away of excess product during the staining process. If you prefer "rubbing" and polishing a finish on, gel
                stain is for you. The stain itself contains top coat material and may be used as a one can finish. We
                recommend applying 2-3 coats. Additional coats will give even more protection. For maximum durability,
                apply Gel Top Coat over Gel Stain.
 Top Coat       Oil based top coats have a slight amber color. Water based top coats dry to a clear finish.
 Color

 Clean Up       Use mineral spirits or paint thinner for clean up.

 Dry Time       Oil based products dry more slowly than water based products. Dry time is 6-8 hours under ideal
                conditions (70% - 75% humidity). Cooler temperatures or higher humidity may extend the time needed for
                drying up to 12-24 hours or longer. Basements, even with a furnace, fireplace, and dehumidifier, are the
                worst environments for drying. Provide good ventilation and air movement with a fan to greatly improve dry
                time. If a stain coat is dry, you should be able to wipe your hand across the surface without feeling any
                tackiness. If your top coat is dry, sanding will produce a white powder.

 Cure Time      Let your final coat cure for a period of 14 days to reach optimum hardness. You may use your project
                sooner, just treat it with special care during the curing period.
 Coverage       200 square feet per quart.
 Fading         The sun affects everything! If left in strong sunlight, the materials in all stains will fade like everything else
                does in the sun.
 Disposal       When using oil based finishes, take careful precautions when disposing of waste products. Rags, steel
                wool or other waste soaked with these products may spontaneously catch fire if improperly discarded.
                Never leave application materials indoors. Immediately after use, place rags, steel wool or waste in
                sealed, water filled, metal container. Dispose of in accordance with local fire regulations.

 Mixing        You can create a unique color by mixing any two shades of oil based wood stains, or by layering one color
 Custom        over another. Be sure to write down exactly how much of each color is used and mix enough to complete
 Colors        the entire project. Do not mix oil based products with water based products.
Surface Preparation (for more tips regarding supplies, preparation of the wood and your work area, visit our
Preparation and Sanding page.

 Remove all hardware, doors and drawers.
 All surfaces should be clean and free from all dirt and oils.
 Fill all nail holes with putty before sanding. There are two methods: 1. Fill holes before you stain using putty that dries
       hard and can be sanded and stained, or 2. Stain the wood, apply one GF Top Coat, and then use colored putty
       that matches the stain.
 Good prep sanding is absolutely essential to achieving a good finish! Prepare the surface by using medium paper first,
       and then proceed to finer grades. For softwoods such as pine, aspen, or alder, sand first with a #120 grit
       sandpaper, and finish sanding using #150 or #180 grit sandpaper. For closed grained hardwoods such as Oak,
       Maple or Birch, start with #100 sandpaper and finish with no finer than #120 sandpaper. Never start sanding with
       very fine sandpaper on unfinished wood.
 Remove all the dust by vacuuming or wiping with a lint-free cloth or tack cloths. End-grains (areas where the wood has
       been cut against the grain), such as the front side of a table, tend to soak up more stain than other surfaces. Give
       end-grain areas an additional sanding to control the absorption of stain. Refer to our sanding tutorial on the
       preparation page for more information.
Application of Wipe-on Gel Oil Based Stains

Caution: If finishing an unassembled piece of furniture prior to assembly, care must be taken to avoid getting stain on the
areas of the joints. Glue will not stick to surfaces that have finish on them.
                       Always stir contents of the can before and during use.
                       Using a cloth, foam brush or paint pad applicator, apply a liberal amount of Gel Stain to the area of
                       raw wood you are working. Divide your project into sections: drawer front, table or cabinet top, side of
                       chest, etc. Keep the area wet with product while applying. Wipe away the excess with clean cloths and
                       rub out the stain until the color is even, applying light pressure with your hand until the first layer of
                       stain evens out in color. The first coat of any stain looks unpromising. Take heart, the beauty of the
                       wood will come alive as you add subsequent layers of color and top coats.
                       Additional coats of stain may be applied for a deeper, richer color. This photo shows a second
                       coat of stain being applied over the first coat.
On the second or third coats of stain, wipe off the excess stain using a clean cloth in the direction of
the grain. Again, apply light pressure with your hand until the color is evened out, finishing with a
polishing motion in the direction of the grain.
Keep extra wiping cloths nearby as you work, replacing them as needed until you remove all
excessGel Stain. Be sure to remove all rag marks and smudges, turning and changing cloths as
needed. Several thin coats will give a better result.
Continue to turn the cloth to a clean side as you work. On your last few passes across the surface,
use a light, brisk, polishing motion, continuing to work in the direction of the grain. When you achieve
the depth of color desired, it is time to move on to top coats.
Tip: Use an old dry bristle brush to remove stain buildup from the corners of molding, bead board,
etc. Protect the places you are handling the piece with a clean dry cloth. Protect the wet surfaces of
any pieces that need handling by holding the piece with a clean dry cloth.
Sanding between coats of any stain or top coat is called Buffing. Even though gel stain contains top
coat material, we do not recommend buffing between coats of Gel Stain because you may remove
an area of stain that cannot be re-blended. One of the benefits of using Gel Stain is that less buffing is
required than for other products. The process of wiping off Gel Stain products leaves less stain on the
surface for dust to settle into. If you must buff because you have imperfections that need to be
smoothed out, do so with caution using a superfine sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.
Although not required, for maximum durability, finish off your piece with Top Coat. Rub on top coat
with a cloth, paint pad or foam brush. Shown here: application using paper toweling.
When applying Top Coats, your application process turns into a very light, brisk polishing motion with
long light sweeping strokes, as the Top Coats glide along the smoother surface of the previous stain
coats. Several thin coats will give the best result.
Buff lightly between each top coat with a super fine sanding pad or #320 sand paper. Do not buff
the final Top Coat. Sanding pads are far superior to sand paper as they form around moldings and
corners and they last a long time. We like using a well-worn pad on the last few coats of top coat to
promote a fine finish. Tip: If your super fine sanding pad is new, use it on raw wood first when working
with the finalfinish coat.
Vacuum or wipe clean after buffing each layer of top coat.
                     Remember, do not buff the last coat of Gel Top Coat - just start admiring your work.


Application of Wipe-on Liquid Oil Based Stains

1. Staining

A. Wipe-on Liquid Oil Based Stains contain colored pigments that often settle to the bottom of the can and must be
       thoroughly mixed before application. It may take as much as five minutes to thoroughly mix the contents of the can
       so that the color remains consistent as the contents are used up.
B. Do a test first on the back, bottom or other inconspicuous area of the furniture to check the stain color before
       proceeding. If the stain looks evenly coated and you like the look, one coat staining is adequate. If the stain is too
       light or uneven, a second coat of stain may be needed before the topcoat is applied.
C. Apply using a foam brush, bristle brush, paint pad applicator, or a lint-free cloth such as an old T-shirt.
D. Stain one surface at a time. As you stain each area, remove excess stain by wiping with a clean cloth. It is important
       to wipe off the stain thoroughly and consistently (in the direction of the grain) to get an evenly stained surface.
E. If a darker or deeper color is desired, allow the first coat of stain to dry for 24 hours, then apply a second coat of stain
       in the same manner as the first. Never buff a stain coat, only top coats.
2. Optional Pre-Stain Wood Conditioner

Pre-stain wood conditioners are specifically designed for use before staining new or bare soft and porous wood surfaces
such as with Aspen or Pine. It penetrates the grain of the wood to promote uniform acceptance of stain, andhelps prevent
streaking and blotching to help ensure a beautiful, even stain. Prior to staining, apply a liberal coat of a pre-stain wood
conditioner. Allow it to penetrate for 5-15 minutes, then wipe away the excess with a cloth. For highly absorbent woods,
you can then apply a second coat, wait, and wipe away the excess again. Allow the pre-stain to dry for 30 minutes before
applying stain, but no longer than 2 hours.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Pre-sealing with the wood with Pre-Stain Wood Conditioner will lighten the color of your stain so
test the stain color before starting. A second coat of stain may be applied after the first coat has dried to achieve a
darker color.
3. Applying Top Coats

Apply the top coat with a lint-free cloth, foam brush, or paint pad applicator, moving with the direction of the grain. For
large surfaces, apply a liberal coat as quickly as possible, evening out the surface with long, smooth strokes, keeping
your applicator wet to provide lubrication. A dry applicator can drag on the surface and may cause streaks. (These
streaks may be easily removed after the surface has dried by buffing well and recoating). Buff between top coats with
'0000' steel wool or #320 or finer grade sandpaper to produce a smooth surface. A minimum of 3 top coats is
recommended.



Applying Water Based Finishes

Note: these are general instructions to guide you through the finishing process using water based products. Always refer to the
manufacturer's specific instructions. Application guidelines for each manufacturer may vary.

Attributes of Water Based Finishes
This information has been developed to assist you in selecting the best finish for your project. Application techniques differ between oil
based and water based products. There are several factors that may influence your choice.

Strong, clear       Nothing produces beautiful colors better than water based finishing products. Red, blues and greens and
vibrant colors      everything between produce vibrantly in water based finishes. Whether you want brilliant hues to enhance
                    a neutral room, a touch of whimsy or the comfort of classic colors; furniture color is the perfect venue for
                    self expression. With unfinished furniture, the possibilities are endless.

Top Coat Color      Water based top coats are milky white in the can and dry to a crystal clear finish. Oil based top coats
                    have a slight amber color.

Clean Up            Water clean up.
Non-              Water based products are non-combustible, unlike oil based products.
Combustible

Recommended       Water based products are a topical finish. We recommend using them on any woods that penetrate
finish for open   easily, such as pine or aspen, to produce a more even looking finish. Conversely, oil based stains tend to
grained woods     penetrate the wood more, and can bring out more variation in the final result. With that said, remember
                  you are applying finish to parts of a tree, and every piece will look different! Click here for a wood
                  species chart (14.7 kb pdf) or just use the fingernail test. If your fingernail dents the surface, you have a
                  soft wood, like pine or aspen.

                  The sun affects everything! If left in strong sunlight, the pigments and dyes in stains will fade like
                  everything else. Water based furniture paints are an ideal exterior product and hold color quite well over
                  time.

Grain Raise       Water based products produce more grain raising than oil based finishes - they do require a different
                  finishing technique. Before applying the finish, spray the project with water or rub down
                  with a damp cloth. Allow the wood to dry and then sand lightly to remove the raised grain.
                  This conditions the wood to accept water based finishes. You will get a perfect finish by following the
                  application instructions. The amount of grain raising is dependent on the type of wood species.

Fast Dry Time     Water based products dry faster so your project can be completed faster. Dry times are temperature and
                  humidity dependent. In hot temperatures (85F - 100F) the finish may dry too fast. Use an Extender to
                  open (increase) the dry time. High humidity can cause finishes to take longer to dry but will not harm the
                  final finish.

Temperature       Water based finishes must be applied at temperatures above 65 F. Cooler temperatures will adversely
                  affect how the finish will level and harden, causing fish-eyes or craters. If it is cold enough to wear a
                  sweater it is too cold to apply a water based finish. The surface of the wood should also be warm.
                  Warming cold finish by setting the can in some hot water for 5 minutes will improve the ease of
                  application.
Mixing Custom      You can create unique colors by mixing any two shades of water based products. Be sure to write down
Colors             exactly how much of each color is in the mix and mix enough to complete the entire project. Tinting may
                   be accomplished by adding 10 to 20% Stain to Top Coat. Do not mix water based products with oil based
                   products.

Cure Time          Allow the final Top Coat to cure for a period of 14 days to reach optimum hardness. You may use your
                   furniture sooner. Just treat it with special care during the curing period.

Maintenance        To maintain the finish clean surface with a damp washcloth and wipe dry. Cleaners such as Pledge and
                   Murphy's Oil Soap are not recommended because they leave a dull residue on the finish. Polishes such
                   as orange oil work well for routine maintenance.

Spraying           While both oil based and water based products can be sprayed, water based products really spray like a
                   dream with water clean up. Water based topcoats are self leveling and dry quickly.


Surface Preparation

     For more details regarding preparation, supplies, work area tips, etc. visit our Preparation page.

F. All surfaces should be clean and free from all dirt and oils.
G. Do NOT start sanding with very fine sandpaper on unfinished wood. Sanding is a progressive procedure. Prepare the surface by using
    medium sand paper first, and then proceed to finer grades. Water based finishes need a smoother surface than oil based finishes, but
    do not over sand or you may seal the wood so much that it will not take a finish. Sand raw wood in the direction of the grain starting with
    a coarser grit sand paper such as #120 sandpaper, and finish the final sanding with a fine grit sandpaper such as #220. End-grains
    (areas where the wood has been cut against the grain), such as the front side of a table, tend to soak up more stain than other surfaces.
    Give end-grain areas an additional sanding to control the absorption of stain. Refer to our sanding tutorial for more information.
H. We recommend minimizing the grain raise, especially on hardwoods such as Oak and Ash. Before applying the finish, spray the project
    with water or rub down with a damp cloth. Allow the wood to dry and then sand lightly to remove the raised grain. This conditions the
    wood to accept water based finishes.
I. Option for wood stains: Soft woods such as Pine andAspen absorb wood stain at an uneven rate and may respond better to staining if
    the wood is pre-sealed. A natural (clear) stain can be applied to raw wood to condition the surface for uniform penetration of the stain.
    Pre-sealing will cause the final stain to be lighter. Always test your color on a hidden part of the furniture! Allow the natural clear stain to
    dry 1 hour before applying your final stain color.
J. Unfinished furniture comes sanded from the factory, but still needs the final sanding with #180 or #220 sandpaper.
K. Remove dust with an air hose, damp cloth or "oil free" tack cloths. Do not use oil based tack cloths when using water based finish. Most
    tack cloths contain oil and will contaminate the surface.
L. Do NOT use steel wool when preparing wood for water based finish, as steel particles will cause rust spots.

Supplies Needed

  Lots of good quality paper towels or lint-free cloths for wiping.
  Foam brushes (3" to 4" for big projects) or latex paint pad applicators and a bristle brush to pull stain out of corners. You must brush or
       wash paint pad applicators before use to remove loose bristles.
  #100 or #120, and #180 or #220 grit sandpaper for sanding raw wood.
  #320 grit sandpaper or superfine sanding sponges for buffing between Top Coats. Do not use steel wool because steel particles left
       behind will rust.
  Soap and water for clean up.

Application of Water Based Wood Stains



  Always stir the contents well every time you open the can. Stirring reduces the thickness of the stain and distributes pigments that may
       have settled to the bottom of the can. It may take several minutes to thoroughly mix the contents so that the color remains consistent
       as the contents are used up.
  Always do a test firston the back, bottom or other inconspicuous area to check the stain color before proceeding. Do not practice on
       your new furniture. Every piece of wood and every wood species is unique and will finish differently. If the stain looks evenly coated
       and you like the look, one coat of stain is adequate. A second coat, applied after the first one is dry, will give you a darker and deeper
       color.
  Divide your project into manageable sections (top, side, drawer, door) and stain one surface at a time. It is essential to apply with a wet,
       liberal amount of stain. Load up a 3" or 4" foam brush or latex paint pad with product and apply LIBERALLY, keeping the surface
       wet with product until you are ready to wipe that section off. If too little stain is used, the surface can dry too quickly causing an
       uneven appearance. As you stain each section, remove excess stain by wiping with a cloth or paper towel thoroughly and
       consistently in the direction of the grain. Check for missed spots and lap marks before moving to the next section. Immediately
       correct lap marks by rewetting the area with stain. Sanding between coats of any stain or Top Coat is called Buffing. Never buff
       between stain coats.

Application of Water Based Furniture Paint and Glaze

Water based Furniture Paints can be used with glazes and water based stains to create decorative finishes such as distressing, antiquing,
faux marble, rag rolling, or color washing. Creating these layered techniques requires using layers of color combined with sanding
techniques. The results are stunning and well worth the effort.

Distressing is the technique of marking the wood to give the character of generations of use. The most common technique is distress
sanding. Other tools can be used to give further character to wood; hammers, nails, screws, old hardware, literally anything you can pound
into the wood that would leave an imprint. Then start hammering away. If it's been a long week and you need a lift, start a little character
therapy project for yourself. Get rid of all that stress and distress a piece of furniture at the same time!

Antiquing is another form of distressing using sanding techniques, often followed by glazing to give the appearance of an antique piece of
furniture that has been well taken care of over the years but, has slight natural wear and discoloration on the doors, edges, or sides.

Glazing is the process of applying a translucent color to the surface, and then rubbing off the excess glaze.

In the following examples, several layers of Furniture Paints, Glazes and Top Coats are combined in the tradition of old world craftsmen to
create unique decorative finishes in any color palette. The process goes fast as water based finishes dry much more quickly than oil based
finishes. Choose from more designs available at our Creative Decorative Finishes Showroom or create your own.



1. Two coats of an orange     1. Two coats of a light      1. Two coats of a light    1. Two coats of a red       1. Two coats of a dark red
red furniture paint sanded    green furniture paint.
 2.   brown furniture paint      furniture paint
 2. Water   furniture paint
 2. Water
through
 2. Water based top   Water based top coat to      sanded through
 2. Water   based top coat to prevent   based top coat to prevent
coat to prevent color             prevent color blending
 3.   based top coat to prevent    color blending
 3. One or      color blending
 3. Dark
blending
 3. Yellow               White glaze
 4. Final top    color blending
 3. Brown     two coats of a green           water based wood Stain
 4.
glaze
 4. Final top coats         coats                        glaze
 4. Final top coats    furniture paint sanded         Final top coats
                                                                                            through
 4. Yellow glaze
 5.
                                                                                            Final top coats

Applying Furniture Paints



 Always test the color on the underside of the project. It is your responsibility to insure that the color is what you want. Do not practice on
       your new furniture!
 Always stir the contents well. Stirring distributes pigments that have settled to the bottom of the can.
 Application is somewhat similar to applying latex paint; working quickly is helpful. It is essential to apply a wet, liberal coat with a wide
       foam brush or paint pad applicator. If too little paint is used, the surface can dry too quickly causing an uneven appearance.
 A minimum of two to three coats of paint is recommended.
 If using different colors of water based furniture paint over one another (for example, when creating antique finishes), always apply a coat
       of water based Top Coat in between the layers of paint to prevent color blending.
 Buff lightly between each coat of furniture paint with either a superfine sanding sponge or #320 sandpaper. The final Top Coat does not
       need to be buffed.
 Apply one or two coats of water based Top Coat for added durability or to increase sheen.
Applying Glazes



                                                                                                      Reddish Brown Glaze
White Glaze over off-       Yellow Glaze over off-    Red Glaze over off     Brown Glaze over off-                              Black Glaze over off-
                                                                                                     over off-white Furniture
white Furniture Paint       white Furniture Paint    white-Furniture Paint   white Furniture Paint                              white Furniture Paint
                                                                                                              Paint

  Always test the color on the underside of the project. It is your responsibility to insure that the color is what you want. Do not practice on
      your new furniture!
  Always stir the contents well. Stirring distributes pigments that have settled to the bottom of the can.
  Recommendation: Before applying glaze you have the option of Top Coating first, which will help you control the amount of color and
      facilitate the spreading of glaze over the surface. The Top Coat layer is smoother and less absorbent, allowing the glaze to slide
      across the surface. If you want a rustic look with more color, skip the Top Coat layer and apply the glaze directly to the paint.
 Pour Glaze into a small flat pan, paper plate covered with aluminum foil, or painter's tray. Using a foam brush or paint pad, working one
      section at a time, apply Glaze liberally (really slather it on), keeping the surface wet until the entire section is covered with glaze.
      Option: If you have already distress-sanded your furniture, you can lightly rub Glaze just into the sanded areas to give your piece a
      little more color, instead of glazing the entire piece.
 Wipe off excess with a lint free cloth to achieve the desired look. Application is somewhat similar to applying latex paint; working quickly is
      helpful. If necessary, mask off smaller sections around raised areas such as bead board and moldings. Glazes dry fairly quickly, so
      plan your sections before beginning. The glaze will color any sanded areas and give the painted sections an aged look. Visit the
      Finish Room for a step-by-step description of a glazing project with photos.
  Recommendation: Before applying glaze you have the option of Top Coating first, which will help you control the amount of color and
      facilitate the spreading of glaze over the surface. The Top Coat layer is smoother and less absorbent, allowing the glaze to slide
      across the surface. If you want a rustic look with more color, skip the Top Coat layer and apply the glaze directly to the paint.
 Let dry 2-4 hours.
 Apply one or two coats of Top Coat for added durability or to increase sheen.
Application of Water Based Top Coats

  Water based topcoats are milky white in the can but will dry to a crystal clear finish. Stir contents well to insure that all the ingredients are
      mixed together. Failure to do so may produce an inconsistent finish.
  Apply with a foam brush, a latex paint pad applicator, or by spraying.
  Apply water based Top Coats liberally using smooth even strokes working in the direction of the grain. Use enough material to provide a
      wet film. Do not over brush. Water based Top Coats self level beautifully.
  On most projects three coats of Top Coat is just right. On projects receiving extra wear, such as table tops, additional coats will provide
      more protection.
Top


olor is one of the most fulfilling elements in our lives. Color can attract your attention or change your mood and is one of the first things you
notice when you walk into a room. Is it any wonder that color, and how you use it, is one of the most important decorating decisions you'll
make in your home? Inside your home, specialty color furniture finishes give you an opportunity to give voice to your personality and décor.
Decorative or faux finishes are easy to create. Read on to learn more about distressing, marble effects, color washing, ragging and wood
graining on any piece of furniture! These techniques are often effective when added as a simple finishing touch to a piece of furniture,
perhaps just on the top, drawer front, or door panel.

                       Distressing is the technique of marking wood to mimic the character of generations of use. The most
                       common form is distress sanding. Other tools can be used to give further aging dimension to wood;
                       hammers, nails, screws, old hardware, literally anything you can pound into the wood that would leave
                       an imprint. This look: Black Furniture Paint sanded off.

                       Antiquing is a another form of distressing using sanding techniques combined with glazing or a
                       second color- giving the appearance of an old piece of furniture that has been well taken care of over
                       the years but has slight natural wear on the doors, edges, or sides. For more design ideas (PDF),
                       click here. The look of distressing and antiquing is enhanced on furniture with moldings and raised
                       panels. This look: Off white Furniture Paint over Dark Green Furniture Paint.

                       Glazing is the process of applying a translucent color to the surface, and then rubbing off the excess
                       to create decorative effects. Often called "color washing" or "burnishing", Glaze will put a "wash of
                       translucent color" over the base color underneath. Click here to see more samples of this
                       technique (PDF). When Glaze is applied with techniques such as sponging, ragging or Strie', more
                       unique looks can be achieved. This look: Red Furniture Paint sanded off, followed by a yellow Glaze.

                       Sponging or Color Washing is the process of applying a translucent color to the surface, and then
                       pouncing the Glaze with a dampened sea sponge or soft cloth. To achieve an aged patina, apply an
                       additional lighter Glaze over a darker Glaze.

                       Strie' (Dragging) The word strie' is French, meaning to comb through the Glaze mixture with dry
                       dragging tools such as a brush, in order to create fine lines and to reveal the base coat color
                       underneath. This look: Reddish Brown Glaze over Yellow Furniture Paint.

                       Wet Color Blending This free form wet-finish application is known for its subtle variations in color
                       and soft natural glow. Supremely versatile, it can be adapted to any piece of furniture. This look: Red
                       Furniture Paint diluted with water based Top Coat over White Furniture paint.
                       Marble Effects is a timeless decorative finish that adds interest to furniture. When creating marble
                       effects, keep it "real". Choose surfaces that realistically would be made of marble, such as table or
                       dresser tops. This look: White Furniture Paint or Wood Stain with a Black Furniture Paint or Wood
                       Stain.

                       Pickling is simply applying a light color stain to wood; then wiping off the stain to let the color of the
                       wood show through. This look: Off-white Wood Stain wiped off.

                       Crackle technique adds a beautiful, worn elegance to any piece of furniture. When used with water
                       based Wood Stains or Furniture Paints, the crackle medium contracts, fracturing the top stain coat
                       and exposing the base coat beneath. Within minutes, you can duplicate the effects of years of natural
                       weathering. Perfect for that special touch- just crackle the drawer fronts or door panels for a
                       weathered, aged look. This look: A pale yellow Furniture Paint over off-white Furniture Paint. For
                       more Crackle samples in a printer friendly version, click here. (PDF)

                       Antique Wood Graining Also known as "faux bois", wood graining is a timeless wood finish that
                       adds warmth and beauty to any piece. This look: a dark water based wood stain over a brick red
                       Furniture Paint.

Note: these are general instructions to guide you through the decorative finishing process using water based products.
Always refer to the manufacturer's specific instructions. Application guidelines for each manufacturer may vary. Visit our
section applying water based finishes for basic application instructions. Always follow the usual instructions for
preparation of the wood. We recommend using a practice board to preview your technique and color combinations
before beginning your project.

Distressing and antiquing with Furniture Paints and Glazes

In the following 5 examples, several layers of Furniture Paints, Glazes and water based Top Coats are combined in the
tradition of old world craftsmen to create unique, distressed looks in any color palette. The work goes fast as water based
finishes dry quickly. Choose from any of following designs or create your own. Click here for more antiquing designs
and color suggestions (PDF). The look of distressing and antiquing is enhanced on furniture with moldings and raised
panels.
1. One coat of a dark brown 1. Two coats of a Red          1. Two coats of a Red Furniture   1. Two coats of dark Blue      1. Two coats of a Brown
Wood Stain
 2. One coat of Furniture Paint
 2. One coat Paint
 2. One coat of Top Coat       Furniture Paint
 2. One coat   Furniture Paint
 2. One coat
Top Coat to prevent color    of Top Coat to prevent color to prevent color blending
 3.      of Top Coat to prevent color   of Top Coat to prevent color
blending
 3. Two coats of a blending
 3. Two coats of a Two coats of an Off- White           blending
 3. Two coats of a    blending
 3. Two coats of a
Beige Furniture Paint sanded Yellow Furniture Paint sanded Furniture Paint sanded            Beige Furniture Paint sanded   Black Furniture Paint sanded
through
 4. One or two coats through
 4. One or two coats through
 4. One or two coats of    through
 4. One or two coats   through
 4. One or two coats
of Top Coat                  of Top Coat                   Top Coat                          of Top Coat                    of Top Coat

  The look of distressing and antiquing is enhanced on furniture with moldings and raised panels, so choose your piece
       accordingly.
  Start by working on a test board first to perfect your skills and see an example of what your finished project will look like.
       Do not practice on your new furniture.
  Paint on a coat of your selected Furniture Paint color.
  Let dry and add a second coat.
  Buff between coats with #220 sandpaper or superfine sanding sponge.
  Apply a layer of water based Top Coat. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours before applying Glaze. The Top Coat
       causes the Glaze to slide on the painted surface and allows more open time to wipe the Glaze off. Optional: For a
       heavily glazed look, skip this Top Coat layer.
  Using coarse #100-#120 grit sandpaper, sand edges of raised panels, doors, drawers and corners of cabinet all the way
       through to bare wood. Sand heavily for a more rustic look.

Distressed Sanding

                             Do not use an orbital sander on flat surfaces, as the Glaze will pick up any imperfections in sanding,
                                 particularly the circular motion of orbital sanders.
                             Hand sanding is usually preferred. However, if you are experienced, you may carefully use an orbital or
                                 other power sander to sand corners and edges to expose the raw wood. Then finish with hand
                                 sanding. Practice first to test your skills.
                             Sand the areas you want antiqued with a power sander using #100 grit sandpaper to enhance edges,
                                 corners, around door knobs, etc. The look you are trying to obtain is a slightly distressed piece, so
                              don't hold the sander in one spot too long.
                         Do one side at a time.
                         After you have finished a section, wipe it down with a lightly damp cloth to remove dust and reveal the
                              bare wood or base coat of finish underneath, creating the look of slightly worn areas. Be careful not
                              to sand too hard after you have wiped a section with the damp cloth. Sanding damp finish will cause
                              more paint to come off. Gradually sand all areas.
                         After you have completed initial sanding with a power sander, finish by hand sanding the edges, corners,
                              and moldings using either a #220 gray foam sanding pad or #400 grit sandpaper.
                         Think about where extra wear would be from using the door knobs, etc. You will notice as you sand that
                              different pressures expose varied amounts of undercoat. The doors of furniture get the most wear,
                              so open and close the doors and take notice of where your hands are. Imagine over time how much
                              the areas are used and touched. This should help you decide what areas need to be more
                              distressed.
                         If your piece has a lot of flat surfaces, additional hand sanding on random areas of the surface will give
                              final look more character.
                         If you are working with bead board and moldings, it is not necessary to sand flat surfaces heavily. The
                              moldings and bead board will pick up the Glaze, increasing the depth of color and character.
Glazing
M. Pour Glaze color into a paper plate covered with aluminum foil or painter's tray. Working one small section at a time,
       apply the Glaze liberally (really slather it on) with a foam brush or paint pad over entire section.
N. Wipe off excess with a lint free cloth to achieve desired look. The Glaze will color your sanded areas and give the
       painted sections an aged look.
O. If you want to rework a section, simple re wet the working surface with Glaze.
P. Work quickly, so that the Glaze color does not dry before finishing a section.
Q. Let dry 2-4 hours. Apply water based Top Coat for additional durability or to increase sheen.
The following Glaze finishes are interesting to use on an entire piece or just a drawer front or door panel. All of the
following techniques require the same basic process as above. The difference is in how the Glaze is applied and
removed.


Sponging or Color Washing (additive technique)
                      This is the process of applying a translucent color to the surface, and then pouncing the Glaze with a
                      dampened sea sponge or soft cloth. To achieve a more aged patina, apply an additional Glaze layers.

Start by working on a test board first to perfect your skills and see an example of what your finished project will look like.
     Do not practice on your new furniture.
Work in sections, masking where appropriate. If working with panels of molding and bead board, treat those areas as
     sections, masking them off.
Paint on a base coat of your selected Furniture Paint color.
Let dry and add a second coat.
Buff between coats with #220 sandpaper or superfine sanding sponge.
Apply a layer of water based Top Coat. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours before applying Glaze. The Top Coat
     allows the Glaze to slide on the painted surface and increases the open time to work with the Glaze. Option: For a
     heavily glazed look, skip the Top Coat layer.
Work quickly, so that the Glaze color does not dry before finishing a section.
Dip a water-dampened sea sponge into the Glaze color or brush the Glaze color onto the sea sponge. Bunched up
     plastic wrap or dry paper bags can be used instead of a damp sea sponge.
Blot excess Glaze color onto a clean rag.
Apply the Glaze color by blotting/pouncing the sponge onto the surface until the desired affect is achieved. Option:
     working with three colors - a base color, a Glaze color darker than your base color, and a third, deeper Glaze color
     - will result in a look with richer color depth. Allow each Glaze layer to dry.
Turning or rotating the sponge will create a random look. Do not squeeze the sponge or push down too hard onto the
     surface. You may experiment with a bunched up cloth to vary the texture.
Re-apply the Glaze color onto the sponge as necessary.
Continue applying the technique, blending the completed area into the newest section to avoid distinct, overlapping
     lines. Always maintain a wet edge as you work across the surface. (The edge or end of a wet, coated area that is
     still workable and will blend easily).
Option: For a more textured look, experiment with a large paint brush to apply the Glaze mixture. Use a crisscross
     motion to brush the mixture onto the furniture in random strokes. Finish this technique by feathering out any harsh
     brush strokes, lightly sweeping over what you have done with a clean dry brush.
Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
     sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.
Ragging On (additive technique)

 Start by working on a test board first to perfect your skills and see an example of what your finished project will look like.
      Do not practice on your new furniture.
 Work in sections.
 Paint on a base coat of your selected Furniture Paint color.
 Let dry and add a second coat.
 Buff between coats with #220 sandpaper or superfine sanding sponge.
 Apply a layer of water based Top Coat. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours before applying Glaze. The Top Coat
      allows the Glaze to slide on the painted surface and increases the open time to work the Glaze coat. Optional: For
      a heavily glazed look, skip the Top Coat layer.
 Submerge a water-dampened rag into the Glaze color and wring out the excess.
 Apply a second layer of either Glaze or furniture paint by blotting or rolling the rag onto the surface until the desired
      affect is achieved. Note: Furniture Paint colors can be inter-mixed or diluted with Top Coat to make custom colors.
 Frequently re-arrange and re-scrunch the rag to create random natural look.
 Work quickly, so that the Glaze color does not dry before finishing a section.
 Re-submerge the rag into the Glaze color as necessary.
 Continue applying the technique, blending the completed area into the newest section to avoid distinct, overlapping
      lines. Always maintain a wet edge as you work across the surface. (The edge or end of a wet, coated area that is
      still workable and will blend easily).
 Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
      sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.
Ragging Off (subtractive technique)

  Start by working on a test board first to perfect your skills and see an example of what your finished project will look like.
       Do not practice on your new furniture.
  Work in sections.
  Paint on a base coat of your selected Furniture Paint color.
  Let dry and add a second coat.
  Buff between coats with #220 sandpaper or superfine sanding sponge.
  Apply a layer of water based Top Coat. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours before applying Glaze. The Top Coat
       allows the Glaze to slide on the painted surface and increases the open time to work the Glaze coat. Optional: For
       a heavily glazed look, skip the Top Coat layer.
 Liberally apply a second layer of either Glaze or Furniture Paint by blotting or rolling the rag onto the surface until the
       desired affect is achieved. Note: Furniture Paint colors can be inter-mixed or diluted with Top Coat to make custom
       colors.
 Using a rolled/scrunched rag, dab or roll the wet Glaze color, starting from the edges of the section. This technique will
       reduce "distinct or hard lines" on the surface.
 Frequently re-arrange and re-scrunch the rag to create a random and natural look.
 Work quickly, so that the Glaze color does not dry before finishing a section.
 If the rag becomes overloaded with Glaze, rinse out the rag.
 When applying the Glaze color to the next section, blend the completed area into the newest section to avoid hard,
       overlapping lines. Maintain a wet edge as you work across the surface. Continue applying the technique, blending
       the completed area into the newest section to avoid distinct, overlapping lines. Always maintain a wet edge as you
       work across the surface. (The edge or end of a wet, coated area that is still workable and will blend easily).
 Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
       sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.

Strie' or Dragging

                       The word strie' is French, meaning to comb through the Glaze mixture with dry dragging tools such as a
                       brush, in order to create fine lines and to reveal the base coat color underneath. This look: Reddish Brown
                       Glaze over Yellow Furniture Paint.

 Start by working on a test board first to perfect your skills and see an example of what your finished project will look like.
      Do not practice on your new furniture.
 Work in sections.
 Paint on a base coat of your selected Furniture Paint color.
 Let dry and add a second coat.
 Buff between coats with #220 sandpaper or superfine sanding sponge.
 Apply a layer of water based Top Coat. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours before applying Glaze. The Top Coat
      causes Glaze to slide on the painted surface and allows open time to work the Glaze coat. Optional: For a heavily
      glazed look, skip the Top Coat layer.
 Liberally apply a second layer of either Glaze or furniture paint by blotting or rolling the rag onto the surface until the
      desired affect is achieved. Note: Furniture Paint colors can be inter-mixed or diluted with Top Coat to make custom
      colors.
 Using a dry brush, lightly drag the bristles down (in one direction through the wet Glaze Color).
 Maintain a dry brush by wiping with a cloth rag after each pass.
 Continue applying Glaze and dragging until the surface is complete.
 Work quickly, so that the Glaze color does not dry before finishing a section.
 For a denim or woven look, allow the dragged surface to dry 20 minutes, then lightly apply a thin coat of Glaze color
      over the dragged surface while dragging the brush horizontally across.
 When applying the Glaze color to the next section, blend the completed area into the newest section to avoid hard,
      overlapping lines. Maintain a wet edge as you work across the surface. Continue applying the technique, blending
      the completed area into the newest section to avoid distinct, overlapping lines. Always maintain a wet edge as you
      work across the surface. (The edge or end of a wet, coated area that is still workable and will blend easily).
 Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
      sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.

Marble Effects

                      This is a timeless decorative finish that adds interest to furniture. When creating marble effects, keep it
                      "real". Choose surfaces that realistically would be made of marble, such as table or dresser tops. Marble
                      effects work best on closed grain woods such as pine, maple, birch, aspen, or alder. If you use "open-
                      grain" woods, such as oak, the distinct, visible grain of these woods will show through the background of
                      the marble, and distort the look. Use your imagination! In nature, there are no two pieces of marble exactly
                      alike. If you don't like the results simply paint over and start again. This look uses a white Furniture Paint
                      or Wood Stain with a Black Furniture Paint or Wood Stain.

Materials needed:

 A white water based Stain or Furniture Paint          Lint free cloth (old T-shirt)
 A black water based Stain or Furniture Paint          Feather
 Water based Top Coat                                    220-400 grit sandpaper
 Natural sponge                                          Foam brushes or latex paint pad applicator
 Apply 2 coats of white water based Stain or Furniture Paint to get a solid background.
 Allow each coat to dry for 2 hours. Then lightly sand the surface to a smooth finish using a super fine foam sanding pad.
 Dip the tip of the feather in a black water based Stain or Furniture Paint and draw the marble veins on the surface in a
      diagonal direction. Use a slow, twisting motion with the feather as you drag the color across the surface. Veins
      should look like lightning bolts or tree branches, each vein roughly parallel to the one next to it. Avoid a crisscross
      pattern. Veins should continue from edge to edge. Allow the veins to dry for 5 minutes.
 Pour equal parts of a white water based Stain or Furniture Paint and water based Top Coat into a paper plate covered
      with aluminum foil or painter's tray.
 Dip the dampened sponge into this mixture and then blot the excess on a paper towel.
 Apply the mixture color by blotting/pouncing the sponge onto the surface until the desired affect is achieved. Lift the
      sponge - do not drag it. The sponge will soften the veins, covering them slightly. Let this dry 5 minutes.
 Next, fold a cloth into a pad making sure there are no wrinkles on the bottom side. Wrinkles will leave an undesirable
      pattern on the surface. A latex paint pad applicator can also be used. Blot the entire surface with the clean
      applicator by pouncing the surface, lifting the pad straight up and down, blending the black veins into the white
      background.
 Using the black color, lightly accentuate the veins again with the feather. Allow this to dry 2 hours.
 Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
      sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.

Wet Color Blending

                       This free form wet-finish application is known for its subtle variations in color and soft natural glow.
                       Supremely versatile, it can be adapted to any piece of furniture. This look: Red Furniture Paint diluted with
                       water based Top Coat over White Furniture paint.

 Apply a base coat of color water based Wood Stain or Furniture Paint. While the first color is still wet, immediately apply
     a second color over the base color.
 Then brush out the two colors using a dry bristle brush. This will blend the two colors to create a softer shade with
     interesting texture.
  Let the piece dry and apply two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine
       foam sanding pad 320 sandpaper.
A second method of color washing:
  Apply a base coat of colored water based Wood Stain or Furniture Paint. Allow this to dry.
  Apply a layer of water based Top Coat to prevent color blending. Allow the Top Coat to dry 2 to 4 hours.
  Apply a second color. While the second color is still wet, wipe off corners, edges of moldings etc. to reveal the color
       layer underneath.
  Let the piece dry and apply two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine
       foam sanding pad.

Pickling

                       Pickling is simply applying a light color stain to wood; then wiping off the stain to let the color of the wood
                       show through. The most popular Pickle color is white, however any color can be used. This look: Off-white
                       Wood Stain wiped off.

 Apply any water based Wood Stain and wipe off as much as you want while letting the wood grain show through the
       stain. The look you want to achieve is a soft subtle color.
 Let the piece dry and apply two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine
       foam sanding pad.
Another pickling method is the French Provincial look which requires two stain coats.
 First apply a light color Wood Stain and let dry for 2 hours.
 Then apply a coat of water based Top Coat and let dry for 2 hours.
 Finally add the look of age by applying a wash coat of white stain. Push the White into the edges of raised panels or
       into detail areas such as carvings.
 Wipe off the stain from the other areas and let dry.
 Finish by applying two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine foam
       sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.

Crackle
                      This technique adds a beautiful, worn elegance to any piece of furniture. When used with water based
                      Wood Stains or Furniture Paints, the crackle medium contracts, fracturing the top stain coat and exposing
                      the base coat beneath. Within minutes, you can duplicate the effects of years of natural weathering.
                      Perfect for that special touch- just crackle the drawer fronts or door panels for a weathered, aged look.
                      This look: A pale yellow Furniture Paint over off-white Furniture Paint. For more Crackle samples in a
                      printer friendly version, click here. (PDF)

 Use a Crackle medium with water based Wood Stains or Furniture Paints to produce a weathered, aged look. The
      Crackle contracts when a water-based stain is applied over it. As the Crackle contracts, it fractures the top stain
      coat and exposes the base coat beneath.
 You will need two base colors (water based Wood Stain or Furniture Paint), crackle medium and water based Top Coat.
 Begin with a base coat of either water based Wood Stain or Furniture Paint. This will be the color that shows through
      the cracks. Let this base coat dry for 2 hours. It is not necessary to sand this coat.
 Apply Crackle with a foam brush or latex paint pad. A thin application produces thin cracks, and thicker application
      produce wider cracks. Let the crackle dry overnight.
 Then brush on a relatively thick coat of your chosen second color. Do not over brush - just make one pass. The
      cracking effect will begin in minutes.
 Let the piece dry and apply two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine
      foam sanding pad or #320 sandpaper.

Antique Wood Graining

                       Also known as "faux bois", wood graining is a timeless wood finish that adds warmth and beauty to any
                      piece. This look: a dark water based wood stain over a brick red Furniture Paint.

 Buy a graining comb or you can create one by beveling the end of a piece of corrugated cardboard with a razor knife.
      This will expose the ripples in the cardboard.
 Apply 2 coats of the base color, allowing them both to dry.
 Then sand the surface with #320 or finer grade sandpaper or superfine foam sanding pad.
 Apply a layer of water based Top Coat to prevent color blending.
 Allow each coat to dry for 2 hours.
  Apply a heavy coat of a dark water based Wood Stain directly over the base color with a poly foam brush or latex paint
       pad. Allow the stain to set for 5 minutes.
  Drag the comb across the stain to remove most of the top layer of color, allowing the base color to show through. The
       result will look like wood grain. You can purchase commercial graining combs from craft supply stores to create a
       different look.
  To create knots, dip a small foam brush in the dark secondary color, and twirl the end of the foam brush on your piece
       in random places of the grain.
  Let the piece dry and apply two or three coats of water based Top Coat, sanding in between coats with a super fine
       foam sanding pad.

Spraying Finishes
Surface Preparation

    For more details regarding preparation, supplies, work area tips, etc. visit our preparation page.
    All surfaces should be clean and free from all dirt and oils.
    Do NOT start sanding with very fine sandpaper on unfinished wood. Sanding is a progressive procedure. Prepare the surface by using medium sand paper fi
and then proceed to finer grades. Water based finishes need a smoother surface than oil based finishes, but do not over sand or you may seal the wood so much
it will not take a finish. Sand raw wood in the direction of the grain starting with a coarser grit sand paper such as #120 sandpaper, and finish the final sanding w
a finer grit sandpaper such as #220. End-grains (areas where the wood has been cut against the grain), such as the front side of a table, tend to soak up more stai
than other surfaces. Give end-grain areas an additional sanding to control the absorption of stain. .
    We recommend minimizing the grain raise, especially on hardwoods such as Oak and Ash. Before applying the finish, spray the project with water or rub d
with a damp cloth. Allow the wood to dry and then sand lightly to remove the raised grain. This conditions the wood to accept water based finishes.
    Option: Soft woods such as Pine and Aspen absorb stain at an uneven rate and may respond better to staining if the wood bas been pre-sealed. A natural (cl
stain can be applied to raw wood to condition the surface for uniform penetration of the stain. Pre-sealing will cause the final stain to be lighter. Always test you
color on a hidden part of the furniture! Allow the natural stain to dry 1 hour before applying your final stain color.
     Unfinished furniture comes sanded from the factory, but still needs the final sanding with #180 or #220 sandpaper.
    Remove dust with an air hose, damp cloth or “oil free” tack cloths. Do not use oil based tack cloths when using water based finish. Most tack cloths contain
and will contaminate the surface.
    On woods such as oak and ash, pre-wet the wood with a damp cloth to raise the grain before final sanding. Allow the dampened wood to dry 30 minutes befo
the final sanding. This will provide a smoother final finish.
    Do NOT use steel wool when preparing wood for water based finish, as steel particles will cause rust spots.
Spray Application of Water Based Top Coats

R. Water Based Top Coats are ready to spray from the container. Thinning is not necessary. However, in hot climates, an extender can be used to increase the o
   time.
S. Water Based PolyAcrylic can be sprayed with HVLP systems or conventional sprayers. If you are using a sprayer that has been used for oil based or lacquers
   clean the unit thoroughly and rinse with warm water before using. Apply a thin coat first that will dry and harden faster. Sand this first coat down to a smooth
   base on which to build your finish coats. With water based finishes it is better to spray 2 thin coats rather than 1 heavy coat.
T. Practice makes perfect! If you have never sprayed finishes before, take a large piece of cardboard and practice your technique first. Spray water on the cardb
   to learn how the gun works. Check your fluid settings and adjust the controls to get comfortable with the spray angles and to develop your technique.
U. Keep your gun at a 90* angle, 6-8" from the surface. On large flat areas, use wet, even patterns 6 to 8’ wide. Over lap each pass 25% to conceal lines. For na
   surfaces, reduce the fan pattern to 2-3" to reduce overspray. Break your work into sections such as dresser top or drawer fronts. Spraying too large of an area
   result in a textured grainy surface. A correctly sprayed finish should appear even and glossy. It is important to spray enough material to allow proper flow an
   leveling of the finish.
Trouble Shooting Guide for Spraying Water Based Top Coats

     Rough, dry surface. This is called dry spray. You may have sprayed too lightly. Re-sand the finish with #320 paper and apply a heavier coat. Keep your gun
6-8" from the surface.
     Dimples in the finish. This is called orange peel, caused by spraying in temperatures that are too cool. Cooler temperatures will adversely affect how the fin
will level and harden. Water based finishes must be applied at temperatures above 65 F. If it is cold enough to wear a sweater it is too cold to apply a water based
finish. The surface of the wood must also be warm. If you turn the heat on when you enter your shop in the morning, the air heats up quickly but your furniture w
still be cold for some time. Check the surface to see if it is warm. Also, check the temperature of the finish. Warming cold finish by setting the can next to a heat
setting the container in some hot water for 5 minutes will improve the ease of application. Note: Larger dimples are called "fish-eyes" or "craters". Cool
temperatures can cause these, but the more likely source is contamination of the finish with either wax or silicone.
     Blush. Blush, the term for a cloudy, milky appearance in the finish, has two causes. The most common reason is incompatible stain. For example, using a w
based top coat over a heavy oil based stain. When the top coat is applied, the oil in the stain seeps up through the finish and reacts with the acrylic causing a chem
blush. To prevent this, use a quick drying water based stain. If you choose to use oil based stain, seal the stain with a coat of shellac or lacquer sealer. This will
provide a barrier between the oil and the acrylic. Proper drying time between the oil stain and finish coats is essential! The other cause for blushing is high humi
Spraying water based finish in humidities of over 75% may cause blushing because moisture becomes trapped beneath the finish and cannot evaporate. You can
prevent this condition by increasing air movement in the finishing area with a fan. All water needs to evaporate is sufficient air movement. You can also improve
drying conditions by increasing the temperature in the drying area.
     Surface is not leveling out. In hot temperatures (85F – 100F) the finish may dry too fast. Use an Extender to open (increase) the dry time. Finishes that dry t
fast may not completely level out before all the water evaporates from the finish. High humidity can cause the finishes to take longer to dry but will not harm th
final finish.




tips on Buying Wood Furniture
We are pleased to offer the following definitions and tips for buying wood furniture.
Ready-to-finish furniture gives you a wide range of options that can meet all your furniture needs. We offer quality products from both local craftsmen and natio
manufacturers that will fit any budget.
     Definitions
     Solid Wood means that all exposed parts of the furniture are made of solid board, either softwood or hardwood lumber. No veneers or particle boards are used. W
     boards are used in furniture construction, they are glued together side by side along the edges. Often, a number of boards are used to make the wood more stable
     the chance of warping. Solid board can always be identified by following a seam to the end, where you will find the "end" grain.
     Many veneers are glued over the edges to look like solid wood, but they will always be faced on the end and show no end grain. Remember, "all-wood furniture"
     necessarily solid wood. A veneer can help you achieve the look you desire at a cost lower than solid lumber. Veneers can be overlaid on plywood or particle boa
     plywood core is lighter, less expensive and more forgiving if damaged, but it can swell if it gets wet. If damaged, particle board will often fracture because the m
     hard it cannot absorb a shock. There are three types of glue-up in most solid wood furniture:
         Plank is made of pieces that have the same length but varying widths.
         Laminated is made of pieces that have the same length and width.
         Butcher block is made of pieces with varying length but the same width.
     Veneer is a thin layer of wood applied in sheets over underlying layers of wood, plywood or particle board.
     Plywood is made of thin layers of solid wood glued over each other with grains running at 90-degree angles to produce a strong core. A veneer is often glued on
     Particle board is made by gluing chips and particles of wood together and pressing them into sheets, upon which a veneer can be glued. Hardness is determined b
     specific density of the wood, not by whether a tree is classified as a "hardwood" or "softwood."
     Hardness is determined by the specific density of the wood, not by whether a tree is classified as a "hardwood" of "softwood."
         Hardwoods come from deciduous trees. (e.g. maple, oak, alder)
         Softwoods come from conifers. (e.g. pine, spruce, fir)
     Some hardwoods, such as balsa wood, are softer than some softwoods, such as pine.
     Tips
     Drawer construction is generally a good indication of overall furniture quality. Some drawers have no guides. The lack of guides allows more "play" and can cau
     drawer to bind when it is opened and closed. Others have wood-to-wood center guides, nylon-to-wood center guides, side-mounted roller guides or center-moun
     guides.
     Roller guides and center-mounted metal guides normally have built-in drawer stops, and some have lifetime warranties for drawer operation.
     Many drawers have glue-blocks to strengthen the bottom. Most ready-to-finish chests have wood drawer bottoms not always the case with prefinished furniture.
     Now, as in the past, doweled and dovetailed drawer joints indicate a high degree of craftsmanship. However, modern machine technology, good bonding glue an
     pneumatically driven staples coated with resin have afforded savings in construction while providing durability.
Quality wood furniture purchased today can be used for a lifetime. Ask your ready-to-finish furniture dealer to show you other things to look for and the many benefit
n solid wood furniture.
     Tips on Choosing Wood for Ready-to-Finish Furniture
Wood has always been a favorite material for making furniture, and for good reason:

  Wood is available in various colors, grains and hardnesses. It can be cut and shaped into a large variety of attractive designs.
  Wood is shock-resistant and very durable, generally outlasting synthetic materials. Scratches and nicks are easy to touch up.
  Wood has lasting value. Genuine wood furniture may cost more in the beginning, but it often grows in value as it is handed down from
        one generation to another.
With ready-to-finish wood furniture, you can add other pieces at any time and match the finish something that is often not possible with
prefinished furniture.

Types of Wood

Ready-to-finish furniture is available in many types of wood, each with special characteristics. And because each tree yields lumber with its
own grain patterns and character markings, each piece of genuine wood furniture has a unique personality.

You may not be familiar with every type of wood, but all make quality furnishings of various types. Your ready-to-finish furniture dealer can
advise you about the stains and finishes to use for best results on each type. Here are the kinds of wood commonly used to make ready-to-
finish furniture.

Alder is a hardwood from the Pacific Northwest. It is very consistent in color and takes stain well. It ranks third behind oak and pine as the
wood most commonly used for ready-to-finish furniture. Alder gives the look of many fine hardwoods at a reasonable price.

Ash is a long-fibered, light-colored hardwood with a tight grain much like birch or maple. It is good for bending, takes stain well and is used
mainly for chairs and stools.

Aspen is a softer, light-colored, even-grained hardwood. It accepts most stains well, but may need a sealer or a coat of mineral spirits to
achieve an even stain. Nonpenetrating stains work best on this wood.

Beech grows primarily in the Northeast and Canada. It is a cream-colored hardwood often used for sporting equipment, such as baseball
bats. It has an open grain pattern similar to that of oak, and takes stains well.

Birch is fine-grained hardwood that grows primarily in the Northeast and Canada. White in color, it takes any color of stain well.
     Maple is especially abundant in the eastern U.S. It is a very light-colored hardwood with a very even grain texture. Eastern maples are
     generally harder than western maples because of the colder winters and shorter growing seasons. Both are very durable and take any color
     of stain well.

     Oak is the wood most commonly used for ready-to-finish furniture. It is a very hard, open-grain wood that comes in red or white varieties.
     Red oak, which has a pinkish cast, is the more popular of the two. White oak has a slight greenish cast. Both woods stain well in any color.

     Parawood from the Far East is used for much of the furniture made in that part of the world. The wood is as hard as maple or ash and
     takes a very even stain. It is yellow in color, with a grain similar to mahogany.

     Pine is a softwood that comes in many varieties from various parts of the world. In the U.S., Eastern white pine, ponderosa pine and sugar
     pine are some of the varieties used to make furniture. All have yellow coloring with brown knots and are excellent for staining. With some
     stains, a sealer helps prepare the wood to achieve a more even look.

Radiata Pine is a plantation-grown wood from South America that is harder than other pines and has fewer knots. This variety of pine has a beautiful g
pattern.
     Real Wood Furniture Finished Your Way®
     Wood … Real Wood? What’s the Difference?!

     Solid wood, all natural wood … when speaking in terms of furniture, they have one thing in common. Everything is manufactured from wood
     or and/or plywood, but particle board, (a board of bonded wood chips), is often used for the construction of unexposed backs of case pieces
     and for drawer bottoms.

     Real Wood Furniture Finished Your Way® guarantees absolutely no particle board in the manufacturing of its products. What does
     this mean to you, the consumer? Bottom line: QUALITY. It promises more solidly-constructed pieces of furniture. It’s that simple.

     Ever wonder why your grandparents’ furniture was passed down from generation to generation … and why your furniture may only hold up
     about a decade? Bottom line: LACK of quality.

     Certified retailers and manufacturers of Real Wood Furniture Finished Your Way® show a true commitment to quality craftsmanship. They
     know that the integrity of a furniture piece’s design will be upheld for the long haul, if real wood is used throughout.
Look for a certified Real Wood Furniture Finished Your Way® retailer near you to ensure you get the best quality in furniture.

    Real Wood Furniture Finished Your Way®
 Furniture craftsmanship that’s rooted in the past,
 manufactured for the present, and
                                                    destined for the future.

				
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