Physiology of the Circulatory System AP Biology Lab by liaoqinmei

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									Physiology of the Circulatory
           System
     AP Biology Lab 10
           Kit Information
• AP Biology Lab # 10- Physiology of the
  Cardiovascular System
• Carolina # 74-6580
• $299.00
• 32 students working in groups of 4
• 3 Activities
  • Measuring Blood Pressure (30-40 minutes)
  • Testing Physical Fitness (40 minutes)
  • Heart Rate of Daphnia (30-40 minutes)
               Objectives
• Use a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
  to measure systolic and diastolic blood
  pressure
• Observe the response of the human
  circulatory system to various factors and use
  the results to determine the subject’s level
  of physical features
• Investigate the relationship of temperature
  and heart rate of an ectotherm
  Measuring Blood Pressure
  Background Information
• Ventricle contraction forces blood from
  heart into arteries and causes increase in
  blood pressure
• As ventricles relax blood pressure drops
• Systolic blood pressure- highest pressure
  reached in cycle
• Diastolic blood pressure- lowest pressure
  reached
• Barorecpetors located in cartoid arteries and
  aortic arch constantly monitor blood
  pressure and send nerve impulses to the
  brain, which then controls the pressure to
  meet the needs.
  Measuring Blood Pressure
• Work in groups of 4
  •   One member   will   serve   as   test subject
  •   One member   will   serve   as   examiner
  •   One member   will   serve   as   data recorder
  •   One member   will   serve   as   timer
• You will switch roles and repeat the
  activitiy.
  • You must serve as each role!
Timing is important, read all
    instructions before
   beginning the activity!
• Test subject should be sitting with
  sleeve rolled up
• Experimenter should
  • Clean earpieces of the stehoscope with an
    alcohol swab before and after use
  • Never leave an inflated cuff on anyone’s
    arm for more than a few seconds
1. Inspect the sphygmomanometer. Be certain
   the exhaust valve is open and that the cuff
   is completely deflated.
2. Wrap the cuff snuggly, but not tightly,
   around the upper arm 2 to 3 cm above the
   bend of the elbow.
3. Place the bell of the stethoscope directly
   below the cuff in the bend of the elbow.
4. Close the exhaust valve of the bulb (pump)
   and rapidly inflate the cuff by squeezing
   the bulb until the pressure gauge goes past
   200 mm Hg.
5. Open the exhaust valve just enough to allow
  the pressure to drop slowly, by the about 2-5
  mm Hg/sec.
6. As the pressure falls, listen with the
  stethoscope for the first appearance of a
  clear thumping or tapping sound. The
  pressure at which you first hear this sound is
  the systolic pressure. Record the systolic
  pressure in Table 1.
7. Continue to listen as the pressure falls. The
  sound will become muffled and then louder.
  When the sound disappears, note the
  pressure. Record this measurement in Table 1
  as the diastolic pressure.
8. Open the exhaust valve to completely
  deflate the cuff. Allow the subject to
  relax for 30 to 60 seconds before
  preceeding.
9. Repeat steps 1 through 8 two more
  times, to compete trials 2 and 3.
  Determine the subject’s average
  systolic and diastolic pressures.
   Testing Physical Fitness
   Background Information
• Maximum heart rate= 220 minus your
  age
• Target heart rate = 50-70% your
  maximum heart rate
   Testing Physical Fitness
• Work in groups of 4 with the same
  roles you had in Part A
• Test 1 involves taking systolic pressure
  with a sphygmomanometer
• The other tests require taking the
  pulse rate
  • Pulse rate can be taken at the wrist
Test 1: Systolic Blood Pressure from
 Reclining to Standing
Test 2: Standing Pulse Rate
Test 3: Reclining Pulse Rate
Test 4: Pulse Rate from Reclining to
 Standing
Test 5: Step Test

Each test will be scored. The scores of
  all 5 test will be add together to
  create a fitness score.
      Heart Rate of Daphnia
     Background Information
• The metabolism of many animals does
  not tenable them to maintain a
  constant body temperature
  independent of their environment.
  Such animals are ectotherms. From
                  o      o
  approximately 5 C to 35 C, the rate of
  metabolism in the animals increases as
  environmental temperature increase.
          Daphnia Facts
• small crustaceans commonly found in
  freshwater ponds and lakes.
• use their large antennae to propel
  themselves forward.
• Known as water fleas
• Transparent and all internal organs are
  visible
     Heart Rate of Daphnia
1. Obtain two concave-depression well slides.
   Place the slides side-by-side on your
   workspace with their concavities facing up.
2. Add a Daphnia to the concavity of one
   slide, in a small volume of culture fluid.
3. Pick up the second depression slide and flip
   it over. Place this slide, concavity side
   down, on top of the first slide so that their
   matching concavities form a shallow pool
   that holds the Daphnia. Use rubber bands
   to secure the slides together tightly.
4. Place the combined slides in a petri dish.
  Place the dish on the stage of a
  stereomicroscope.
5. Observe the Daphnia. Identify and note the
  position of the organism’s heart, dorsal to
  the intestine.
6. Use a cup or beaker to obtain a sample of
  room temperature water. Record the water
  temperature in Table 3. Slowly pour water
  into the petri dish until the bottom of the
  dish is covered. Stop before water covers the
  top of the upper slide.
7. Working together, one student should count
  heartbeats while another keeps time. Count
  the heartbeat for 10 seconds and record the
  data in Table 3.
8. Discard the water in the petri dish.
9. Obtain a sample of water with a different
  temperature. Repeat steps 6 through 8 using
  water with a different temperature each
  time. Continue until you have tested water
  from all the water baths or you reach a
  temperature at which the heart beats too
  rapidly for you to count.
10. For each water temperature,
  determine heart rate in beats per
  minute and record the data in Table 3.

								
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