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INDEX OF SEGREGATION

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 61

									    INDEX OF
  SEGREGATION

Are Jobs Gender, Race, or
     Ethnically Blind?
                  REVIEW

   We Have determined the following
    – Under Pure Competition and under the
      assumption of homogenous workers
    – Firms will hire workers to maximize profits
      • i.e. MR=MC
      • Or equivalently, where w = MRP
      • Where MRP = P*MPL
           Discrimination

 Hence, if there workers were indeed
  homogenous and they received different
  wages then that would imply there was
  discrimination
 However, if workers are not
  homogenous than different wages alone
  would not necessarily imply
  discrimination
              Discrimination

 If there is disparity in wages
 Then the question is why?
 There are three sources that may
  account for wages disparities (or
  discrimination):
    – Non-Market Discrimination
    – Past-Employer Discrimination
    – Current Employer Discrimination
    Non-Market Discrimination

 Lower Productivity due to training
  (schooling, etc)
 Geographical (more blacks in the
  South)
 Different preferences in terms of
  Labor/Leisure
 Other
    Past-Employer Discrimination

   Past Discriminating Hiring Practices

   Followed with Mouth to Mouth Hiring
    Practices
Current Employer Discrimination

   Prejudice

   Consumer Preferences

   Other
         First Source:
    Non-Market Discrimination
 Do individuals on average take on
  different jobs based on personal
  characteristics such as gender, race, or
  ethnicity
 If so, that may in part explain the
  difference in wage differentials
U.S. MEDIAN EARNINGS BY GENDER
AND RACE/ETHNICITY, YEAR-ROUND
     FULL-TIME WORKERS, 2001
                          Table 8.1 p. 277
                                                   WOMEN’S
                                                 EARNINGS AS
                WOMEN($)              MEN($)    PERCENTAGE OF
                                                MEN’S EARNINGS



     ALL         29,215                38,275        76.3



   WHITE         29,930                39,834        75.1



   BLACK         26,595                31,351        84.8



  HISPANIC       21,493                25,083        85.7



 ASIA/PACIFIC
  ISLANDER       30,685                41,853        73.3
 FEMALE/MALE MEDIAN ANNUAL
EARNINGS RATIO, U.S. YEAR-ROUND
      FULL-TIME WORKERS
                Figure 8.1, p. 278
   85%

   80%

   75%

   70%

   65%

   60%

   55%

   50%


         1960     1970   1980   1990   2000
 FEMALE/MALE HOURLY WAGE
RATIOSBY AGE GROUP AND YEAR
                   Table 8.2, p. 280

                            WAGE RATIO (%)

AGE RANGE
            1978                 1988        1998


18-24       82.4                 93.0        94.2


25-34       70.3                 82.8        85.0


35-44       58.9                 68.7        76.1


45-54       58.2                 64.7        71.6
 FEMALE/MALE HOURLY WAGE
RATIOSBY AGE GROUP AND YEAR
                    Table 8.2, p. 280
AGE RANGE                      WAGE RATIO (%)



                                  1978-1988     1988-1998



ACROSS COHORT
    18-24
    25-34       -                   10.6           1.2
    35-44       -                   12.5           2.3
    45-54       -                    9.8           7.4
                -                    6.6           6.8



WITHIN COHORT
     18-24
     25-34      -                   -2.4          -9.2
     35-44      -                   -1.6          -6.7
     45-54      -                    5.8           2.9
                -                    2.9           4.5
FEMALE/MALE MEDIAN ANNUAL
EARNINGS RATIO BY EDUCATION
         LEVEL, 2001
                         Figure 8.2, p. 282

    DOCTORATE
                                                            75.1%
   PROF. DEGREE
                                                   60.3%
MASTER'S DEGREE
                                                           72.2%
    BAC. DEGREE
                                                            75.1%
      A. DEGREE
                                                            74.9%
       HS GRAD
                                                           73.4%
           <HS
                                                           72.4%

             0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0%
DISTRIBUTION OF ANNUAL EARNINGS
BY GENDER, YEAR-ROUND FULL-TIME
        WORKERS, U.S., 2001
                      Figure 8.3, p. 283


  >$75,000

 $50-74,999

 $35-49,999
                                                MEN
 $25-34,999
                                                WOMEN
 $20-24,999

 $10-19,999

  <$10,000

              0   5   10    15      20     25
FEMALE/MALE EARNINGS RATIOS, MEDIAN
   WEEKLY EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME
   WORKERS, SELECTED DEVELOPED
        COUNTRIES, 1979-1998
                                                    Table 8.3, p. 284
  COUNTRY                   1979-1981                 1989-1990         1994-1998   PERCENTAGE POINT
                                                                                    CHANGE IN RATION,
                                                                                    1979-1971 TO 1994-1998

AUSTRALIA                      80.0%                    81.4%            86.8%               6.8



AUSTRIA                        64.9%                    67.4%            69.2%               4.3

BELGIUM                         N.A.                    84.0%            90.1%              6.1*

CANADA                         63.3%                    66.3%            69.8%               6.5

FINLAND                        73.4%                    76.4%            79.9%               6.5

FRANCE                         79.9%                    84.7%            89.9%              10.0

GERMANY                        71.7%                    73.7%            75.5%               3.8
(WEST)
IRELAND                         N.A.                    N.A.             74.5%             N.A.

*BASED ON CHANGE BETWEEN 1989-1990 AND 1994-1998.
    FEMALE/MALE EARNINGS RATIOS, MEDIAN
       WEEKLY EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME
       WORKERS, SELECTED DEVELOPED
            COUNTRIES, 1979-1998
                                                    Table 8.3, p. 284

       COUNTRY                        1979-1981          1989-1990      1994-1998   PERCENTAGE POINT
                                                                                    CHANGE IN RATION,
                                                                                    1979-1971 TO 1994-1998

ITALY                                    N.A.             80.5%          83.3%              2.8*
JAPAN                                   58.7%             59.0%          63.6%               4.9
NETHERLANDS                              N.A.             75.0%          76.9%              1.9*
NEW ZEALAND                             73.4%             75.9%          81.4%               8.0
SPAIN                                    N.A.              N.A.          71.1%                -
SWEDEN                                  83.8%             78.8%          83.5%               -.3
SWITZERLAND                              N.A.             73.6%          75.2%              1.6*
UNITED KINGDOM                          62.6%             67.7%          74.9%              12.3

UNITED STATES                           62.5%             70.6%          76.3%              13.8

NON-U.S. AVERAGE                        71.2%             74.6%          77.8%               6.2

*BASED ON CHANGE BETWEEN 1989-1990 AND 1994-1998.
 PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
 OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                                Table 8.2 pp. 286-288


OCUPATION                                               %FEMALE

AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC                                       1.2

ROOFERS                                                   1.5

CARPENTER                                                 1.5

PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS, ETC.                               1.7

ELECTRICIAN                                               1.9

CONSTRUCTION TRADES                                       2.1

BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS                               2.2

FIREFIGHTERS                                              2.5

AIRPLANE PILOT AND NAVIGATORS                             3.0
 PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
 OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                             Table 8.2 pp. 286-288


OCUPATION                                            %FEMALE

TRUCK DRIVERS                                          4.3

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS                                   4.5

MACHINIST                                              4.8

MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS                                4.8

PEST CONTROL                                           5.6

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGIREERS                    8.8


CIVIL ENGINEERS                                        9.6

AEROSPACE ENGINEERS                                    10.7

CLERGY                                                 11.2
  PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
  OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                                 Table 8.2 pp. 286-288

OCUPATION                                                %FEMALE

TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS                             11.7


CHEMICAL ENGINEERS                                         12.2

FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING                             14.9


BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS                                  16.4

POLICE AND DETECTIVES                                      17.5

ATHLETES                                                   20.0

CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS                          21.5


ARCHITECTS                                                 23.7

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS                                       27.2
  PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
  OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                                Table 8.2 pp. 286-288


OCUPATION                                               %FEMALE

MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE WORKERS                     28.8

MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS                      29.2

JANITORS AND CLEANERS                                     30.3

SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES                   32.3

PHYSICIANS                                                32.6

LAWYERS AND JUDGES                                        33.7

TEACHERS, COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY                          36.7

BUS DRIVERS                                               41.3

PHARMACISTS                                               41.8
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                             Table 8.2 pp. 286-288



OCUPATION                                            %FEMALE

BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS                         44.5

BAKERS                                                 46.6

BARTENDERS                                             50.0

REAL ESTATE SALES                                      51.8

COMPUTER OPERATORS                                     52.9

INSURANCE SALES                                        53.1

ECONOMIST                                              54.2

PHYSICIANS’ ASSISTANT                                  55.6

TEACHERS, SECONDARY SCHOOL                             56.4
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                          Table 8.2 pp. 286-288



OCUPATION                                         %FEMALE

PSYCHOLOGISTS                                       57.6

PHYSICAL THERAPISTS                                 61.3

SALES COUNTER CLERKS                                64.5

SOCIAL WORKERS                                      70.3

WAINTERS AND WAITRESSES                             71.0

THERAPISTS                                          71.1

HOTEL CLERKS                                        75.0

CASHIERS                                            77.7

TEACHERS, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL                         81.5
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                              Table 8.2 pp. 286-288


OCUPATION                                             %FEMALE

LIBRARIANS                                              83.0

LEGAL ASSISTANTS                                        84.0

DATA-ENTRY KEYERS                                       84.6

RECORD CLERKS                                           84.9

DIETICIANS                                              87.5

NURSING AIDES, ORDELIES AND                             89.0
ATTENDANTS
BANK TELLERS                                            89.1

HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS                         89.3

FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING                            90.6
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
                            Table 8.2 pp. 286-288


OCUPATION                                           %FEMALE

REGISTERES NURSES                                     91.0

SPEECH THERAPISTS                                     94.0

LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES                             94.4

CLEANERS AND SERVANTS                                 95.2

DENTAL ASSISTANTS                                     97.7

RECEPTIONISTS                                         97.9

TEACHERS, PRE-KINDERGARTEN AND                        98.4
KINDERGARTEN
CHILD CARE WORKERS                                    98.5

SECRETARIES                                           98.6
           Segregation Index

 One way of establishing if jobs are distributed
  in a gender, race, and ethnic blind form is by
  looking at whether certain jobs are more likely
  to have a larger percent of a certain type of
  employees.
 In other words, is this job more likely to be a
  male or female job
 Or, is this job more likely to be held by a
  minority than a non-hispanic white
         Segregation Index

 This can be measured thru the use of
  the Segregation Index
 The index attempts to review whether
  there is a “larger” than expected
  presence of a certain group in any given
  job category
      Duncan Segregation Index

   We will look at two segregation indexes.
    The First is known as the Duncan
    Segregation Index
                 n
       I   1
            2   M
                i 1
                       i    Fi
      Duncan Segregation Index

Where mi and fi represent the percent of
 males and females working in this job
 category respectively
                mi          fi
           Mi     and Fi 
                m           f
   Or M and F could represent any other
    two groups
      Duncan Segregation Index

   When I = 0
    – That implies that there is no segregation in
      any job category. In other words, Mi = Fi
   When I = 1
    – That implies that there is complete
      segregation in all job categories. This can
      be seen since when Mi >0, the Fi = 0 and
      vice versa.
    Duncan Segregation Index

 Mi and Fi are the percentage of the
  individuals in a given group (M or F) that
  are working in job category i.
 Consequently,
      n                     n

     M
     i 1
            i    1, and    F 1
                           i 1
                                  i
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
        Novelist   Venders
                              88
          74         55

Women      4         15       81



 Men       70        40        7
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
         3 mi f i        3          
S  0.5          0.5   M i  Fi 
         i 1 m f        i 1       
         m1    f1    m2    f2   m3      f3 
   0.5                               
        m      f      m    f     m      f 
         70       4     40    15      7      81 
   0.5                                    
         117 100 117 100 117 100 
  Duncan Segregation Index: An
           Example
S  0.5  0.5983  0.04  0.3419  0.15  0.0598  0.81
   0.5  0.5583  0.1919   0.7502 
   0.5 0.5583  0.1919  0.7502
   0.5  .5004
         1
   .7502
or
S  75.02%
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
 That means that you need to move 75%
  of the workers to obtain equal
  distribution of Employment
 That is 75% of women would have to
  change jobs for the employment
  distribution be the same
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance     Hot Dog    Mimes
        Novelist    Venders    13 (88)
         130 (74)    74 (55)

Women    56=4+52    34=15+19   6=81-75



 Men       70          40        7
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
 Duncan Index therefore states that 75%
  of women need to change job to obtain
  evenly distributed workplace
 However, one big draw back: the
  workforce in the different sectors much
  change
 For instance, there would now be 130
  romance novelist instead of 74, etc.
           IP Segregation Index

   The second segregation index is the IP
    segregation index.
            n
I     1
       T    (1  a)m
           i 1
                       i    a fi

                          m
where T  m  f , and a 
                          T
       IP Segregation Index: An
               Example
         Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
         Novelist   Venders
                               88
           74         55

Women       4         15       81



 Men        70        40        7
                IP Segregation Index: An
                        Example

         1 3         117        177 
IP             1 
        217 i 1 
                           Mi  
                      217       
                                        Fi
                                   217 
         1 3
IP          .460829 mi  .53917 fi
        217 i 1

IP   
         1
            .460829 70  .53917 4  .460829 40  .53917 15  .460829 81  .53917 7 
        217
IP   
         1
            30.10138  10.34562   40.447 
        217
IP   
         1
            80.89401
        217
IP    .372783
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
        Novelist   Venders
                              88
          74         55

Women      34        25       41



 Men       40        30       47
        Duncan Segregation Index
A-20. Employed persons by occupation, race, and sex
                                                         Aug.      Aug.
                                                         2000      2000     Aggregate Disaggregate
                      TOTAL
                                                         Men    Women
Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     73,299  62,302
Percent.                                                    100     100

Managerial and professional specialty                        28      32.4         4.4
    Executive, administrative, and managerial              14.6      14.3                       0.3
    Professional specialty                                 13.3      18.1                       4.8
Technical, sales, and administrative support               19.6      39.7        20.1
   Technicians and related support                          2.9       3.6                      0.7
   Sales occupations                                       11.4      12.9                      1.5
   Administrative support, including clerical               5.4      23.3                     17.9
Service occupations                                         9.5      17.6         8.1
   Private household                                        0.1         1                      0.9
   Protective service                                       2.6       0.8                      1.8
  Service, except private household and protective          6.9      15.8                      8.9
Precision production, craft, and repair                    19.2         2        17.2         17.2
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                       19.5       7.1        12.4
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors             6.1       4.5                       1.6
  Transportation and material moving occupations            7.2       0.8                       6.4
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers       6.3       1.7                       4.6
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                            4.2       1.2           3             3

                                                         Total
Index of Segregation                                    Men       Women          32.6         34.8
     Duncan Segregation Index
                                                        Aug.      Aug.
                      WHITE                              2000       2000     Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     62,649     51,196
Percent.                                                    100        100

                                                         Men   Women
Managerial and professional specialty                     28.6    33.3             4.7
    Executive, administrative, and managerial             15.4      15                          0.4
    Professional specialty                                13.2    18.3                          5.1
Technical, sales, and administrative support              19.6    40.3            20.7
   Technicians and related support                         2.8     3.4                          0.6
   Sales occupations                                      11.9    13.3                          1.4
   Administrative support, including clerical                5    23.6                         18.6
Service occupations                                        8.8    16.6             7.8
   Private household                                       0.1       1                          0.9
   Protective service                                      2.5     0.7                          1.8
  Service, except private household and protective         6.2    14.9                          8.7
Precision production, craft, and repair                   20.1     1.9            18.2         18.2
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      18.4     6.4              12
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            5.7     4.1                          1.6
  Transportation and material moving occupations           6.7     0.7                            6
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers        6     1.7                          4.3
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           4.5     1.4             3.1          3.1

                                                        White
Index of Segregation                                    Men       Women          33.25        35.35
    Duncan Segregation Index
                      BLACK
                                                        Aug.       Aug.
                                                        2000       2000     Aggregate Disaggregate

                                                        Men    Women
Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     7,173   8,095
Percent.                                                   100     100

Managerial and professional specialty                        19      25.9         6.9
    Executive, administrative, and managerial               8.8      10.6                       1.8
    Professional specialty                                10.2       15.2                         5
Technical, sales, and administrative support              18.9       37.7        18.8
   Technicians and related support                          2.3         4                      1.7
   Sales occupations                                          8      10.5                      2.5
   Administrative support, including clerical               8.6      23.2                     14.6
Service occupations                                       16.1       24.5         8.4
   Private household                                      -           1.2                        0
   Protective service                                       4.3       1.4                      2.9
  Service, except private household and protective        11.8       21.8                       10
Precision production, craft, and repair                   13.3        1.8        11.5         11.5
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      30.5        9.7        20.8
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors             8.7       5.8                      2.9
  Transportation and material moving occupations             12       1.7                     10.3
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers       9.8       2.2                      7.6
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                            2.2       0.5         1.7          1.7

                                                        Black
Index of Segregation                                     Men      Women         34.05        36.25
        Duncan Segregation Index
                     WOMEN                               Aug.     Aug.
                                                         2000     2000      Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     62,649    51,196
Percent.                                                    100       100

                                                        White     Black
Managerial and professional specialty                     33.3       25.9         7.4
    Executive, administrative, and managerial               15       10.6                       4.4
    Professional specialty                                18.3       15.2                       3.1
Technical, sales, and administrative support              40.3       37.7         2.6
   Technicians and related support                         3.4          4                       0.6
   Sales occupations                                      13.3       10.5                       2.8
   Administrative support, including clerical             23.6       23.2                       0.4
Service occupations                                       16.6       24.5         7.9
   Private household                                          1       1.2                       0.2
   Protective service                                      0.7        1.4                       0.7
  Service, except private household and protective        14.9       21.8                       6.9
Precision production, craft, and repair                    1.9        1.8         0.1           0.1
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                       6.4        9.7         3.3
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            4.1        5.8                       1.7
  Transportation and material moving occupations           0.7        1.7                         1
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers      1.7        2.2                       0.5
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           1.4        0.5         0.9           0.9

                                                        Women
Index of Segregation                                     White    Black          11.1        11.65
        Duncan Segregation Index
                                                        Aug.      Aug.
                       MEN                              2000      2000       Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                    62,649     51,196
Percent.                                                   100        100

                                                        White     Black
Managerial and professional specialty                     28.6          19         9.6
    Executive, administrative, and managerial             15.4         8.8                       6.6
    Professional specialty                                13.2        10.2                         3
Technical, sales, and administrative support              19.6        18.9         0.7
   Technicians and related support                         2.8         2.3                       0.5
   Sales occupations                                      11.9           8                       3.9
   Administrative support, including clerical                 5        8.6                       3.6
Service occupations                                        8.8        16.1         7.3
   Private household                                       0.1      -                              0
   Protective service                                      2.5         4.3                       1.8
  Service, except private household and protective         6.2        11.8                       5.6
Precision production, craft, and repair                   20.1        13.3         6.8           6.8
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      18.4        30.5        12.1
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            5.7         8.7                         3
  Transportation and material moving occupations           6.7          12                       5.3
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers         6        9.8                       3.8
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           4.5         2.2         2.3           2.3

                                                        Men
Index of Segregation                                    White     Black           19.4         23.1
           Segregation Index

   From the previous tables
    – What can we say occurs when the
      segregation index is based on more
      aggregate data as compared to more
      disaggregate data?
           Segregation Index

   There is also a hierarchal component to
    job segregation?
            Hierarchal Segregation
 Percent Female of Faculty in Institutions of
   Higher Education by Academic Rank,
    1974-75, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1998-1999
Academic     1974-75   1985-85   1994-95 1998-99
  Rank
Professor
               10.1     11.6      16.2    18.7

Associate
               17.3     23.3      31.2    34.6
Professor
Assistant
               27.9     35.8      44.7    46.8
Professor
            Segregation Index

 The segregation is likely to have a large
  impact on wages
 For instance, jobs that have generally
  more women are likely to have lower
  wages
    – (will discuss this more when we look at
      models of discrimination)
HOUSEHOLD DATA                                                                                                   HOUSEHOLD DATA
  ANNUAL AVERAGES                                                                                                 ANNUAL AVERAGES
  39. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex

 (Numbers in thousands)


                                                                                                2005


                                                                            Both sexes             Men                Women
                                       Occupation

                                                                          Number   Median    Number   Median      Number   Median
                                                                            of     weekly      of     weekly        of     weekly
                                                                         workers earnings   workers earnings     workers earnings

 Total, 16 years and over............................................... 103,560     $651   58,406        $722    45,154      $585
 Management, professional, and related occupations...................... 36,908       937   18,311       1,113    18,597       813
     Management, business, and financial operations occupations... ..... 14,977       997    8,195       1,167     6,782       847
     Professional and related occupations.......................... .... 21,931       902   10,116       1,058    11,815       792
 Service occupations............................................... .... 14,123       413    7,024         478     7,099       379
 Sales and office occupations....................................... ... 25,193       575    9,539         690    15,654       520
     Sales and related occupations...................................... 10,031       622    5,582         762     4,449       483
     Office and administrative support occupations...................... 15,161       550    3,957         605    11,205       533
 Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations........... 12,086       623   11,569         628       517       486
     Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations.........................     755      372      601         388       154       327
     Construction and extraction occupations............................   6,826      604    6,663         606       163       480
     Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations..................   4,504      705    4,305         706       199       691
 Production, transportation, and material moving occupations............ 15,251       540   11,963         591     3,288       420
     Production occupations.......................................... ..   8,403      538    5,991         608     2,412       423
     Transportation and material moving occupations................... .   6,848      543    5,972         574       876       412
Duncan Index Across Years and
          Countries
 The Duncan Index can also be used to
  compare Segregation over time
 And Segregation across Countries
GENDER DUNCAN INDEX OF
     SEGRAGATION
                                   Duncan Index of Occupational Segregation, Selected Countries (Fig 8.5, p.296)


                    Belarus

                        Iran

                     Poland

                     Austria

                     France
Country




                      Korea

                   Germany

                 Hong Kong

          Russian Federation

               United States

                    Pakistan

                    Tahiland

                               0         10              20              30                  40           50       60   70
                                                                              Duncan Index

								
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