59638_Women and مع ترجمة الكلمات

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59638_Women and مع ترجمة الكلمات Powered By Docstoc
					       Women and the State in Early Islamic
                By: Dr.Nabia Abbott
    Nabia Abbot, the first woman faculty member of
the Department of Oriental Languages and the
Oriental Institute of University of Chicago. She came
to Chicago in 1933 and became Professor Emeritus
in 1963.
Nabia Abbott traveled far to reach the Oriental
Institute. Born in Mardin (southwest Turkey) on 31
January 1897, she when still a child, traveled with
her family in covered wagon with a caravan of
nomad horsemen down to Mosul, sailed down the
Tigris to Baghdad, and later through the Persian Gulf
to Bombay (1907). She went to English schools, took
and passed the overseas senior of the university of
Cambridge (1915). but stayed in India during World
War I. She was granted the A.B. degree with honors
(1919) from the University of Allahabad. Then she
was called on to start up a program about women's
education in Iraq. From there she followed her family
to Boston (1923). She obtained her A.M at Boston

University (1925). She then joined the faculty of
Asbury College in Wilmore, Kentucky, where she
taught first in the department of education and later
become head of the department of History (1933).
When her family moved to Chicago, she was
attracted by the courses offered to her by Professor
Martin Sprengling, then Professor of Arabic in the
Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures
and the Oriental Institute. She became Researcher
Associate (1933-37) , Assistant Professor (1938 -43)
, Associate professor (1943), and Professor of
Islamic Studies (1949 -63). She became Professor
Emeritus in 1963. She died in 1964.

"Women and the State ( ‫ ) الدولة‬in Early Islam"
 i.    Mohammed and the first four Caliphs
Students of Islam readily (‫ )بسهولة - بيسر‬concede ( ‫يُسلم بـ‬
 ‫ )- يُزعن‬that Mohammed contributed (‫ )قزدم‬something
toward the general improvement of the position of
the Arab woman of his day, but a considerable ( ‫جزدير‬
‫ )بالمالحظة‬difference of opinion exists (‫ )يقزوم - يتواجزد‬as to
the real motive ( ‫ ,)دافز‬extent (‫ ,)حزد‬and significance
(‫ )داللة - أهمية‬of his contribution (‫ .)إسهام‬Such differences
of opinion will continue to prevail (‫ )يسزود - ينتشزر‬so long
as scholars (‫ )باحث‬and the world at large ( – ‫بصورة نامة‬
 ‫ )حزر – مُطلز السزرا‬hold so many varied ( - ‫متنزو – تفزاو‬
‫ )تغيزر‬and contradictory (         ‫ )متنزاق‬estimates ( - ‫اسزتنتاجا‬
 ‫)تقزززديرا‬   of   the   personality      and     character    of
Mohammed himself; and at present there is no
indication of a convergence (‫ )نقطة اإللتقاء - التقارب‬toward
a unified (‫ )موحزد‬presentation (‫ )تقزديم‬of this Messenger
of Allah to countless ( ‫ )ال حصزر لز‬millions of human-
beings-white,       yellow,   brown,       red,    and    black.
However ( ‫ ,)نلززأ أ‬most, students of the life of
Mohammed- recognize two distinct (‫ )مُتميزع‬tendencies
( ‫ )ميز - هززد‬that frequently (‫ )كثيززرا - تكززرار‬conditioned

( ‫ )حزدد - قزرر‬his actions. In general, it is safe to state
that Mohammed avoided drastic innovations ( ‫االبتدانا‬
‫ )العنيفزة - المتطرفزة‬and that he tolerated ( - ‫تسزام بزـ - احتمز‬
‫ )أجاع‬and adopted (‫ )تبني‬such public and private (‫)خاص‬
practices ( ‫– الممارسزا - التطبيقزا‬    ‫ (األنرا‬as had become
well established (‫ )أنشزز - أقززام‬through long usage,
provided ( ‫ )بشزززرط – نلزززأ شزززرط – شزززريطة أ‬these were
reasonably ( ‫ )بإنصا‬compatible ( ‫ )منسجم - متناسز‬with the
cardinal (‫ )رئيسزي - أساسزي‬doctrine (‫ )تعزاليم – مزههب - نقيزدة‬of
monotheism (‫ )اإليما باهلل - الوحدانيزة‬and the requirements
( ‫ )متطلبزا - احتياجزا‬of a theocratic (‫ )دينزي‬state. Again,
one can readily (‫ )مززرارا‬cite (‫)يززهكر الشززهادة – يززورد - يززهكر‬
numerous (‫ )متعود - كثير‬incidents (‫ )حوادث‬in support ( ‫دنم‬
‫ )- مساندة‬of the widely ( ‫ )نلزأ نحزو واسز‬accepted assertion
(‫ )ت كيزززد – جزززعم - إصزززرار‬that Mohammed's legislation
( ‫ )تشزري‬was frequently (‫ )كثيزرا‬the result of a specific
(‫.)مُعي – مُمد - مُميع‬
As Mohammed's uncles Abu Lahab and Al Abbas ,
Abu Sufyan's daughter , Ramlah, better known as
Umm Habibah ,accepted the new faith and migrated
( ‫ )هزاجر‬to Abyssinia , where though ( ‫ )بزالرمم مز‬her
husband became a Christian , she remained () true

to Islam. Later she married Mohammed and stood
staunchly ( ‫ )بصزمود - بثبزا‬by him against the interests
of her father at the critical time when Abu Sufyan
was losing ground as (‫ )يخسزر‬the leader of the Makkan
opposition (‫ .)معارضة‬Sawda Bint Kuraiz (‫,)سزودة بنز قزريظ‬
maternal aunt ( ‫ )خالت‬of Uthman ibn Affan ( ‫خالة نثمزا بز‬
‫ , )نفزا مز ناحيزة األم‬was instrumental ( ‫ )كانز ها أثزر فعزا‬in
e caliph's conversion ( ‫ ,)انتنززا لززدي أو مززههب - تحززو‬the
zeal (‫ )حماسزة‬of Fatimah , sister of Umar ibn al Khattab
resulted in dramatic conversion of that stern ( - ‫صزارم‬
‫ )قاسزي‬and fiery (‫ )نزار - ملتهزب‬character whose – role in
Islam , both before and after his conversion , is in
some respects (‫الخصوص‬          ‫ )في بع‬comparable (‫ )مماثلزة‬to
that of Saul of Tarsus (‫ )شزاوو الطرسوسزي‬in Christianity
(). It was fear of the uncompromising (‫للفضزيحة‬          ‫)التعزر‬
and, at times (‫ ,)أحيانزا‬violent ( ‫ )ننز‬Umer that caused
Fatimah and her husband to keep their conversion
secret. Um Sulaim, an early converts at Madinah
and mother. of the well-known and oft-quoted ( ‫كثيزر‬
‫ )الرواية واالستشهاد – كثير رواية الحديث‬Anas ibn Malik ( ‫أنس بز‬
 ‫ ,)مالز‬is said to have repeatedly refused the hand of

Abu Talhah until he yielded to her urging to follow
Mohammed            accept Islam.
On the other hand (‫ ,)م ناحيزة أخزر – نلزأ الجانزب ارخزر‬not
all of Mohammed's cousins and aunts followed him
at first, while Abu Bakr's sisters followed their
brother's prophet only after the latter's conquest of
Makkah. Other women, of high or low degree, who
refused the new faith despite the conversion of one
or more of the men of the family, are frequently met
with in the traditions (‫- تعززاليم‬   ‫ ,)تقاليززد – أنززرا‬but they
need not detain (‫ )يعو – يحتجع - يوخر‬us here.
The freedmen (‫ )العتقزاء‬and slaves among (‫)بزي - وسزط‬
the population ( ‫ )سزكا‬did not enjoy the same extent
(‫ )حززد‬of religious liberty as did the free men and
women. Since their conversion generally entailed
(‫ )اسزتلعم‬a definite ( ‫ )محزدد - واضز‬social () and economic
loss (‫ )خسزارة‬to their patrons (‫ )أسزياد‬and owners, the
latter did not hesitate (‫ )متزردد‬to make them the object
( ‫ )موضزو‬of severe persecution (‫ ,)اضزطهاد شزديد‬resulting
(), in a few instances ( ‫ ,)حالزة - مثزا‬in martyrdom ( ‫المزو‬
‫- االستشززهاد‬   ‫ .)فززي سززبي‬The honor of being the first
martyr (‫ )شزهيد‬in Islam goes to a freedom, Sumayyah

bint Khubbat, who patiently (‫ )بالصزبر‬endured ( - ‫قاسز‬
 ‫ )تحملز‬persecution rather than ( ‫ )دو‬yield () her new
faith , and who was eventually (‫)أخيزرا – فززي رخزر األمززر‬
killed by Abu Jahl.
     Considering      ( ‫)انتبززززار أ‬   that     Khadijah            was
Mohammed's first and staunchest (‫)صززامدة - مخلصززة‬
convert (), it is not surprising that the new prophet
sensed (‫ )شزعر – أحزس بزـ‬the great influence (‫ )نفزوه‬that
women      converts     could        exert     (‫)يبزززه - يمزززارس‬    in
establishing (‫ )ت سزيس - إقامزة‬and spreading (‫)نشزر - إنتشزار‬
the new faith, He urged (‫ )حزث‬the believing women
not be lax (‫ )سه – مير صارم‬in joyful praise ( ‫.)مدي‬


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