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									Thomas Hart Benton
Stephanie, Allison, & Parker

   1. What does the quote at the beginning of the chapter mean?
        a. This quote means he despises bubble popularity because people don’t
            actually earn it for a good reason. People are just considered
            ìpopular.î ìBubbleî is used because people could out of the blue blow a
            bubble, and be ìpopular.î However, they could just pop the bubble and
            no longer be ìpopular.î
   2. Why do you think Thomas Hart Benton was courageous?
        a. He was courageous because he was against John C. Calhoun’s
            resolutions to keep congress from interfering with slavery in new
   3. What did Benton’s refusal of Calhoun’s resolution effect?
        a. It affected Benton’s popularity in his state, and he lost all of his
            committee memberships, except foreign relations.
   4. Why do you think Benton addressed a letter to Missouri?
        a. He wrote this to inform them that he doesn’t know why people are
            against him. He does know that he is an enemy of all politicians for
            slavery in new territories. He is towards the Union as is, and because
            of that Mr. Calhoun announced me as traitor in the South. Benton
            realizes people are out to get him, but many good citizens are being
            misled about who Benton really is.
   5. What was Benton’s opinion of the Great Compromise?
        a. Benton thought it was a scam and unnecessarily involving California.
            He didn’t want California to become a slave state.
   6. What would have happened if Henry Foote had shot Benton?
        a. Benton wouldn’t have gotten to vote against California. This was his
            last important act in the senate.
   7. What caused Benton to be voted out of office in 1851?
        a. He was voted out because nobody liked his opinions. Nobody wanted
            to support his beliefs in extending slavery into new territories.
   8. What affect did Benton’s act of courage have years later?
        a. His opinion on slavery prevented Missouri from withdrawing from
            the union.
By: Brandy, Craig, and Wyatt C

Q: Which compromise did he support? Which bill did he not support? And
what was the significance of this?
A: Missouri Compromise of 1820 (the compromising of slavery: no slavery above
the 36th parallel after the annexation of Missouri as a slave state). He did support it
because it allowed slavery to move out West. Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854
(repealed the Missouri Compromise: put Kansas and Nebraska up for popular
sovereignty). The Kansas-Nebraska Bill did not help the South and Houston was the
only one who did not support it because it did not help the South.

Q: What does the quote has to do with the chapter?
A: Throughout his whole political career, he was bombarded by people who called
him a traitor. However, he was able to ignore those remarks because of the fact his
decision was for the betterment of the state and the union.

Q: Why do you think that the South wanted the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, but
Houston didn’t?
A: Because it felt that it repealed the compromise of 1820, thus removing the
backbone of the constitution: the compromise, in his eyes, held the union together
allowing the Kansas Nebraska bill would cause ultimate chaos.

Q: Why did Houston suddenly abandon civilization at the height of his
A: He discovered that his marriage was actually fake: his wife was forced to marry
him by a desperate father, but she loved another. He went to live with the
Cherokees and returned several years later

Q: Why do you think Sam Houston didn’t run under a party in the 1857
governor of Texas election?
A: To regenerate the politics of the state and he felt that in order to present the right
beliefs you had to develop then off personal and moral beliefs instead of just
following the standards of that party. Needed change.

Q: Why do you think Sam was denounced as a traitor to the South?
A: Sam turned his back on the southerners and Democrats, He was a Democrat for
long standings and lived in the south but was also Sam Houston (very independent)
and he voted against the southern loved bill Kansas Nebraska Act. He also
attacked Calhoun (the voice of the south) who opposed Clay’s compromise of 1850.
Finally he really wanted Texas in the union where most of the state wanted to leave.

Q: Why do you think Houston did not secede with Texas?
A: He was desperately trying to keep the state in the union he felt that secession was
not needed in order for the south to make their point on all of its issues.

Q: Why do you believe that Texas choose to secede from the Union on March
second? And how did Houston respond to their convention?
A: This was the date of Houston’s birthday and the date Texas became
independent. After they declared secession they made the law all state officials had
to make an oath and allegiance to the state by the 14th. He acknowledged that the
convention never happened and it was not binding to him.

Edmund G. Ross

1.     What is the meaning of the quote ìIÖlooked down into my open grave?î
This quote means that he knows his decision will end his political career but still
goes through with it because he believes it is the right thing to do.

2.    What party was he from, and what were his views?
He was from the Republican Party and believed that the President should not be
removed from office just for disobeying the Tenure of Office Act.

3.     What state did he represent, and why was it important at this time?
He represented the state of Kansas. This is important because Kansas was a
predominantly Republican state and the president was a Democrat so Ross had to
go against his constituent’s wishes in order to follow his conscious.

4.       Why do you think JFK views Ross as courageous?
Went by his conscious although it differed from the beliefs in his constituents. He
still did so, knowing that it would end his political career. Believed Johnson
deserved a fair trial, nonbiased because of part affiliation.

5.     What occurred at this time after the Civil War to unite North and South?
The time period was the Reconstruction era. It was a time when the South needed
to be rebuilt and have its government restructured.

6.    Who was the president at this time? How did Ross feel about him?
The president was Andrew Johnson. Ross often was in opposition to him because
they were from different political parties.

7.     Explain Ross’ role in the Johnson impeachment and why did he choose this
Ross, a Republican, voted not to impeach Johnson, a Democrat. This was because he
wanted to give a fair, unbiased trial that was not based upon party affiliation.

8.   Who were Ross’ supporters after the impeachment decision, opposed?
Democrats supported Ross along with the few Republicans that voted with Ross.
The Republicans that sided for Johnson’s impeachment opposed Ross after the


1.      Identify the speaker of the following quote and analyze it: ìToday I must be
True or FalseÖî
-       The speaker is Lamar, the quote symbolizes the mental decision Lamar must
make between following his conscience (truth) or the will of his public (false)
2.      Why was James Blaine crying?
-       He was delivering an emotional eulogy for Charles Sumer. He was also calling
on all the senators to drop their prejudices regarding Party and Region.
3.      Why do you think the Southern Press reacted badly to Blaine’s speech?
-       The Southern Press felt betrayed by Blaine, because he chose not to
represent his constituent’s views and instead followed his own conscience.
4.      Discuss Lamar’s political views concerning the Union
-       Lamar was very pro-southern, he was only concerned with promoting
Southern Interests and preserving Southern Honor. Lamar was not concerned with
the preservation of the honor.
5.      Why do you think Lamar’s view on the union changed?
-       The Civil War caused Lamar’s view to change because he saw the destructive
effects of the War on his state.
6.      What is your opinion on the two oppositions to Lamar’s policy? Which side
do you agree with more?
-       I don’t agree with either view. Both the Radical Republicans who always call
for war and the Southerners who exploit people’s hatred of the North are using
some form of exploitation in order to get people’s attention. Neither one of these
ideas are solutions to the problem.
7.      What would have happened if Lamar had followed the pleas of his
-       If would have please his constituents but he would not have shown a key
element of courage, which is voting your conscience when it goes against your
8.      Why do you think the voters continued to support Lamar even after he went
against their views?
- The voters adored him for having the courage to stand up to the voters when he
believed that he knows best.
George Norris

   1. What does the quote ìI have come home to tell you the truth,î have to do with
      George Norris.

      While Norris was in Congress he spoke out against the Armed Ship Bill so
      hostile action would not take place between the US and other countries.

   2. Why did John F. Kennedy choose to use George Norris in his book as an
      example of a Senator with courage?

      Norris held a filibuster to try to maintain peace and prevent merchant ships
      from becoming armed.

   3. Why do you think George Norris opposed President Wilson’s Armed Ship

      He believed that it would create new hostilities between the U.S. and other
      world powers. He did not want this to be seen as an untrusting threat.

   4. What caused George Norris to address the ìCzar?î

      He wanted the ìCzarî to believe in his way of thinking and try to prevent
      hostile action between the US and Russia.

   5. Why did George Norris’ filibuster not matter after the fact?

      President Wilson realized that he did not need Congressional consent to arm
      merchant ships.

   6. What do you think would have been the result if George Norris had not held a

      Congressmen would not have considered what Norris was saying and the
      ships would have been armed sooner.

   7. Why do you think George Norris supported the Presidential Campaign of
      Democrat Al Smith?

      George Norris felt that Al Smith had the nation’s best interest in mind and
      believed in the issues that Smith was pushing.

   8. What do you think caused George Norris spoke out against Joseph Gurney
      Cannon’s autocratic power as Speaker of the House?
       This is the main reason why Kennedy selected Norris for showing courage.
       Norris spoke out against the almost absolute power of J. Cannon when he
       disagreed and felt that Cannon did not have the nations best interest and he
       believed he should have.

Robert A. Taft

1.    In Kennedy’s eyes, what made Robert A. Taft a courageous man?
A—Robert A. Taft was a courageous man in Kennedy’s eyes because he stuck to
what he believed in and never let anyone bring him down.

2.     How does the quote ìliberty of the individual to think his own thoughtsî
relate to the chapter?
A—This quote means to think your own thoughts not others. It relates to the
chapter because Taft expressed his own opinion rather than the popular opinion.

3.    What was Robert A. Taft’s stand on sentencing the 11 Nazis from the
nuremberd trials of death?
A—He believed it was a act of vengeance which compromised the American and
European justice’s.

4.  What was Taft’s speech about at the Kenyla College in 1946?

5.     How did Taft-Hartley Labor Management Relations Act affect Roberts
chances for the nomination in 1952?
A—It brought furious anti Taft reprisals during the 1950 senate campaign by the
unions in Ohio, and it nourished the belief that Taft could not win a presidential

6.     What would of caused Taft’s party members to criticize him?
A—With the denouncement of the trials, they feared that the brash event would cost
the republicans the up coming elections.

7.     Why do you think Taft had the ambitions to become president?
A—He was the son of President Robert A. William Taft and because he was a well
respected man who voiced his opinions and was struck by his principles regardless
of adversity.

8.     What is Taft’s definition of liberty?
A--‘‘When I say liberty, I mean liberty of the individual to think his own thoughts
and live his own life as he desires to think and live.’’

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