Drug Abuse Prevention by liaoqinmei

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									Drug Abuse Prevention


 Developing healthy, responsible,
 productive citizens who will be less
 likely to experience drug-related
 problems in their lives and the lives
 of their families
              HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Trends in Drug Use
(HS Seniors)

• Alcohol abuse appears on a slight
  decline:
  –   daily use (3.4%)
  –   consumption at one time or another (80%)
  –   report having been “drunk” (62%)
  –   binge drink (30.8%)


                      HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Trends in Drug Use
(HS Seniors)

• Smoking / Smokeless tobacco use peaked
  in 1997, currently on modest decline:
  – smoking… monthly use (34.6%), daily use
    (23.1%)
  – smokeless… monthly use (8.4%), daily use
    (2.9%)



                    HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Trends in Drug Use
(HS Seniors)

• Illegal drug use has leveled off after 2 year
  decline:
  – marijuana… annual use (42.1%), daily use (6%)
  – illicit other than marijuana… annual use (20.7%)
  – amphetamines… annual use (11%)
  – cocaine… annual use (6.2%)
  – heroin… annual use (1.5%)
                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Trends in Drug Use
(HS Seniors)

• Exceptions to the general decline:
  – hallucinogens of all types… annual use (9.4%)
  – tranquilizers & barbiturates… annual use (6%)
  – ecstasy (MDMA)… annual use (5.6)
  – anabolic steroids… annual use (1.8%)
       For more information, explore the “Monitoring the Future”
    website at the University of Michigan www.monitoringthefuture.org
                           HSS 4933 - Drug Education
The Macroapproach...




          HSS 4933 - Drug Education
                           unemployment
    teen pregnancy                                 child abuse/neglect

                          work        family



            businesses                       places of worship
violence                     Individuals
                                                                  Etc.
                                 at
                                Risk
            government                       law enforcement



                         schools     media
      poverty                                        school failure
                           substance abuse
Drug use is associated with...

•   assaults
•   murders
•   child / spouse abuse
•   rapes
•   suicides
•   accidents
•   drownings
•   traffic fatalities
                   HSS 4933 - Drug Education
        Levels of Prevention

• Primary:
  activities that focus on preventing drug abuse
    and related consequences before that drug use
    begins
• Secondary:
  activities that focus on recognizing the early
    signs of drug abuse, intervention and referral
    to appropriate resources

                 HSS 4933 - Drug Education
        Levels of Prevention

• Tertiary:
  activities that focus on the treatment of
    established drug abuse, and especially on the
    prevention of relapse during treatment (i.e.,
    aftercare)




                 HSS 4933 - Drug Education
  General Strategies to Prevent
  Drug Abuse

  • Supply Reduction
     – based on law enforcement related to
       manufacture and distribution of drugs
     – lower, restrict or eliminate availability of
       drugs


 accessibility         consumption              problems


                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
  General Strategies to Prevent
  Drug Abuse

  • Demand Reduction
     – activities that create positive, drug free
       attitudes and behaviors
     – therapeutic treatment for those who are
       currently experiencing problems


 positivity            alternatives             problems


                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
 General Strategies to Prevent
 Drug Abuse


 • Harm Reduction / Inoculation
    – activities that increase moderate and
      responsible drug use
    – emphasis on responsible decision making


 awareness          risk taking              problems


                  HSS 4933 - Drug Education
The Public Health Model

                      host




           Public health activities
                 focus on...
   agent                                  environment
              HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:



    Based on the premise that individuals
    use drugs for a wide variety of reasons
    and needs, and that “alternative” activities
    can be identified that may satisfy those
    same needs




                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Physical Motives: physical satisfaction,
  relaxation, desire for more energy


    • exercise / sports
    • working in the outdoors
    • active hobbies
                      HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Sensory Motives: stimulation of
  senses, magnifying perceptions

    • exploring nature
    • intense adventures (sky diving,
      skiing, horseback riding, etc.)
    • sensory awareness training
                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Emotional Motives: relief from
 psychological pain, escape from anxiety

    • personal development
    • stress management / coping
      strategies
    • individual or group counseling
                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Interpersonal Motives: gaining peer acceptance,
  enhancing two person relationships

    • assertiveness training
    • volunteering
    • sensitivity and encounter groups

                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Social Motives: promoting social change,
  identifying with a sub-culture

    • community action activities
    • helping the less fortunate
    • tutoring mentoring

                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Intellectual Motives: escaping mental boredom,
  gaining new insight and awareness

    • reading & discussion groups
    • creative games / puzzles
    • exploring altered states
      (meditation, rebirthing, tanks)
                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Aesthetic Motives: improving creativity,
  enhancing artistic enjoyment

     • instructive classes in art, music,
       drama, writing, crafts, cooking,
       gardening, etc.
     • appreciation classes
                      HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Philosophical Motives: discovering meaningful
  values, organizing a belief structure

    • readings, discussions & seminars
      that explore meaning
    • value clarification exercises

                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Spiritual Motives: transcending orthodox religion,
  reaching higher levels of consciousness

    • study of world religions
    • meditation
    • introduction to applied
      mysticism
                      HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Alternatives Approach:


Other Motives: risk taking, “kicks”, pro-drug
  attitudes

    • survival training
    • exploring pro-naturalism
    • meaningful employment

                     HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Self-Test: Where do the following
activities belong?


•   drug testing
•   employee assistance programs (EAPs)
•   family activities
•   traffic roadblocks and checks
•   marijuana crop eradication
•   taxation on cigarettes
•   bungy cord jumping
• drug education classes
                 HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Individual Activity: What do you
know about drug use?

 • Facts / Knowledge
 • Perceptions / Appraisals
 • Observations
 • Beliefs
 • Experiences

      Students stand, introduce themselves, and share
                  one item on their lists...
                    HSS 4933 - Drug Education
Group Activity: How do you
know about drug use?

 • Students grouped by 3
 • Conduct a round robin discussion
 • Share:
   – personal background
   – where “drug education” came from

       Groups report back to class; list of sources is
                        created
                    HSS 4933 - Drug Education

								
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