AHSGE Ultimate Review Guide
Henry Ford invented the automobile and the assembly line. The assembly line led to the mass production
of the automobile. Quicker to make and cheaper. The automobile led to the rise of suburbs.
Mechanical reaper improved farming and reduced the work force on farms.
The Jungle was written by Upton Sinclair.
Edgar Allen Poe wrote “The Pit and Pendulum” and “The Raven.”
Alexander Graham Bell invented the Telephone.
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.
Johannes Guttenberg invented the printing press.
W.C. Handy introduced blues to American culture during the 1920’s.
Pig Iron developed in Birmingham, AL. – The Steel City.
Standard I – Identify and Evaluate America’s exploration, development, and divergence.
Crusades- Main cause to regain the Holy Lands.
Hernan Cortez defeated the Aztecs.
The Reformation sparked a rise in Protestant Churches and led to colonialism. Many people left Europe in
search of religious freedom. Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church and wrote the 95 Thesis.
The 1st permanent English colony was Jamestown.
The 1st European settlement was St. Augustine.
Spanish explorers were called conquistadors. They searched for “God, Gold, and Glory.”
The Renaissance happened in Europe. It resulted in new art, technology, and a return to classical thought
modeled after the Ancient Greeks and Romans.
The first representative government in the colonies was The House of Burgesses.
The Columbian Exchange was the exchanging of goods between Europe and the Americas after
Christopher Columbus’s voyages opened up new trade routes for other explorers. Led to the colonization
Triangular Trade – Middle Passage – From Africa to America – Very harsh conditions on slave ships
Standard II – Recognize and comprehend the impact of the influences of religious and intellectual thought on
1. John Locke – Natural Rights- these include life, liberty, and property.
2. Jean Jacques Rousseau- Social Contract Theory
3. Baron de Montesquieu – Separation of Powers- Three Branches of Government
United States Constitution was modeled after many of the ideas found in the Magna Carta.
Political parties started by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Standard II-2 – Identify and comprehend the provisions of essential documents of government.
Document that ended the American Revolution was called Treaty of Paris 1783.
The Constitution describes a federal system of government.
The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
The purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to separate from Britain and seek independence.
The Treaty of Versailles ended World War I.
The Bill of Rights is the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.
The Elastic Clause extends the legislative bodies law making ability.
Land Ordinance of 1785- Established a method for surveying western lands.
Fugitive Slave Law- Required the return of runaway slaves.
The Magna Carta was the beginning point for representative government and protection of individual
The Articles of Confederation were the first set of laws governing the U.S.
The Constitutional Convention was held to replace the Articles of Confederation with a more centralized
The Federalist Papers were written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison encouraging the
passage of the Constitution.
George Washington’ Farewell Address- warned Americans about competing political parties and foreign
Standard III- Identify and evaluate the impact of the American Revolution.
The French and Indian War began over a land dispute in the Ohio River Valley. (Britain v. France)
The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French and Indian War. Ended all French power in the North America.
Lexington – 1st shots fired in the American Revolution “Shot heard around the world.”
Patrick Henry said, “Give me liberty or give me death.” This famous quote encouraged war against
Boston Tea Party- British imposed more taxes on colonists, lead to uprising and rebellion
“No taxation without representation”- Main argument of the colonists for going to war.
George Washington and his troops experienced tough winter conditions in Trenton, New Jersey at Valley
Benjamin Franklin’s “Join or Die” illustration:
The cartoon appeared along with Franklin's editorial about the "disunited state" of the colonies, and helped
make his point about the importance of colonial unity. At the time, there was a superstition that a snake which
had been cut into pieces would come back to life if the pieces were put together before sunset
George Washington was chosen to lead the Continental Army.
The battle of Saratoga was the turning point in the American Revolution. After that battle the French allied
with the Americans and helped us defeat the British.
The battle that ended the American Revolution was at Yorktown. Cornwallis surrendered ending the war.
Article of Confederation
Only accounted for a legislative branch of government. NO Executive or Judicial Branch.
The Articles of Confederation did not last because it had too many weaknesses. We needed a stronger central
The Articles of Confederation were replaced by the Constitution of the United States.
Preamble of the Constitution- “We the people of the United States in order to form a more perfect union….”
Federalism- Form of government where power is shared between a state and a national government.
Great Compromise- The United states would have two houses in congress (Senate and House of
Representatives). The Senate would be equally represented by each state and the House of Rep.
would be based on state population.
3/5 Compromise- For every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted toward the states population.
“Era of Good Feeling” occurred under President Monroe.
The Monroe Doctrine was an alliance with Latin American countries. We would help protect them from any
Lewis and Clark Expedition was guided by Native American Sacagawea.
Lewis and Clark expedition took place under the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from the French.
War of 1812
Fought between the British and the U.S. over impressment, the kidnapping of soldiers on U.S. trade ships
heading to France.
Battle of New Orleans actually takes place after the war is over, but makes Andrew Jackson a national hero.
War of 1812- Battle of Horseshoe Bend – defeats the Creek Indians.
Andrew Jackson introduces the spoils system- giving political jobs to individuals that supported your campaign
and helped you get elected.
Transcontinental Railroad connected the east to the west.
Transcontinental Railroad, Barbed Wire, and Wind Mill all helped develop the West. Closed down the
Populist Party – Made up of mostly farmers from the west.
When Lincoln was elected president, 1860, it led to the southern states seceding.
Lincoln’s main goal after winning the presidential election of 1860 was to preserve the Union.
John Brown led a raid on Harper’s Ferry.- One of the causes of the Civil War.
Fugitive Slave Law- Included in the Compromise of 1850, required the return of runaway slaves.
Personal Liberty Laws- Enacted to protect free blacks from being kidnapped into slavery.
Slave codes were laws that were passed to regulate slavery in the colonies.
Purpose of the Jim Crow laws was to establish a system of segregation
Black Codes were also popular in southern states to keep blacks from gaining equal status. (oppression)
Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe – one of the causes of the Civil War.
The Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) started the Civil War.
The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point in the war.
The bloodiest battle was at Antietam.
Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address making a portion of the battlefield a military cemetery and honoring
the men that died there.
Sherman’s march to the sea- Sherman destroyed and burned Atlanta and other cities.
The Civil War ended at Appomattox Court House where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses
Reconstruction- After the Civil War, this was the time when we rebuilt the south.
Reconstruction ended when the military pulled out of the south.
Amendments 1-10 are called the Bill of Rights.
13th – Ended Slavery
14th – Granted Citizenship to African Americans
15th – Gave African Americans the right to vote
19th - Gave women the right to vote
27th – Congressional pay (Last Amendment)
18th Amendment- Prohibition
21st Amendment- Overturned 18th
Spanish American War
Theodore Roosevelt led his cavalry, the “Rough Riders”, up San Juan Hill during the Spanish American War.
Roosevelt guided our country into becoming a World power as President during the early 1900s.
Roosevelt also oversaw the construction of the Panama Canal.
Roosevelt Corollary- “Big Stick” diplomacy: The United States would intervene in Latin American affairs to
maintain political and economic stability in the Western Hemisphere.
Yellow Journalism- Reporters that exaggerated the truth or even made up stories to sell papers during the
Spanish American War.
Progressive Era 1890-1920
Ida Tarbell- Muckraker (wrote about the corruption of the Standard Oil Company)
Roaring Twenties- Jazz Age – Flappers
Bessie Smith was known as the “Empress of the Blues”.
Great Depression- October 29, 1929 is known as “Black Tuesday” – Stock market crashed.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt came up with the New Deal to bring America out of the Depression.
FDR’s New Deal
(FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation - Insures money in banks. Reestablish faith in banks.
(CCC) Civilian Conservation Corps
(TVA) Tennessee Valley Authority- Created jobs and helped farmers
(SSA) Social Security Act – Old age pension and provided insurance for the unemployed.
(FLSA) Fair Labor Standards Act – Banned child labor and set the minimum wage.
FDR’s communicated to the American public over the radio in what became known as “fireside chats.”
Populism- movement to increase farmer’s political power and to work for legislation in their interests.
Annexation of Hawaii – Sugarcane production and strategic location for naval base.
WWI started when Arch Duke Ferdinand was assassinated.
Trench warfare and machine guns led to standoffs in WWI.
Carpet baggers – Northerners who went south during Reconstruction, motivated by profit and employment.
Scalawags- White southerners who supported reconstruction.
Adolf Hitler killed millions of Jews at concentration camps- became known as the Holocaust.
Dust Bowl States = TEXAS, OKLAHOMA, KANSAS
Native Americans on the Great Plains depended on the buffalo.
Harriet Tubman started the Underground Railroad helped slaves escape North to Canada.
Indian Removal Act 1830- Moved Native Americans out West. Andrew Jackson was president.
Red Scare- Fear of Communism spreading across the globe
WWI began with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Woodrow Wilson was the president at the start of WWI
The United States entered WWI for several reasons:
1. Sinking of the Lusitania
2. Zimmerman Telegram
3. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
WWI ushered in a new type of combat- Trench Warfare
WWI ushered in new technology on the battlefield- Tanks, Airplanes, poisonous gas
Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points plan- Attempted to create peace between world countries.
Established a League of Nations- Preserve Peace and prevent future wars
Treaty of Versailles- Ended WWI
Axis Powers Allied Powers
Hitler (Germany) Stalin (Russia)
Mussolini (Italy) Roosevelt (U.S.)
Tojo (Japan) Churchill (Britain)
United States entered the WWII because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
Battle of Midway- United States dealt a heavy blow to the Japanese Navy. It was the TURNING POINT
D-Day was the attack on the beaches of Normandy, France.
Manhattan Project- American top secret project to build an atomic bomb.
President Truman ordered the bomb to be dropped on Japan
The Enola Gay dropped the atomic bomb, “Little Boy”, on Hiroshima killing over 100,000 people instantly.
Another bomb, “Fat Man”, was dropped on Nagasaki killing between 35,000 and 74,000 people.
Alabama became a state in 1819.
Pig Iron developed in Birmingham.
Winston County, AL- If a state could secede from the Union, then a county can secede from a state.
Booker T. Washington founded Tuskegee University.
George Washington Carver invented the peanut.
Jefferson Davis was the President of the Confederacy – 1st capital in Montgomery, AL.
Rosa Parks- Montgomery Bus boycott.
Martin Luther King, Jr. – Letters From a Birmingham Jail