INDEX OF SEGREGATION _5 by liuhongmei

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 58

									    INDEX OF
  SEGREGATION

Are Jobs Gender, Race, or
     Ethnically Blind?
                  REVIEW

   We Have determined the following
    – Under Pure Competition and under the
      assumption of homogenous workers
    – Firms will hire workers to maximize profits
      • i.e. MR=MC
      • Or equivalently, where w = MRP
      • Where MRP = P*MPL
           Discrimination

 Hence, if there workers were indeed
  homogenous and they received different
  wages then that would imply there was
  discrimination
 However, if workers are not
  homogenous than different wages alone
  would not necessarily imply
  discrimination
              Discrimination

 If there is disparity in wages
 Then the question is why?
 There are three sources that may
  account for wages disparities (or
  discrimination):
    – Non-Market Discrimination
    – Past-Employer Discrimination
    – Current Employer Discrimination
    Non-Market Discrimination

 Lower Productivity due to training
  (schooling, etc)
 Geographical (more blacks in the
  South)
 Different preferences in terms of
  Labor/Leisure
 Other
    Past-Employer Discrimination

   Past Discriminating Hiring Practices

   Followed with Mouth to Mouth Hiring
    Practices
Current Employer Discrimination

   Prejudice

   Consumer Preferences

   Other
         First Source:
    Non-Market Discrimination
 Do individuals on average take on
  different jobs based on personal
  characteristics such as gender, race, or
  ethnicity
 If so, that may in part explain the
  difference in wage differentials
U.S. MEDIAN EARNINGS BY GENDER
AND RACE/ETHNICITY, YEAR-ROUND
     FULL-TIME WORKERS, 2001
                                       WOMEN’S
                                     EARNINGS AS
                WOMEN($)   MEN($)   PERCENTAGE OF
                                    MEN’S EARNINGS



     ALL         29,215    38,275        76.3



   WHITE         29,930    39,834        75.1



   BLACK         26,595    31,351        84.8



  HISPANIC       21,493    25,083        85.7



 ASIA/PACIFIC
  ISLANDER       30,685    41,853        73.3
 FEMALE/MALE MEDIAN ANNUAL
EARNINGS RATIO, U.S. YEAR-ROUND
      FULL-TIME WORKERS
   85%

   80%

   75%

   70%

   65%

   60%

   55%

   50%


         1960   1970   1980   1990   2000
 FEMALE/MALE HOURLY WAGE
RATIOSBY AGE GROUP AND YEAR
                   WAGE RATIO (%)

AGE RANGE
            1978        1988        1998


18-24       82.4        93.0        94.2


25-34       70.3        82.8        85.0


35-44       58.9        68.7        76.1


45-54       58.2        64.7        71.6
 FEMALE/MALE HOURLY WAGE
RATIOSBY AGE GROUP AND YEAR
AGE RANGE           WAGE RATIO (%)



                       1978-1988     1988-1998



ACROSS COHORT
    18-24
    25-34       -        10.6           1.2
    35-44       -        12.5           2.3
    45-54       -         9.8           7.4
                -         6.6           6.8



WITHIN COHORT
     18-24
     25-34      -        -2.4          -9.2
     35-44      -        -1.6          -6.7
     45-54      -         5.8           2.9
                -         2.9           4.5
FEMALE/MALE MEDIAN ANNUAL
EARNINGS RATIO BY EDUCATION
         LEVEL, 2001
    DOCTORATE
                                                            75.1%
   PROF. DEGREE
                                                   60.3%
MASTER'S DEGREE
                                                           72.2%
    BAC. DEGREE
                                                            75.1%
      A. DEGREE
                                                            74.9%
       HS GRAD
                                                           73.4%
           <HS
                                                           72.4%

             0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0%
DISTRIBUTION OF ANNUAL EARNINGS
BY GENDER, YEAR-ROUND FULL-TIME
        WORKERS, U.S., 2001
  >$75,000

 $50-74,999

 $35-49,999
                                          MEN
 $25-34,999
                                          WOMEN
 $20-24,999

 $10-19,999

  <$10,000

              0   5   10   15   20   25
FEMALE/MALE EARNINGS RATIOS, MEDIAN
   WEEKLY EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME
   WORKERS, SELECTED DEVELOPED
        COUNTRIES, 1979-1998
  COUNTRY                   1979-1981               1989-1990   1994-1998   PERCENTAGE POINT
                                                                            CHANGE IN RATION,
                                                                            1979-1971 TO 1994-1998

AUSTRALIA                      80.0%                 81.4%       86.8%               6.8



AUSTRIA                        64.9%                 67.4%       69.2%               4.3

BELGIUM                         N.A.                 84.0%       90.1%              6.1*

CANADA                         63.3%                 66.3%       69.8%               6.5

FINLAND                        73.4%                 76.4%       79.9%               6.5

FRANCE                         79.9%                 84.7%       89.9%              10.0

GERMANY                        71.7%                 73.7%       75.5%               3.8
(WEST)
IRELAND                         N.A.                  N.A.       74.5%             N.A.

*BASED ON CHANGE BETWEEN 1989-1990 AND 1994-1998.
    FEMALE/MALE EARNINGS RATIOS, MEDIAN
       WEEKLY EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME
       WORKERS, SELECTED DEVELOPED
            COUNTRIES, 1979-1998
       COUNTRY                        1979-1981     1989-1990   1994-1998   PERCENTAGE POINT
                                                                            CHANGE IN RATION,
                                                                            1979-1971 TO 1994-1998

ITALY                                    N.A.        80.5%       83.3%              2.8*
JAPAN                                   58.7%        59.0%       63.6%               4.9
NETHERLANDS                              N.A.        75.0%       76.9%              1.9*
NEW ZEALAND                             73.4%        75.9%       81.4%               8.0
SPAIN                                    N.A.         N.A.       71.1%                -
SWEDEN                                  83.8%        78.8%       83.5%               -.3
SWITZERLAND                              N.A.        73.6%       75.2%              1.6*
UNITED KINGDOM                          62.6%        67.7%       74.9%              12.3

UNITED STATES                           62.5%        70.6%       76.3%              13.8

NON-U.S. AVERAGE                        71.2%        74.6%       77.8%               6.2

*BASED ON CHANGE BETWEEN 1989-1990 AND 1994-1998.
 PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
 OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                       %FEMALE

AUTOMOBILE MECHANIC               1.2

ROOFERS                           1.5

CARPENTER                         1.5

PLUMBERS, PIPEFITTERS, ETC.       1.7

ELECTRICIAN                       1.9

CONSTRUCTION TRADES               2.1

BRICKMASONS AND STONEMASONS       2.2

FIREFIGHTERS                      2.5

AIRPLANE PILOT AND NAVIGATORS     3.0
 PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
 OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                             %FEMALE

TRUCK DRIVERS                           4.3

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS                    4.5

MACHINIST                               4.8

MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS                 4.8

PEST CONTROL                            5.6

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGIREERS     8.8


CIVIL ENGINEERS                         9.6

AEROSPACE ENGINEERS                     10.7

CLERGY                                  11.2
  PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
  OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002
OCUPATION                           %FEMALE

TAXICAB DRIVERS AND CHAUFFEURS        11.7


CHEMICAL ENGINEERS                    12.2

FARMING, FORESTRY, AND FISHING        14.9


BUTCHERS AND MEAT CUTTERS             16.4

POLICE AND DETECTIVES                 17.5

ATHLETES                              20.0

CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION OFFICERS     21.5


ARCHITECTS                            23.7

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS                  27.2
  PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
  OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                                 %FEMALE

MAIL CARRIERS, POSTAL SERVICE WORKERS       28.8

MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS        29.2

JANITORS AND CLEANERS                       30.3

SECURITIES AND FINANCIAL SERVICES SALES     32.3

PHYSICIANS                                  32.6

LAWYERS AND JUDGES                          33.7

TEACHERS, COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY            36.7

BUS DRIVERS                                 41.3

PHARMACISTS                                 41.8
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                        %FEMALE

BIOLOGICAL AND LIFE SCIENTISTS     44.5

BAKERS                             46.6

BARTENDERS                         50.0

REAL ESTATE SALES                  51.8

COMPUTER OPERATORS                 52.9

INSURANCE SALES                    53.1

ECONOMIST                          54.2

PHYSICIANS’ ASSISTANT              55.6

TEACHERS, SECONDARY SCHOOL         56.4
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                     %FEMALE

PSYCHOLOGISTS                   57.6

PHYSICAL THERAPISTS             61.3

SALES COUNTER CLERKS            64.5

SOCIAL WORKERS                  70.3

WAINTERS AND WAITRESSES         71.0

THERAPISTS                      71.1

HOTEL CLERKS                    75.0

CASHIERS                        77.7

TEACHERS, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL     81.5
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                         %FEMALE

LIBRARIANS                          83.0

LEGAL ASSISTANTS                    84.0

DATA-ENTRY KEYERS                   84.6

RECORD CLERKS                       84.9

DIETICIANS                          87.5

NURSING AIDES, ORDELIES AND         89.0
ATTENDANTS
BANK TELLERS                        89.1

HAIRDRESSERS AND COSMETOLOGISTS     89.3

FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING        90.6
PROPORTION FEMALE FOR SELECTED
OCCUPATIONS, UNITED STATES, 2002

OCUPATION                        %FEMALE

REGISTERES NURSES                  91.0

SPEECH THERAPISTS                  94.0

LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES          94.4

CLEANERS AND SERVANTS              95.2

DENTAL ASSISTANTS                  97.7

RECEPTIONISTS                      97.9

TEACHERS, PRE-KINDERGARTEN AND     98.4
KINDERGARTEN
CHILD CARE WORKERS                 98.5

SECRETARIES                        98.6
           Segregation Index

 One way of establishing if jobs are distributed
  in a gender, race, and ethnic blind form is by
  looking at whether certain jobs are more likely
  to have a larger percent of a certain type of
  employees.
 In other words, is this job more likely to be a
  male or female job
 Or, is this job more likely to be held by a
  minority than a non-hispanic white
         Segregation Index

 This can be measured thru the use of
  the Segregation Index
 The index attempts to review whether
  there is a “larger” than expected
  presence of a certain group in any given
  job category
      Duncan Segregation Index

   We will look at two segregation indexes.
    The First is known as the Duncan
    Segregation Index
                 n
       I   1
            2   m
                i 1
                       i    fi
      Duncan Segregation Index

Where mi and fi represent the percent of
 males and females working in this job
 category respectively
                Mi           Fi
           mi     and f i 
                M            F
   Or M and F could represent any other
    two groups
      Duncan Segregation Index

   When I = 0
    – That implies that there is no segregation in
      any job category. In other words, mi = fi
   When I = 1
    – That implies that there is complete
      segregation in all job categories. This can
      be seen since when mi >0, the fi = 0 and
      vice versa.
    Duncan Segregation Index

 Mi and Fi are the percentage of the
  individuals in a given group (M or F) that
  are working in job category i.
 Consequently,
       n                 n

      m 1, and  f
      i 1
             i
                        i 1
                               i   1
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
        Novelist   Venders
                              88
          74         55

Women      4         15       81



 Men       70        40        7
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
         3 M i Fi 
S  0.5         
         i 1 M F 
         M1     F1   M2   F2   M3   F3 
   0.5                           
        M       F    M    F    M    F 
         70   4   40   15   7   81 
   0.5                       
         117 100 117 100 117 100 
  Duncan Segregation Index: An
           Example
S  0.5  0.5983  0.04  0.3419  0.15  0.0598  0.81
   0.5  0.5583  0.1919   0.7502 
   0.5 0.5583  0.1919  0.7502
   0.5  .5004
         1
   .7502
or
S  75.02%
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
 That means that you need to move 75%
  of the workers to obtain equal
  distribution of Employment
 That is 75% of women would have to
  change jobs for the employment
  distribution be the same
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance     Hot Dog    Mimes
        Novelist    Venders    13 (88)
         130 (74)    74 (55)

Women    56=4+52    34=15+19   6=81-75



 Men       70          40        7
    Duncan Segregation Index: An
             Example
 Duncan Index therefore states that 75%
  of women need to change job to obtain
  evenly distributed workplace
 However, one big draw back: the
  workforce in the different sectors much
  change
 For instance, there would now be 130
  romance novelist instead of 74, etc.
               IP Segregation Index

   The second segregation index is the IP
    segregation index.
           n
I    1
      T    (1  a)M
          i 1
                         i    a Fi

                          M
where T  M  F , and a 
                          T
       IP Segregation Index: An
               Example
         Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
         Novelist   Venders
                               88
           74         55

Women       4         15       81



 Men        70        40        7
                IP Segregation Index: An
                        Example

         1 3         117        177 
IP             1 
        217 i 1 
                           Mi  
                      217       
                                        Fi
                                   217 
         1 3
IP          .460829 M i  .53917 Fi
        217 i 1

IP   
         1
            .460829 70  .53917 4  .460829 40  .53917 15  .460829 81  .53917 7 
        217
IP   
         1
            30.10138  10.34562   40.447 
        217
IP   
         1
            80.89401
        217
IP    .372783
Duncan Segregation Index: An
         Example
        Romance    Hot Dog   Mimes
        Novelist   Venders
                              88
          74         55

Women      34        25       41



 Men       40        30       47
        Duncan Segregation Index
A-20. Employed persons by occupation, race, and sex
                                                         Aug.      Aug.
                                                         2000      2000     Aggregate Disaggregate
                      TOTAL
                                                         Men    Women
Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     73,299  62,302
Percent.                                                    100     100

Managerial and professional specialty                        28      32.4         4.4
    Executive, administrative, and managerial              14.6      14.3                       0.3
    Professional specialty                                 13.3      18.1                       4.8
Technical, sales, and administrative support               19.6      39.7        20.1
   Technicians and related support                          2.9       3.6                      0.7
   Sales occupations                                       11.4      12.9                      1.5
   Administrative support, including clerical               5.4      23.3                     17.9
Service occupations                                         9.5      17.6         8.1
   Private household                                        0.1         1                      0.9
   Protective service                                       2.6       0.8                      1.8
  Service, except private household and protective          6.9      15.8                      8.9
Precision production, craft, and repair                    19.2         2        17.2         17.2
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                       19.5       7.1        12.4
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors             6.1       4.5                       1.6
  Transportation and material moving occupations            7.2       0.8                       6.4
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers       6.3       1.7                       4.6
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                            4.2       1.2           3             3

                                                         Total
Index of Segregation                                    Men       Women          32.6         34.8
     Duncan Segregation Index
                                                        Aug.      Aug.
                      WHITE                              2000       2000     Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     62,649     51,196
Percent.                                                    100        100

                                                         Men   Women
Managerial and professional specialty                     28.6    33.3             4.7
    Executive, administrative, and managerial             15.4      15                          0.4
    Professional specialty                                13.2    18.3                          5.1
Technical, sales, and administrative support              19.6    40.3            20.7
   Technicians and related support                         2.8     3.4                          0.6
   Sales occupations                                      11.9    13.3                          1.4
   Administrative support, including clerical                5    23.6                         18.6
Service occupations                                        8.8    16.6             7.8
   Private household                                       0.1       1                          0.9
   Protective service                                      2.5     0.7                          1.8
  Service, except private household and protective         6.2    14.9                          8.7
Precision production, craft, and repair                   20.1     1.9            18.2         18.2
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      18.4     6.4              12
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            5.7     4.1                          1.6
  Transportation and material moving occupations           6.7     0.7                            6
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers        6     1.7                          4.3
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           4.5     1.4             3.1          3.1

                                                        White
Index of Segregation                                    Men       Women          33.25        35.35
    Duncan Segregation Index
                      BLACK
                                                        Aug.       Aug.
                                                        2000       2000     Aggregate Disaggregate

                                                        Men    Women
Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     7,173   8,095
Percent.                                                   100     100

Managerial and professional specialty                        19      25.9         6.9
    Executive, administrative, and managerial               8.8      10.6                       1.8
    Professional specialty                                10.2       15.2                         5
Technical, sales, and administrative support              18.9       37.7        18.8
   Technicians and related support                          2.3         4                      1.7
   Sales occupations                                          8      10.5                      2.5
   Administrative support, including clerical               8.6      23.2                     14.6
Service occupations                                       16.1       24.5         8.4
   Private household                                      -           1.2                        0
   Protective service                                       4.3       1.4                      2.9
  Service, except private household and protective        11.8       21.8                       10
Precision production, craft, and repair                   13.3        1.8        11.5         11.5
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      30.5        9.7        20.8
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors             8.7       5.8                      2.9
  Transportation and material moving occupations             12       1.7                     10.3
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers       9.8       2.2                      7.6
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                            2.2       0.5         1.7          1.7

                                                        Black
Index of Segregation                                     Men      Women         34.05        36.25
        Duncan Segregation Index
                     WOMEN                               Aug.     Aug.
                                                         2000     2000      Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                     62,649    51,196
Percent.                                                    100       100

                                                        White     Black
Managerial and professional specialty                     33.3       25.9         7.4
    Executive, administrative, and managerial               15       10.6                       4.4
    Professional specialty                                18.3       15.2                       3.1
Technical, sales, and administrative support              40.3       37.7         2.6
   Technicians and related support                         3.4          4                       0.6
   Sales occupations                                      13.3       10.5                       2.8
   Administrative support, including clerical             23.6       23.2                       0.4
Service occupations                                       16.6       24.5         7.9
   Private household                                          1       1.2                       0.2
   Protective service                                      0.7        1.4                       0.7
  Service, except private household and protective        14.9       21.8                       6.9
Precision production, craft, and repair                    1.9        1.8         0.1           0.1
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                       6.4        9.7         3.3
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            4.1        5.8                       1.7
  Transportation and material moving occupations           0.7        1.7                         1
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers      1.7        2.2                       0.5
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           1.4        0.5         0.9           0.9

                                                        Women
Index of Segregation                                     White    Black          11.1        11.65
        Duncan Segregation Index
                                                        Aug.      Aug.
                       MEN                              2000      2000       Aggregate Disaggregate

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)                    62,649     51,196
Percent.                                                   100        100

                                                        White     Black
Managerial and professional specialty                     28.6          19         9.6
    Executive, administrative, and managerial             15.4         8.8                       6.6
    Professional specialty                                13.2        10.2                         3
Technical, sales, and administrative support              19.6        18.9         0.7
   Technicians and related support                         2.8         2.3                       0.5
   Sales occupations                                      11.9           8                       3.9
   Administrative support, including clerical                 5        8.6                       3.6
Service occupations                                        8.8        16.1         7.3
   Private household                                       0.1      -                              0
   Protective service                                      2.5         4.3                       1.8
  Service, except private household and protective         6.2        11.8                       5.6
Precision production, craft, and repair                   20.1        13.3         6.8           6.8
Operators, fabricators, and laborers                      18.4        30.5        12.1
  Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors            5.7         8.7                         3
  Transportation and material moving occupations           6.7          12                       5.3
  Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers         6        9.8                       3.8
Farming, forestry, and fishing..                           4.5         2.2         2.3           2.3

                                                        Men
Index of Segregation                                    White     Black           19.4         23.1
           Segregation Index

   From the previous tables
    – What can we say occurs when the
      segregation index is based on more
      aggregate data as compared to more
      disaggregate data?
           Segregation Index

   In addition, between 1972 and 1999 the
    level of segregation between males and
    females has decreased considerably as
    observed in Table 5.1 of your text in
    page 135.
           Segregation Index

   There is also a hierarchal component to
    job segregation?
            Hierarchal Segregation
 Percent Female of Faculty in Institutions of
   Higher Education by Academic Rank,
    1974-75, 1985-86, 1994-95, 1998-1999
Academic     1974-75   1985-85   1994-95 1998-99
  Rank
Professor
               10.1     11.6      16.2    18.7

Associate
               17.3     23.3      31.2    34.6
Professor
Assistant
               27.9     35.8      44.7    46.8
Professor
            Segregation Index

 The segregation is likely to have a large
  impact on wages
 For instance, jobs that have generally
  more women are likely to have lower
  wages
    – (will discuss this more when we look at
      models of discrimination)
GENDER DUNCAN INDEX OF
     SEGRAGATION

								
To top