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Rockin' Resources for the SOLs

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					Rockin' Resources Objective I Side 1
Ray‘s Rockin‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ Resources for the SOLs
Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 2, Ladders for Success/Ray

I. Objective: Demonstrate knowledge of story structure and sequence.

The sequence in a story is the order in which things happen. For example, a sequence of
events might be divided into beginning, middle, and end. It also might be divided
according to which events happened before or after others.

To understand sequence: 1) find the most important events in the passage. 2) Look for
sequence clue words, such as first, next, then, before, after, and since. 3) Use the clues
to find the order in which the events happened.

*Read the passage. Then THINK ABOUT IT.
Dear Mom,
     We made it! Since leaving home for the canoe trip two weeks ago, I have survived
many close calls. First, our canoe capsized at Pony Pastures in Richmond, Virginia. A
little boy in the boat with me named Alex got caught under the canoe. My Boy Scout
training paid off though, because I dove right under and pulled him out. Next, we hung
on the side of the canoe. Then a man on a kayak came by and rescued us. He took Alex
on board first and got him to shore. I hanged onto the side of the canoe until it was my
turn to be picked up by Steve, the kayak man. Onshore, a lady with blankets and a heated
car got us warmed up. Finally, our Boy Scout leaders who were paddling ahead came
back and picked us up, and took us back to camp.- EWR original story

The important events are
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
The words __________________________________________________ are sequence
clue words.
The clue word ___________________ tells me that all other events happened since they
__________________, so ___________________ happened first.

Try this strategy: Summarize and paraphrase. When you summarize and paraphrase,
you briefly tell what happened in your own words. To understand how this works: 1)
Look for ideas that are the most important in the story. Tell yourself what happened in
the beginning, middle, and end. Leave out details that seem unimportant. 2) Jot down
key words and phrases as you read. Then restate what happened. If you have trouble
reread parts of the story you did not understand.




                                                                                                 1
Ray‘s Rockin‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘ Resources for the SOLs
Today is ____________ RRObjective 1 Side 2

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 2, Ladders for Success/Ray

I. Objective: Demonstrate knowledge of story structure and sequence.

The sequence in a story is the order in which things happen. For example, a sequence of
events might be divided into beginning, middle, and end. It also might be divided
according to which events happened before or after others.

To understand sequence: 1) find the most important events in the passage. 2) Look for
sequence clue words, such as first, next, then, before, after, and since. 3) Use the clues
to find the order in which the events happened.

Create your own story, demonstrating you understand how to use sequence in developing
a story:

Prewrite: What happens first: next        then  before after since
______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Now, write your story in the space below: My Story Showing Structure and Sequence

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Important events were: ___________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.



                                                                                                  2
3
Rockin’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’’ Resources Objective II Side 1
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 2, Ladders for Success/Ray

Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs        Today is ___________ RRObjective II Side 1

Name________________________ Source: Lesson __, Ladders for Success/Ray


II. Objective: Describe cause-effect relationships and their impact on plot.

A cause is an event that makes something happen. The effect is what happens because of
the cause. Sometimes a cause can have more than one effect.

To recognize cause and effect: 1) Read and look for details that tell you what
happened. 2) Think about each event and decide why it happened. Sometimes a cause is
explained after the event. 3) Look for clue words, such as so, therefore, and as a result,
or leads to. These words are clues that the event or action is an effect. Look for clue
words such as because ad sice to find the cause.

*Read this paragraph and THINK ABOUT IT.

        Andrew felt desperate. It was time to leave for the swim meet and he could not
find his specially made earplugs anywhere. He checked the nightstand where his goggles
lay. There was no sign of earplugs. Later, he heard some happy humming, and turned to
see his little brother, a three year old, playing happily in the room next door. His little
brother was pushing something into the ears of his favorite suffed animal, a raggedy lion
with a wild looking mane. Andrew rushed to check the lion‘s ears, in which the earplugs
rested snugly ―Now Leo the lion can ‗wim all he wants to,‖ Andrew‘s little brother
proudly announced.

Try this strategy: Monitor and clarify. When you monitor and clarify, you check to make
sure you understand the ideas in the text as you read. 1) Pay attention to the events and
main ideas in what you are reading 2) As you read, try to restate the main ideas of the
text. If you do not understand an idea or detail, go back and reread the section. 3)
Clarify events in the text by restating them in your own words.

Use a graphic organizer like this one, or make your own:
                                        List the cause

List the effect:

 Turn this page over and create your own stories to demonstrate this technique.




                                                                                              4
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs     Today is ___________ RRObjective II Side 2

Name________________________ Source: Lesson __, Ladders for Success/Ray

II. Objective: Describe cause-effect relationships and their impact on plot.

A cause is an event that makes something happen. The effect is what happens because of
the cause. Sometimes a cause can have more than one effect.

To recognize cause and effect: 1) Read and look for details that tell you what
happened. 2) Think about each event and decide why it happened. Sometimes a cause is
explained after the event. 3) Look for clue words, such as so, therefore, and as a result,
or leads to. These words are clues that the event or action is an effect. Look for clue
words such as because and since to find the cause.

After reviewing side one, create your own cause and effect passage, using details, clues,
etc.
Prewrite: List the cause:
______________________________________________________________________
           List the effects:
______________________________________________________________________

________List clue words I might use ______________________________________

Now, write your story in the space below: My Story Showing Cause and Effect

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
Summary: Because ____________________happened, it led to or resulted in
____________________________________________________________ in my story.

This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.



                                                                                            5
6
RAY’S Rockin’ Resources Objective III Side 1 Today is_______________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 3, Ladders for Success/Ray

III. Objective: Use context to determine meanings of unfamiliar words and
technical vocabulary.

When you read, you might not know or understand all the words in a story. Context
clues can help you. Context clues are words and phrases near an unknown word that
give clues to the word‘s meaning. To use context clues, 1) notice how the new word is
used in the sentence 2) Look for a definition or other words that could help define the
word. 3) Think of another word or hrase that could replace the unknown word.

*Read the passage. Use context clues to figure out the meaning of the underlined word

        While I waited to go into the piano studio and face the judge who would hear me
play, I wondered why I had let my piano teacher talk me into this. I had entered other
contests before, but never a piano competition, where I could make mistakes win a
trophy. As soon as I walked into that door, I‘d have to sit on that piano bench and play
for 30 minutes without my sheet music. – EWR original story

THINK ABOUT IT;
1. The word _________________ names something in the sentence.
2. What is another word that is similar to the underlined word? Compete
3. From these context clues, I predict that a competition is
____________________________________________. The word competition makes
sense in this sentence.

Try this strategy: Monitor and clarify. When you monitor and clarify, you check to
make sure you understand the ideas in the text. You clarify them by restating ideas in
your own words. 1) As you read each paragraph, check to make sure you understand the
important ideas. 2) Try restating the ideas in your own words. If you have trouble, reread
the part you do not understand. 3) If you do not understand a word, look for clues to its
meaning in the passage.

Use a graphic organizer or make your own to help determine context clues.
         Word                         Clues                      Meaning




                                                                                           7
Rockin Resources Objective III Side 2 More on Context Clues
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 3, Ladders for Success/Ray

Try this strategy: When you preview and predict, you use what you already know to
imagine what might happen. 1) First, preview what you are about to read. Look at the
title and any pictures. Based on this preview, predict what the passage could be about. 2)
As you read each paragraph, predict what you might read next. 3) Make new predictions
as you read more. Ask yourself whether the predictions you made were correct.

After reviewing the previous page, create your own stories using context clues:

Prewrite

Use a graphic organizer or make your own to help determine context clues.
         Word                         Clues                      Meaning




Now, write your story in the space below: My Story Showing Unfamiliar words in
context (refer to the sample on the previous page). Choose your own “new” words.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.




                                                                                        8
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective IV Side 1 Today is _____________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 4, Ladders for Success/Ray

IV. Objective: Organize the main idea and details to form a summary. 6.5

The main idea of a passage is the most important idea or topic. The main idea is usully
found in the first sentence or paragraph of a passage. However, main ideas are not
always stated directly. To help find the main idea, look for supporting details. Suporting
details are facts and examples that tell more about, or support, the main idea. Supporting
details often answer the questions Who? What? When? Where? Why? and How?

To identify main ideas and details, 1) look for clues in the title and in the first and last
sentences. 2) Then look for a sentence that expresses a particular idea, thought, or
feeling about the topic. All the other sentences should support this sentence. 3) If the
main idea is not stated directly, look for the supporting details.

*Read the passage. Identify the main idea and details.

        1) Look carefully at the horizon in Moundville, Alabama. You will see what looks
like giant flat-topped sandcastles covered with grass. They were built by a Native
American culture called the Mound Builders.
        2) Archaelogists and sociologists studying the mounds learned much about this
group and their culture. Living in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers through
the Midwest and Southeast, these Native Americans lived as long ago as 2500 B.C.,while
others lived into the 1500s A.D. They built cities where chiefs or priests govererned
them. They hunted, fished, grew crops, and traded with other tribes.
        3) The mounds were probably built for several reasons. Some were burial sites,
while others were temples.
        No one knows why these early Native Americans disappeared.
Use a graphic organizer or make your own:

MAIN IDEA:
Detail:
Detail:
Detail:

THINK ABOUT IT:
1) The first paragraph tells about ____________________________________________.
2) The second paragraph tells more about
_______________________________________________________________________.
3) This main idea of the second paragraph is mostly about
____________________________________________.


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Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources Objective IV Side 2 Name____________________________
Try this strategy: Monitor and clarify. When you monitor and clarify, you check to
make sure you understand the ideas in the text. 1) Try to give a different title to the text
that fits with its main idea. 2) If an idea is unclear, reread in order to understand it more
clearly. 3) Clarify ideas by restating them or jotting them down in your own words.

Reading guide: Read the title of the story and the first sentence. Think about what they
tell you that heps answer any of the key questions who, what, where, when, why, or how.

Reread parts of the story and state in your own words what it says. See if it helps answer
any of the key questions.

Look for more important clues or details that answer key questions.

Now, write your story in the space below: My Story Showing Main Idea and Details

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
Summary: The main idea of my paragraph
was____________________________________________________________________.

Details that supported the main idea were:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.
What are two alternate titles for your story?________________________________
__________________________________________________________________




                                                                                           10
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VI Side 1 Today is _______________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 6, Ladders for Success/Ray

VI. Objective: Use information stated explicitly in the text to draw conclusions and
make inferences.

A conclusion is a reasonable judgment you make based on clues you read and your own
knowledge. An inference is a conclusion that is suggested in the text but is not stated
directly. To draw conclusions and make inferences, 1) think about details you read in the
passage. 2) Think of what you already know about the subject. 3) Use what you have read
and what you know to draw a conclusin or make an inference.

* Read the passage. Draw a conclusion.
                               Theme Cakes Ruled
        Decorating for an after rehearsal dinner for a party of bridesmaids and
groomsmen can be a lot of work. Some people make things easier by combining
decorating with cooking. My nephew recently got married, and my sister, the mother of
the groom, hired a cake decorator to make and decorate elaborate centerpieces for each
table of guests. She called them ―theme cakes.‖ The centerpieces were cakes that
represented an event in the life of the life of the happy new couple. My nephew is a
school teacher, so one of the cakes looked like a stack of school books. His bride is an
interior decorator, so another cake was decorated as a bucket of paint. They became
engaged at the beach, so another cake was shaped like a sand castle. They are football
fans, so one of the cakes was shaped like a football. My favorite cake was the one shaped
like an open jewelry box, with a big sugary diamond ring in the middle. Decorating for a
special event can be fun if you hire the right expert to design and complete the job.-EWR

THINK ABOUT IT
1) I can tell by reading that _________________________________________________.
2) I know that
________________________________________________________________________
_.
3) I can conclude that _____________________________________________________.

Self Question: When you self-question, ou ask ourself questions that arise from your
reading. 1) Read the title and the first sentence. Form an idea of what you think the
passage is about. 2) Think of quesitons about the topic that you think will be answered
in the passage. 3) As you finish reading, think about whether all your questions were
answered.
Use a graphic organizer or make your own:

What I learned:       >      What I already know           >      Conclusion




                                                                                      11
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VI Side 2 Today is _______________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 6, Ladders for Success/Ray

VI. Objective: Write your own story with information stated explicitly in the text to
draw conclusions and make inferences.

Now, write your story in the space below: My Story Showing Explicit and Implicit
Information

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
Explicit information in my story included:
____________________________________________________________________.

Implied information in my story included:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.


What are two alternate titles for your story?________________________________
__________________________________________________________________




                                                                                   12
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VII Side 1 Today is ________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 7, Ladders for Success/Ray


VII. Objective: Identify analogies and figurative language.

Figurative language is a way of describing something creatively. It often describes
something by comparing it to something familiar. Examples of figurative language can
include similes, which compare using like or as, and metaphors, which do not use these
clue words. Another kind of figurative language is an idiom, which is a common phrase
that takes on a new meaning.

To interpret figurative laguage, 1) look for words or phrases that are used in an
interesting or surprising way 2) look for clues that something I sbeing described as a
comparison, such as the words like or as. 3) Use clue words and other words in the
sentence to interpret figurative language. If something is being compared, think about
the qualities of the subjects that might be compared.

*Read the passage. Interpret the figurative language in these sentences.

       Last night my brother and I were together in the great room playing videogames.
We were talking up a storm, and didn‘t hear someone knocking repeatedly at the door.
When we finally did answer the door, it was our dad, with a load of groceries, and his
looked like a stormcloud.

THINK ABOUT IT
1) The first phrase I noticed, _________________________ ,is an interesting phrase to
use.
2) Something ______________ is being compared to ________________________.
3) I can figure out that _________________________ means
________________________________________________________________.
4) The second interesting phrase I noticed,______________________________,
compares _______________ to ___________________________________.

Try this strategy: Visualize. When you visualize, you picture in your mind what is
being described. 1) Pay close attention to the descriptions and details the writer gives. 2)
Try to picture the descriptions. What qualities stand out? 3) If figurative language
describes a subject, picture the qualities the subject might share with what it is compared
to.
     Read the passage.
     Look for words or phrases that are used in an unusual way.
     Look for clues that something is being compared.
     Interpret figurative language by thinking of qualities that are eing compared.


                                                                                         13
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VII Side 2 Today is ________________________

Use this graphic organizer or make your own to figure out:

My sister was calm when my mother fell, but my heart raced like a horse. I didn‘t know
what to do.

Phrase                        Clues                           What does it mean?
my heart raced like a horse   My sister was calm, I          I was scared and nervous
                              wasn‘t


Now, write your own story using simile, metaphor, and at least one idiom

                       My Story using Figurative Language

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
Draw a picture representing something in your story. What title would you give your
story? ___________________________________________________




                                                                                        14
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VIII Side 1 Today is ______________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 8, Ladders for Success/Ray


VIII. Objective: Distinguish between fact and opinion 6.2a

When you distinguish between fact and opinion, you look to see if satements are true
or if they are what someone thinks or believes. Facts are statements that can be proved.
Opinions are what someone believes. They cannot be proven true or false.

To distinguish between fact and opinion, 1) ask yourself if a statement can be proven rue
or false. 2) Look for clue words and phrases such as I think, I believe, they should, most
important, and beautiful. These words signal an opinion. 3) Watch for words supported
by facts, such as for example.

THINK ABOUT IT

Read the passage. Decide which statements are facts and which are opinions.

   1) Coach Paul Bear Bryant was the most important football coach of the 20th century.
2) For example, he invented a play called the Wishbone that became famous in the
sports. 3) Bryant coached the University of Alabama Crimson Tide. 4) He wore a
special hat that was black and white checked at all football games except the ones that
were held indoors. – EWR, ‘77, University of Alabama (Roll Tide!)

1.The first sentence says Bryant was the most important football coach of the 20th
century. The clue words are most important. These words signal it could be an opinion.

2. I read in a football history book that Coach Bryant invented the Wishbone. I also read
in a biography about Bryant that he wore hats in every game except the one held in the
Sugar Bowl inside the Astrodome in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1974.

3. The first sentence is an opinion. The second and third sentences are facts that I could
check and prove. They are facts.

Graphic organizers can help you distinguish fact and opinion. Use one like the one below
or make your own?

Read the passage. Which of the statements are facts and which are opinions?
Facts                How do you know?        Opinions              How do you know?




                                                                                        15
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective VIII Side 2 Today is ______________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 8, Ladders for Success/Ray


Objective: Write your own story that includes some well known facts (that you can
prove) and some opinions. Your reader must distinguish between fact and opinion
6.2a


Prewrite: What subject do I know about which I can proven
facts?________________________

Will I need to do a little research first to get my facts straight? ________________
If so, what resource will I use?____________________________________________


My Story Showing Facts and Opinions: Title _______________________________


_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________
Read the passage. Which of the statements are facts and which are opinions?
Facts                How do you know?        Opinions              How do you know?


This story will be used in a game. You may be asked to copy it over.


                                                                                   16
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective IX Side 1 Today is ________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 9, Ladders for Success/Ray


IX. Objective: Describe how word choice and imagery contribute to the meaning of
a text.

The author‘s purpose is the reason why an author wrote a particular piece. Authors write
to 1) describe, 2) explain 3) entertain, or 4) persuade (Hint: Acronym = DEEP)

To determine the author’s purpose, 1) Find the main ideas in the passage. What is it
mainly about? 2) Think about the details. Pay attention to facts, ideas, and examples. 3)
Think about the words the author chooses. Do they tell how something looks? Do they
provide specific information? Are they opinions? Are they light and humorous? 4) What
does the author want you to feel, learn, think, believe, or do? The answer is the
author’s purpose.
p. 122

* Read the passage. MY JOB IN THE AIR FORCE: A LESSON IN PORTAPOTTIES

         My job in the Air Force was sometimes to write a contract for portapotties for the
pilots and maintenance men and women when they deployed or worked away from home
in tents. The formula I used involved ordering one portapotty for each of 20 men and
women. If there were 200 people in a squadron, that mean I rented 20 portapotties for
the duration of the deployment (the time we would be working away from home in tents).
It is also necessary to have them serviced three times a week to maintain cleanliness and
comfort for all. The other information I needed was to determine delivery dates (the day
before most of the people arrived), and pick up dates (the day after they left. The person
in charge of portapotties must always be among the first to arrive on site, and the last to
leave to make sure delivery and removal of the portapotties occurs as it should.- EWR

The author‘s purpose in this passage was to __________________________.

Review: The author‘s purpose is his or her main reason for writing. Authors write to

1) d e _ c _ _ b_   2) ex_ l a _ n    3) __n t __ r t __ i n , or    4) _ e r_ u a _ e

What steps can you use to determine an author‘s purpose:
1) Think about the __ a i __ ideas.
2) Think about the d__t a __ l s the author uses.
3) Pay special attention to the w__r d___ the author uses. An author chooses words
carefully depending on his or her purpose for writing, so word choice is a good __ l u __
to the author‘s purpose.




                                                                                         17
Now, create your own story. What will be your purpose ?               Obj. IX Side 2

Describe___ Explain_____ Entertain______ Persuade______

My Story Showing Author’s Purpose Title _______________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Fill out the graphic organizer about the story you wrote.


Main ideas and key details                        Specific word choices




                                             ∆


                                      Author’s Purpose




                                                                                       18
Ray’s Rockin’ Resources Objective X Side 1          Today is __________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 10, Ladders for Success/Ray


X. Objective: Identify the elements of narative structure, including setting,
chracter, plot, conflict, and theme. 6.4B

In an article or story, just as in real life, a problem is something that causes trouble or
conflict. A solution is the way the problem is solved. The solution might make the
problem go away, or it might make the problem no longer important.

To identify a problem and solution when you read a story or article, 1) look for an event
or a situation that creates trouble or a conflict that must be solved. In a story, the problem
is often the conflict. 2) Then, look for the solution. Look for steps that are taken to
solve the problem. 3) Decide whether the steps taken successfully solved the problem.

        Read the passage. Look for the problem. Then look for what the character does
         to solve it.
                                   Baby Andrew’s New Babysitter
   Baby Andrew usually goes to a babysitter during the week, but last week, Mrs. Whitson
had to go out of town. When Mrs. Whitson travels, little Andrew usually stays with his
aunt, but she was sick this time. So Mrs. Whitson asked Sis to babysit. I love helping my
sister, and I love little babies, so I was thrilled.

THINK ABOUT IT

1. Mrs. Whitson had to go _______________________________________. Usually the
baby‘s aunt babysits him when his mother goes out of town. This time, his aunt is sick so
there is a problem.
2. The next to last sentence tells how Mrs. Whitson solved the problem. She asked the
narrator‘s sister to take care of Andrew while she was gone. This is the solution.
3. If the narrator‘s sister agrees to take care of Andrew, the problem will be successfully
solved.


Read the next passage. Look for the problem and the solution.

                                The Reluctant Red Roadster
   My sister recently helped plan her son‘s outdoor wedding and she wanted him and his
bride to travel in style. She hired the owner of a sparkling red and white 1953 Ford to
deliver the bride to the doorstep of the church, and then to drive the bride and groom
away. I noticed the musician playing the same John Lennon song a couple of times. What
had happened to her chariot ride in the vintage Ford? After an uncomfortable squirming
in my seat, I turned my head when the bridal march sounded and spotted the bride




                                                                                              19
walking down the sidewalk and later up the sidewalk on the arm of an usher. Her daintly
little feet got her safely to the altar. Later we learned the car wouldn‘t start at the
appropritate time to deliver her to the gate behind the audience sitting under the trees on
either side of the sidewalk. Happily, they were married on time and the car cranked in
time to drive with them waving goodbye, tin cans rattling behind the antique red and
white roadster.—EWR original story
Problem:_______________________________________________________

Steps Taken____________________________________________________

Solution_______________________________________________________

 Strategy: Self Question: When you self question, ask yourslf questions to guide your
reading. 1) Read the title and think about what the passsage is about. 2) Ask yourself
what you hope to find out by reading the passage. 3) Think of new questions that come
to mind while you are reading. 4) When you finish reading, think about whether all your
questions were answered.

Review: A problem is something that causes trouble or difficulty for someone. A
solution is the way the problem is solved. A graphic organizer can help you identify
problems and solutions.

Now, create your own story using problem and solution. Title___________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Problem                     Steps Taken                      Solution
________________       _________________________ ______________________
________________       _________________________ _______________________
You may be asked to copy your story over for a game.




                                                                                        20
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs      Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 11, Buckle Down/Ray


XI. Objective: To learn how and when to use resources such as an encyclopedia,
atlas, almanac. – Source, Lesson 11 in Buckle Down.

A resource is something that gives you information you want. Libraries are one
resource. The reference section of your library holds encyclopedias, dictionaries,
almanacs, and many other helpful materials.

1) An almanac is updated and published every year. It contains up-to-date facts about all
kinds of topics. Much of the information in an almanac is printed in the form of lists.
You can find facts from a particular year in an almanac, such as 1) names of people
induced into the Baseball Hall of Fame 2) major export products of the United States 3)
imporant events that took place during a certain year 4) number of votes each presidential
candidat received in the last election 5) real names of actors and movie stars 6) names of
movies that won Academy Awards.

2) An atlas is a book of maps. Some atlases show maps of one part of the world, such as
of the United States and Canada. Other atlases show maps of the enttire world. In
addition, many atlases have a specific purpose. For example, a road atlas shows all the
roads in a certain area, and a historical atlas shows all the important places where
historical events took place, such as battlefields, courhouses, etc.

Use an atlas to find the local of 1) borders and boundaries between counties, states,
nations, etc. 2) bodies of water such as oceans, glaciers, rivers, lakes, etc. 3) land
formations sch as continents, mountain ranges, deserts, plains, etc. 4) population facts
such as cities, countries, etc. Using an old atlas is not a good idea in some cases because
borders of countries change, cities are renamed, etc.

3) An encyclopedia contains facts and explnations about a wide variety of subjects. It
also has drawings, diagrams, maps, and photographs. Topics are arranged in alphabetical
order, and sometimes there are as many as 26 volumes, one for each letter of the
alphabet. An encyclopedia may contain more information than a dictionary or atlas, but
it may not contain the most current information on a topic.

4) Newspapers are printed once a day with the most recent news.

5) Magazines usually focus on a particular topic.

6) Computers provide information in a variety of sources.
a) CD-ROMS are compact discs containing information that can be read by a computer.
Encyclopedias and dictionaries may be contained on a CD-ROM.




                                                                                         21
b) An electronic database is a collection of information organized so that you can easily
find the information you need.
c) The Internet is a network of computers around the world and almost any topic can be
found through Internet websites. One way to search for information on the Net is through
a search engine.
d) A search engine is a program that collections information from websites all over the
Internet and makes a list of what‘s in them. Search terms are key words you would use
when talking about your subjet. The search engine quickly presents a list of websites that
have the words of phrases you want.
e) Use words such as and, or, and not to limit your search.
f) Use quotation marks to search for a phrase. Entering ―Baltimore Ravens‖ would
eleminate websites from your search that discuss Baltimore and ravens separately.

Key words to know when searching for information:

Biography – a book about someone‘s life. An autobiography is a book a person writes
about his or her own life.

Manual – a set of instuctions telling how to use and care for a product, such as a
computer game or a walkie-talkie set.

Textbooks- designed to be used by students and teachers who are studying a specific
subject.

An essay is a discussion of a topic in writing much sharter than a book.

An editorial is an essay published in the opinion section of newspaper that gives the
writer‘s viewpoint on an issue.

A journal or diary records a person‘s thoughts and experiences, often for personal use
only.

A newsletter is a small publication that contains information of interest to a specific
group of people. Some schools end out monthly newsletters informaing parents about
policies, news, and events at the school.

Authors often include helpful resources with their writing, such as illustrations, diagrams,
maps, photos, tables, charts, sidesbars, and so on.

Most resources fall into one of the following categories:

Primary sources are direct sources. A primary source is created by someone who has
‗been there‖ and ―done that.‖ A letter written by a soldier from the War Between the
States to his wife is a primary source.




                                                                                          22
Secondary sources are indirect sources. A secondary source is created by someone who
―wasn‘t there,‖ but has done a lot of research on the subject. A history book describing
battles of the War Between the States is an example of a secondary source.

Text features help readers better understand a piece of writing. For example, text
features include titles, chapter headings, preface, appendix, bibliography, etc.

Table of contents- shows how the piece of writing is organized by giving a list of the
first page of each chapter , and other sections of the book.

Preface- an introduction to a work often written by the author to explain what the book
or work is about.

Appendix- a section of material that supports the main body of the text by giving
numbered tables, graphs, etc. An appendix is usually found at the back of the book.

Index- an alphabetical list of topics covered in the book, along with the page numbers
where the topics can be found. The index is usually in alphabetical order.

Bibliography – a list of all the sources the author used or consulted or quoted when
writing his or her own work. It usually includes the title, publisher, publication date, and
page number where the topic that the author used was found.

Captions – brief word descriptions that go with pictures or photos.




                                                                                          23
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs      Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: Lesson 4 Buckle Down /Ray



XII. Reading Plans: The student will develop a strategy for reading comprehension.
Lesson 4, Buckle Down.

Preview the passage and make predictions. Preview means to look something over
before you read it. This gives you information about the passage before you really get
into it. Then make a few predictions about what you think the passage will be about. To
predict means to guess what will happen. Predictions are important because they get
your mind ready for what you will read.

Preview the passage by looking at and reading the following text features:

Title- A title can give you a basic idea of what a passage is about. Some titles are very
specific; others are not.

Introduction- Not all passages have an introduction, but if there is one, you should read
it. It can tell you a lot about the passage before you read it. Introductions can help you
figure out what will be most important in a passage.

Headings or subheads- Sometimes writers break their writings into parts and give each
part its own title. Heading and subhead are both names for these section titles. Headins
can heop you see where different information is located in a passage.

Key words in boldface and italic print- Sometimes important words are in special print to
help you notice them.

Sidebars- A sidebar is information given in a separate location on the page. Sidebars
often give extra information that is related to the passage.


Illustrations – can also hep show yo what will be important in a passage. Illustrations
can include charts, diagrams, drawings, photos, and so on.

Topic sentence- tels what the paragraph is about. It often (but not always) appears in the
beginning of the paragraph.




                                                                                            24
Genres: genre means type, or category. It is often used to describe writng. Figuring out
the genre of a passage can tell you a lot about the passage and its purpose. Most writing
falls into one of the following genres:

Fiction – tells a made up story. Mystery, folklore, fantasy, horror, science fiction,
historical fiction, sports fiction, and outdoor fiction are all types of fictional stories.

Non-fiction – tells about real life people, places, things, events, or ideas. This genre
includes biographies, speeches, essays, magazine articles, journals, movies and book
reviews, editorials, and instructions.

Drama – is written to be performed by actors. The script of a play tells the acors which
lines to speak, and most of the plot is revealed through the character‘s words. The two
main types of drama are comedy and tragedy.

Poetry – comes in all styles, shapes, and sizes. Some poems tell a story, others simply
describe an image. Some rhyme; others don‘t Poems use language in a unique or
memorable way.




                                                                                              25
Ray‘s Rockin‘ Resources for the SOLs   Today is _____________________________

Name________________________ Source: _______________________ /Ray



XIII. Word Parts
Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes- Foundational Vocabulary from
Mrs. Ray/English 6
Fill in the letters that complete these words. 20 letters x 5
=___

I. A __ o __ d can consist of three parts—the root, a
prefix, and a suffix.

A, Prefixes and suffixes are known as _ f    i x     s
because they are affixed (__ t __ a __ h __ d to) a root.

B. Definitions

1. Root—the base element of the word—the part of the
word that contains the basic m __ a __ i __ g
(definition) of the word.

2. Prefix—a syllable(s) forming a word element placed
before a __ o o      , word, or work group to a _ _
to the meaning or to ___ a __ e      a new word.

Example: prefix ―un‖
          un + done = undone

3. Suffix—a syllable(s) forming a word element that is
placed a __ t e ___        a root, word, or word group to


                                                                                26
add to the meaning or make a new word. The s u f f i x
may also redefine a word‘s part of speech.

Example: ed       transport (could be a noun) transported
(definitely verb-past tense when –ed suffix is added)
A.       struct         =   build
B.        port          =    carry
C.       graph          =   writing
D.       bio            =   life
E,       tract          =   pull
F        .flect, flex   =   bend
G        .dict, dic     =   speak, say
H         im            =   in, into

II. Common roots practice

A. port =carry     Write three words that have port = carry as their root.
Then write a sentence or two using definition or explanation clues. The first
two words are given to you. You will supply the third word.

example= portable 1( The suitcase is portable. 2) I can carry it with me.
 transportation



report

your word-




                                                                           27
B. graph=write Write three words that have graph= writing as their
root. Then write a sentence or two using definition or explanation clues for
each word.

example= paragraph 1)Writing sentences about a topic makes paragraphs.
2) Graph means to write.

telegraph-



seismograph-



your word-


       .
C. bio = life Write three words that have bio = life as their root. Then
write a sentence or two using definition or explanation clues for each word.

example= biography 1) Bio means life. 2) Graph means write, so biography
would mean a written book about someone‘s life.
biosphere-



biohazard-


your word-




D. tract = pull



                                                                           28
Write three words that have tract = pull as their root. Then write a
sentence or two using definition or explanation clues for each word..

example= tractor 1) We used a tractor to haul my car out of the ditch 2) The
tractor was strong enough to pull the weight.
 traction-




subtract-



your word-




E. flect, flex = bend

Write three words that have flect/flex = build as their root. Then write a
sentence or two using definition or explanation clues for each word.
example= reflect, flexible 1) You are flexible. 2) You can bend.
reflexes-



refect-



your word-

XIV. Grammar- know:

comma rules
subject and verb agreement


                                                                             29
XV. Spelling- use your best spelling practices, always! Good spelling makes a good
impression. Bad spelling makes a ….._________ ________________________.




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