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Lakes surface and level variations from satellite altimetry and remote

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					Lakes surface and level variations from satellite
   altimetry and remote sensing: towards an
         international lake data centre.
    J-F. Crétaux, W. Jelinski, M. Bergé-Nguyen S. Calmant, M-C Gennero, F Nino,
                            P. Maisongrande & A. Cazenave


                 http://www.legos.obs-mip.fr/soa/hydrologie/hydroweb/




  Lakes rivers and reservoirs level variations from satellite altimetry
                    150 lakes & reservoirs, ~300 river’s virtual stations
                    Update every year
                            GCOS requirements


    ECV for large open lakes, highly ephemeral lakes, close basin lakes


Products T1.1: maps of lakes in the Global Terrestrial Network for Lakes (GTN-L)
    Gridded georef maps of 250 m spatial resolution on monthly basis for 150 lakes
    With accuracy of 5% (mainly reachable from RS imagery: MODIS, Landsat etc ..)



 Products T1.2: Lake levels of all lakes in the GTN-L list
             10 cm of accuracy and stability on weekly/monthly basis
             Time series based on radar altimetry and in-situ gauges

 Products T1.3: Surface temperature of all lakes in the GTN-L list
     Daily 0.2° accuracy and 0.1° stability with 1 km spatial resolution
                                                                    Current use of Hydroweb




Lake Victoria
                                                                                          Download
                                                                                                           Lake Victoria


                                                  1137



                                                 1136.5



                                                  1136
                L e v e l a b o v e G e o id (




                                                 1135.5



                                                  1135



                                                 1134.5



                                                  1134



                                                 1133.5
                                                      1992   1993    1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999        2000       2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008
                                                                                                                 Date (year)
                            Extended Hydroweb (SOLS), current status

  Products T1.1

   20 lakes surface water extent has been collected from:
   ASAR, MODIS, LANDSAT, CBERS, Bathymetry maps, and SRTM
   Only 4-5 images per lakes from min value to max value over historical evolution
   of each lake
   Calibration & comparison has been performed

   Products T1.2
    Radar altimetry over 150 lakes with 5 to 50 cm of accuracy depending
    Of size of the lake including ~40 lakes of the GTN-L
    Calibration through GPS campaign made over Caspian Sea and Issykkul
    Lake, and through comparison with In-Situ data (~10 lakes)

  Products T1.3

     Not planed to be calculated

Selection of maps + level from altimetry => hypsometry curve (dh/dS)
=> Reconstruction of past surface variation on weekly/monthly basis through altimetry
                                                        Lakes from radar altimetry in South America

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                R co

                                                                                                                                                                           66
                                                                                             Lake San Martin
                                                                                                                                                                          65.5

                                                                                                                                                                           65
                                                                    257
                                                                                                                                                                          64.5




                                                                                                                                                                ee m
                                                                                                                                                               l v l( )
                                                                    256                                                                                                    64

                                                                                                                                                                          63.5
                                                                    255                                                                                                    63




                                                       level (m)
                                                                                                                                                                          62.5
                                                                    254
                                                                                                                                                                           62
                                                                                                                                                                            2002.5        2003     2003.5      2004      2004.5   2005   2005.5   2006
                                                                    253                                                                                                                                         Date (year)


                                                                    252

                                                                    251                                                                            Radar altimetry allows
                                                                      2001       2002     2003    2004    2005         2006       2007     2008
                                                                                                   Date (year)                                     to monitor level
                                                                                                                                                   variations of ~10 lakes
                                              Impact of Southern Oscillation ?
                                                                                                                                                   in the Andea
                                              Impact of El Nino ?
                                              Impact of PDO ?
                                              Impact of Glaciar melting?
                                              Impact of Precipitation?
                                     Lake Argentino
                                                                                                                                                           Llanquihue
            181,5
                                                                                                                           51.4
             181
            180,5                                                                                                          51.2

             180                                                                                                            51
            179,5
                                                                                                                   vl )
                                                                                                                 le e (m
level (m)




                                                                                                                           50.8
             179
            178,5                                                                                                          50.6
             178
                                                                                                                           50.4
            177,5
             177                                                                                                           50.2
                1992   1994   1996    1998      2000               2002   2004     2006    2008                              2002.5      2003     2003.5    2004                 2004.5     2005      2005.5      2006
                                                                                                                                                              Date (year)
                                             date (year)



               Lake level monitoring is a first step towards understanding the climate impact
              on terrestrial water storage variability: needed to use additionnal RS information
                          6                            Tracks of T/P
                                                       Tracks of ENVISAT


                                                   Case study 1: Lake Poyang
                              3
 Sept 21 2004

                                  2
                     5
                                                         4
                               1           1


-Heterogeneous distribution of radar altimetry bins
-Presence of water at a time given by modis
8 years of Modis images analysed                                 Sept 14, 2006
Very few in situ data not available


                           980               163
                          Modis multispectral images
                                                                         7000


                                                                         6000


                                                                         5000


                                                                         4000




                                                         surface (km2)
                                                                         3000


                                                                         2000


                                                                         1000
                                    Modis June 2, 2004
Modis Sept 21, 2004                                                        0
                                                                           1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009
                                                                                                              Year



                      +        radar altimetry




      Possibility to estimate sub basin level and surface
      and determination of volume variation
      Comparison with in-situ in process through Dragon-II project
Sequence of 2004’s flooding on Lake Eyre   March 4      April 2




                      Flood still in
                      Goyder Lagoon

                                           April 30    June 15
                     Lake Eyre covered
                     by salt crust




   Case study 2: Lake Eyre
                   July 7                  August 7   October 10
                                                                       Topex / poseidon

                                                  -13,95




                         Height above geoid (m)
                                                     -14
                                                  -14,05
                                                   -14,1
                                                  -14,15
                                                   -14,2
                                                  -14,25
                                                   -14,3
                                                  -14,35
                                                   -14,4
                                                       2004     2004,2     2004,4    2004,6   2004,8    2005
                                                                              Date (Year)


                                                                       Topex / Poseidon

                         -13,95
Height above Geoid (m)




                            -14
                         -14,05
                          -14,1
                         -14,15
                          -14,2
                         -14,25
                          -14,3
                         -14,35
                          -14,4
                                                   2004       2004,2      2004,4     2004,6    2004,8     2005
                                                                             Date (Year)                                                                 Surface of free water from MODIS

                                                                                                                                          2500




                                                                                                                 Surface of water (km2)
                                                                    Topex / Poseidon                                                      2000

                          -13,9
Height above Geoid (m)




                                                                                                                                          1500
                         -13,95
                            -14                                                                                                           1000
                         -14,05
                          -14,1                                                                                                           500

                         -14,15
                                                                                                                                            0
                          -14,2
                                                                                                                                             2004 2004,1 2004,2 2004,3 2004,4 2004,5 2004,6 2004,7 2004,8 2004,9
                         -14,25
                                                                                                                                                                        Date (year)
                          -14,3

                                                                                                                                                 ΔV on lake Eyre ~0.5 km3
                                                  2004,3 2004,4 2004,5 2004,6 2004,7 2004,8 2004,9        2005
                                                                             Date (year)
                                                              Case study 3: Aral Sea

                            From altimetry + bathymetry = > variation of surface
                                     North Aral                                                                                                                                                            Surface deduced from Altimetry+bathymetry

                                                                                                                                                                                  3800
           43,5                                                      Dam Release   47.00




            43                                                                     46.50                                                                                          3600


                                                                                                                                                               65
           42,5                                                                    46.00                                                                       60                 3400
                                                                                                                                                               55
Level (m




                                                                                                                                                               50
            42                                                                     45.50
                                                                                                                                                               45                 3200
                                                                                                                                                               40




                                                                                                                                                                    surface(km)




                                                                                                                                                                                         -
                                                                                                                                                                    2
           41,5                                                                    45.00                                                                       35
                                                                                                                                                               30                 3000
                                                                                                                                                               25

            41                                                                     44.50
                                                                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                                                               15
                                                                                                                                                                                  2800
                                                                                                                                                               10
           40,5                                                                    44.00
                                                                                                                                                               5
                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                                                                                                                                                  2600
                                                                                   43.50
            40
                                   Dam                                 Dam         43.00                                                                                          2400
           39,5                                                                        58.00   58.50   59.00   59.50   60.00   60.50   61.00   61.50   62.00


              1993   1995   1997    1999      2001     2003   2005       2007                                                                                                     2200
                                                                                                                                                                                     1992    1994   1996        1998         2000       2002           2004   2006   2008
                                         Date (year)                                                                                                                                                                      date (year)




                      Direct measurement from analysis of the Modis images


                       Sept 5, 2004                                                Oct 10, 2005                                                                                                                  Sept 14, 2007




                       Sept 5, 2004
                                                         Modis / altimetry Aral surface variations

                                          20000
A lt im e t r y s u r f a c e ( k m 2 )




                                                            Correlation modis/altimetry = 0.996
                                          15000

                                          10000
                                                      Small Aral
                                                                                                     Big Aral
                                          5000                                                    White:New
                                                                                                  underwater
                                                                                                  Surface : 400 km2

                                             0
                                                  0            5000          10000           15000                20000
                                                                       Modis surface (km2)
                                                                   Case study 4: Lake Chiquita
                                    Landsat, CBERS, and modis images, In situ level,
                          radar altimetry over 15 years and laser altimetry over 5 years (Icesat)
                                         Lake Chiquita level variations
                                                                                                    Landsat 7
                  74                                                                                                                                                                        CBERS
                                  Radar altimetry                            In situ level
                  73
                                  Laser altimetry

                  72
Level (m)




                                                                                                                 May 2, 2001                                                                               June 12, 2004
                  71

                  70

                  69                                                                                   For some lakes the relation dh/dS
                                                                                                       (hypsometry) is not linear which
                  68                                                                                   Explains for Mar de Chiquita the
                                                                                                       different shape of level and surface
                       1990               1995              2000          2005               2010      variation’s plots
                                                       date (year)
                                                                                                                                                                               Hypsom etry of Lake Chiquita (Modis+L7+CBERS)
                                 Surface of Lake Chiquita                                                                                                          7000
                       7000
                                                                                                                                                                   6500




                                                                                                                          S u rfa c e (k m 2 ) fro m im a g e ry
                       6500
                                                                                                                                                                   6000
                       6000
       Surface (km2)




                                                                                                                                                                   5500
                       5500
                                                                                                                                                                   5000
                       5000
                                                                                                                                                                   4500
                       4500

                       4000                                                                                                                                        4000
                                                                                                                                                                          70         70,5        71          71,5       72     72,5
                          1990          1995         2000          2005      2010
                                                                                                                                                                                             Level (m) from altimetry
                                                    Date (yr)
                                               Case study 5: Sarykamish lake (Turkmenistan)

                                 Sarykamish level variation from satellite altimetry                                                                                     Landsat 7
                                                                                                                                      Landsat 5
      8

      7

      6

      5                                                                                Modis
level (m)




      4

      3

      2
                                                                                    May 8, 2008
      1

      0                                                                                                                                                    August 22, 2006
            1992          1994     1996     1998    2000    2002     2004    2006       2008      2010                    July 22, 1989
                                                     date (year)

                                                                                                                                    Surface variation of Sarykamish
                        Hypsometry of Lake Sarykamish (satellite
                             Altimetry / Satellite Imagery)                                                        4000
                                                                                                                   3950
                                                                                                                   3900
                       5000
                                                                                                                   3850
                                       Landsat 5&7           Modis
                                                                                                   surface (km2)



                       4500                                                                                        3800
                                      SRTM                                                                         3750
       Surface (km2)




                       4000                                                                                        3700
                                                                                                                   3650                                         SRTM,
                       3500                                                                                        3600                                         Feb 15, 2000
                                                                                                                   3550
                       3000                                                                                        3500
                                                                                                                      1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004   2006   2008   2010
                              -6 -4 -2 0           2 4     6 8 10 12 14 16 18
                                                                                                                                                  date (year)
                                                     Level (m)
                                       Landsat 5                                                                   CBERS                                                               CBERS
                                          S = 7870 km2                                                             S = 7887 km2                                                             S = 7999 km2
                                          H = 3810.58 m                                                            H = 3811.13 m                                                            H =3811.62 m




       1                                                                              2                                                                       3

       Sep 4 2005                                                                Sep 20 2004                                                               May 10 2004
                                        Titicaca level variations from satellite altimetry

              3812.00

              3811.50
                                                                                 1                                                                          Lake Titicaca
              3811.00                                                            2
              3810.50                                                                   3
Level (m)




              3810.00                                                                                                        Data download
              3809.50

              3809.00

              3808.50
                   1999.00   2000.00    2001.00    2002.00   2003.00   2004.00    2005.00    2006.00     2007.00   2008.00
                                                                Date (year)



                                          Titicaca, surface variation

                8020

                8000
                                                                                                                                                           Hypsometry Titicaca (Landsat 7 & CBERS)

                7980                                                                                                                            8020
 s ra e( m)
  uf c k 2




                                                                                                                                                8000
                                                                                                                                -




                7960

                7940                                                                                                                            7980
                                                                                                                                                7960
                                                                                                                                Surface (km2)




                7920
                                                                                                                                                7940
                7900
                                                                                                                                                7920
                7880                                                                                                                            7900
                7860                                                                                                                            7880
                   2 001          2002            2 003      2004         2 005        2006            2 007       2008                         7860
                                                              date (year)
                                                                                                                                                  3810,4    3810,6   3810,8   3811   3811,2   3811,4   3811,6   3811,8

                                                                                                                                                                               Level (m )
                                                                                                                                            Next phases of implementation

                                                                                                                                                              Hypsometry curve has been estimated for 20 lakes & reservoirs
                                                                                   Lake Powell                                                                150 lake levels are currently updated in Hydroweb
                                                                           Landsat & In situ           Landsat & altimetrie                                   An in situ data base is under development at SHI in St Petersburg
                                  700
                                                                                                                                                            for the Hydrloare Project (level, surface temperature, phenology
                                  600
                                                                                                                                                            of lake ice, etc.)
                                  500
               surface square K




                                  400
                                                                                                                                                            ⇒ Extraction of RS images for all lakes in the GTN-L list
                                  300                                                                                                                       ⇒ Comparison of in situ level in the frame of cooperation with
                                  200                                                                                                                       Official Hydrolare data centre (under the support of WMO)
                                  100                                                                                                                       ⇒ Estimation of hypsometry of each lake
                                   0                                                                                                                        ⇒ Participation in the Hydrolare steering comitee
                                                                                                                                                            ⇒ New pages on the web site and NRT product delivery for lakes
                                   1085         1090         1095         1100       1105          1110          1115          1120           1125   1130
                                                                                         water level [m]

                                                                                                                                                            level, surface, and volume variations

                                                                                                                                                            ⇒ Regular Updating of data centre web pages in the frame of
                                                                                 Lake Mead                                                                  Hydrolare project:
              700                                                                                                                                           Delivery of various products & information from RS and In situ
              650                                                                                                                                           Data, for each lakes of the GTN-L (and also others)
              600
                                                                                                                                    SRTM + alti
              550                                                                                                                                                                                               Lake Oahe
Surface (km




                                                                Landsat 5 + Radar alti
              500                                                                                                                                                                 60
              450
                                                                                                                                                                                  50
              400
                                                                                                                                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                  Surface (km2)




              350

              300                                                                                                                                                                 30
                 330                      335          340          345           350            355           360            365           370      375
                                                                                     Level (m)                                                                                    20


                                                                                                                                                                                  10


                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                  1570   1575   1580   1585   1590     1595      1600   1605   1610   1615   1620
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level (m)

				
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